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© NERC All rights reserved
Quality Assurance -
Giving Confidence in Analytical Reliability
Prepared by Dr Charles Gowing
UKAS Quality Manager, Inorganic Geochemistry
Presented by Dr Michael Watts, Inorganic Geochemistry
© NERC All rights reserved
Dr Charles Gowing
• UKAS Quality Manager
• Sample Handling Manager
• Reference Material Production
• Radiometics Lab Manager
• HH-XRFS
• Radiation Protection
• Internal Auditor
• Proficiency Testing
• Capacity Building
© NERC All rights reserved
Quality management principles
Customer focus – to meet customer requirements
to exceed customer expectations
Leadership – to establish unity of purpose and direction
Engagement of people – competent, empowered staff
enhance capability
Process approach – a coherent system achieves consistent
and predictable results
Improvement – leads to successful organizations
Evidence-based decision making - produce desired results.
Relationship management – for sustained success
© NERC All rights reserved
4
Objectives of the workshop
1. Quality Management principles for Good Laboratory Practice
2. Examples for when a Quality Management system is essential –
challenges faced in Africa.
3. Simple approach to making in-house Reference Materials and
an example from Southern Africa
4. Data management – handling of data for judging data
performance
5. How will an organisational and regional network of
laboratories plan to improve their Quality Management:
(i) Exchange information between members
(ii) Context for own setting.
© NERC All rights reserved
Context
Many important decisions are based on the results of laboratory
analysis.
Thus, it is important to have some indications on the quality of the
results, i.e. client confidence/trust in your results to make a
decision regulatory, commercial or scientific decision.
With globalisation, the lab managers are coming under an increasing
pressure:
(i) to demonstrate the quality of their results and
(ii) to demonstrate their results can be compared to
results obtained by other laboratories or with the
scientific literature.
© NERC All rights reserved
Everybody can measure, but
not everybody can do professional quality
measures.
© NERC All rights reserved
7
for one egg, one ruler,
but different people==> different measures
© NERC All rights reserved
cannot know error
can only
minimise
the errors…
cannot know ‘true value’
© NERC All rights reserved
measure the egg….
METROLOGY teach us that
all measures contain errors - UNCERTAINTY:
measure = true value +/- error
© NERC All rights reserved
Factors e.g. operator / environment
© NERC All rights reserved
Accuracy:
high
low
Precision: high low
© NERC All rights reserved
International Standards
for Quality Management
• ISO 9001:2015 – generic management Standard
• refers to an organization's structure for managing its activities
• can be applied to any business enterprise, public
administration, or government department
• ISO 17025:2005 – technical competency Standard
• for laboratories - specifying the additional requirements for
demonstrating technical competence
• ISO 17025:2017 –released 2019
• based on ISO 9001:2015
• specifies the additional technical requirements
© NERC All rights reserved
ISO 17025:2017 - what’s new?
Document suitable for publication by Dec 2016
likely to be available for use by Oct 2017
• Specifies the minimum requirements for implementation
of a management system in a laboratory
• No major changes to requirements
• Removal of out-of-date features
• Inclusion of explanations and annexes
• Introduction of “Decision Rules” – for acceptance criteria
• Resource: “What one needs to have”
• Process: “What one needs to do”
• Re-ordering of clauses
© NERC All rights reserved
ISO/IEC 17025:2005
4. Management requirements
4.1. Organization
4.2. Management system
4.3. Document control
4.4. Review of requests, tenders, contracts
4.5. Subcontracting of tests
4.6. Purchasing services and supplies
4.7. Service to the customer
4.8. Complaints
4.9. Control of non-conforming work
4.10. Improvement
4.11. Corrective actions
4.12. Preventive actions
4.13. Control of quality records
4.14. Internal audits
4.15. Management review
5. Technical requirements
5.1. General
5.2. Personnel
5.3. Accommodation & environmental conditions
5.4. Test methods and validation
5.5. Equipment
5.6. Measurement traceability
5.7. Sampling
5.8. Handling of Test items
5.9. Assuring the quality of test results
5.10. Reporting the results
Quality
system
Technical
competency
ISO
17025
© NERC All rights reserved
Management Requirements
© NERC All rights reserved
Organization
• The organization will be held legally responsible
• Work carried out at permanent or mobile facilities
• Define responsibilities of key staff - conflict of interest
• Staff to have authority, responsibility and resources
• Ensure protection of confidential information
• Define structure and specify interrelationships
• Quality Manager with direct access to top management
• Ensure staff are aware of the relevance of their roles
• Effective communication processes
Director
Scientist Technician Administration
Quality
Manager
© NERC All rights reserved
Management system
• Establish, implement and maintain documentation
of policies and procedures - review
• Management commitment to stated standard of
service and to improve
• Staff to familiarize themselves with and implement
the policy
• Define roles of Quality and Technical Management
© NERC All rights reserved
Document control
• Establish procedures for review and approval
• Approval and issue
• Availability at point of use
• Periodic review
• Version control (archiving)
• Unique identification
• Change review and approval
• Traceability
• Hand written or computerized
© NERC All rights reserved
Review of requests, tenders
and contracts
• Define, document and understand all requirements
• Ensure capability and resources
• Select appropriate test method
• Resolve differences before staring work
• Record checks and changes
• communications with the client
• Include subcontracting
• Communicate deviation
© NERC All rights reserved
Subcontracting of tests
and calibrations
• Competent subcontractor
• Advise customer
• Responsibility for subcontractor
• Keep a register
© NERC All rights reserved
Purchasing services and supplies
• Policy & procedure – purchase, reception, storage
• Inspection for compliance
• Specify services and supplies
• Evaluate suppliers and keep a record
© NERC All rights reserved
Service to the customer
• Cooperate to clarify request
• Access to witness
• Confidentiality
• Communication
• throughout the work
• Seek feedback
• Analyse for improvement
© NERC All rights reserved
Complaints
• Policy and procedure for handling complaints
• Keep records of complaints, investigations and
actions
© NERC All rights reserved
Control of
non-conforming work
• Policy and procedure for investigation when any
aspect does not conform
• Results of Audits or other observations
• QC failures
• Responsibility for who does what
• Evaluation
• Corrective and Preventative Actions
• Notification or recall?
• Authorize resumption
© NERC All rights reserved
Corrective actions
• Continually improve the effectiveness of the
management system
• Quality policy and objectives
• Audit results
• Corrective and Preventative Actions
• Management review
© NERC All rights reserved
Preventive actions
• Identify needed improvements
• Potential sources of non-conformities
• Improvement opportunities
• Ensure effectiveness
© NERC All rights reserved
Control of quality records
• Identification, collection, indexing, access,
filing, storage, maintenance and disposal
• Readily retrievable suitable environment
• Secure and in confidence
• Protect and back up electronic records
© NERC All rights reserved
Internal audits
• Predetermined schedule and procedure
• Verify operations continue to comply
• Address all elements of Standard
• Carried out by trained and qualified personnel
• Independent of activity
• Timely response
• Notify clients if results have been affected
• Implementation and effectiveness of Corrective Actions
© NERC All rights reserved
Management review
• Review of management system and testing by top management
• Suitability
• Internal and external audits
• Corrective and Preventative Actions
• Interlaboratory comparisons and Quality Control
• Changes in work load
• Customer feedback
• Recommendations for improvement
• Actions carried out in a timely manner
© NERC All rights reserved
Technical requirements
© NERC All rights reserved
Personnel
• Competence – operation, evaluation, reporting
• Qualification – training, education, experience
• Training goals and training needs
• Employed – supervised and competent
• Job descriptions for key staff
• Authorization
• Training records
© NERC All rights reserved
Accommodation and
environmental conditions
• Ensure environmental conditions do not invalidate
• Monitor and control:
sterility, dust, electromagnetics, radiation, humidity,
electricity, lighting, temperature, sound, vibration, etc.
• Effective separation for incompatibles
• Laboratory access
• Housekeeping
© NERC All rights reserved
Test methods and validation 1
• Select appropriate methods – inform client
• Client preference – define, suitability
• Plan a method for – revise
• Qualified operator
• Non-standard methods by agreement
• Document method
© NERC All rights reserved
Method description
- SOPs
• Appropriate identification and specified scope
• Parameters and ranges
• Equipment (performance requirements)
• Reference standards and reference materials
• Environmental conditions - stabilization
• Labelling, checks on samples, instrument checks,
how to record results, safety measures
• Approval criteria
• Recording and presenting of data
• Uncertainty
© NERC All rights reserved
Test methods and validation 2
• Validation
• Confirmation by examination
• Provision of objective evidence
• Range and accuracy…
• Estimate uncertainty of measurement
• identify components – performance, scope, experience
• Control of data – making checks
• document computer programs
© NERC All rights reserved
Method performance
• Sampling, handling and transportation
• Calibration using traceable standards
• Comparison of data with other methods/results
• Interlaboratory comparisons – PT schemes
• Systematic assessment of factors influencing results
• Theoretical understanding and practical experience - Uc
range accuracy detection limit
selectivity linearity repeatability
reproducibility robustness matrix sensitivity
© NERC All rights reserved
Equipment
• Furnish with all required items for work
• Capable of required accuracy before use
• Checked and calibrated
• Identify calibration status/out of use
• Use by authorized personnel
• Operating and maintenance instructions readily available
• Equipment records and unique identification
• Safe handling, storage, use and maintenance
© NERC All rights reserved
Measurement traceability
• Calibrate all equipment before use
• following set procedure
• Traceable to International System of Units (SI)
• reference to a primary standard
• Calibration standards
• Certified Reference Materials (CRM)
• Intermediate checks to maintain confidence in the calibration
• Handling, storage - prevent contamination/deterioration
© NERC All rights reserved
Sampling
• Sampling plan to address controlling factors
• Based on appropriate statistical methods
• Record client requested deviations for reporting
• Procedures for recording sampling data
© NERC All rights reserved
Handling of test items
• Procedures for transportation, receipt, handling,
protection, storage, retention, disposal
• Protect sample integrity
• System for sample identification – avoid confusion
• Record state on receipt – seek further information
• Facilities to avoid deterioration, loss or damage
• Maintain, monitor and record conditions
© NERC All rights reserved
Assuring the quality of test results
• Quality Control (QC) procedures
• Record results - to view trends
• Statistical evaluation of QC data
• Plan and review monitoring of QC data
• CRMs, secondary standards
• Proficiency Testing schemes - EPTIS
• Replicates and repeats
• Predefined acceptance criteria
• Shewhart chart – Westgard rules
• Planned action to correct and prevent
© NERC All rights reserved
Shewhart QC chart
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Concentration(mg/kg)
Index
As As Mean +2sd +3sd -2sd -3sd Expected
© NERC All rights reserved
Analytical errors can be of 2 categories:
2. Systematic or ‘predictable’, regular deviation from
the "true" value.
BIA
S
© NERC All rights reserved
Data management
• Ongoing records for Quality control samples
• Requires discipline to collate QC/RM data for each batch
• Monitor within and between batch variation
• Knowledge of MS Excel – formulae, charts?
• QC software can be expensive
• Possible to make QC charts in MS Excel
- plug-in for MS Excel called SPCC – see BGS report
© NERC All rights reserved
Reporting the results
• Accurate, clear, unambiguous, objective
• Specified contents of test report
• Basis for opinions and interpretations
• Results from subcontractors identified
• Format to minimize misuse or misunderstanding
• Allow for amendments or supplementary reports
with independent reference
© NERC All rights reserved
Test reports
• Report title
• Laboratory address
• Unique identification
• Customer details
• Method identification
• Description of items tested
• Date of receipt and of test
• Sampling details
• Test results
• Name, function and
signature of authorizer
Where necessary for the
interpretation of results:
• Deviations
• Compliance, uncertainty,
opinions/interpretations
• Sampling procedure,
location and date
© NERC All rights reserved
Quality
system
Technical
competency
ISO 17025 provides
General requirements for the competence of
laboratories to demonstrate that they:
operate a quality system,
are technically competent
are able to generate technically valid results
ISO
17025
© NERC All rights reserved
Benefits of accreditation
1. Increased prestige on a national and international level.
2. Customers can trust valid and documented results.
3. Proven traceability to National Standards.
4. Well organized, customer-oriented laboratory operation.
5. Recognition of professional and technical staff ability.
6. Assurance that equipment is suitable for measurements,
properly maintained and frequently checked.
7. Proven and documented uncertainty budget.
© NERC All rights reserved
Accreditation process
• Document a quality management system; a manual
is a basic requirement for laboratory accreditation.
• Establish quality management procedures for how
the system is maintained.
• Implement the quality management system in the
laboratory.
• Apply for accreditation.
• Establish (over several months) the records that will
be reviewed at an accreditation audit.
• Assessment by an accreditation body that is
certified to perform laboratory accreditation (ILAC).
© NERC All rights reserved
Accreditation Bodies
Regional cooperation bodies:
African Accreditation Cooperation
(AFRAC)
Phone: +27 12 740 8420
Email: nonhlanhlah@sanas.co.za
Website: http://www.intra-afrac.com
Southern African Development
Community in Accreditation
Secretariat - South Africa (SADCA)
Phone: +27 12 740 8420
Email: nonhlanhlah@sanas.co.za
Website: http://www.sadca.org
Stakeholder:
National Laboratories Association of
Zimbabwe (NLAZ)
Phone: +263 4 753 800/2
Fax: +263 4 749 181
Email: nlaz@mweb.co.zw
Website: http://www.nlaz.co.zw
International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
© NERC All rights reserved
Quality Management
• You do not need accreditation for good quality
management – accreditation is expensive to set-
up and to maintain.
• However, the principles can be applied anywhere.
• Not funding dependent – a Quality Assurance
system requires lab staff and management to
take responsibility and support the process.
• Where resources are limited, networks can assist
– peer review.
© NERC All rights reserved
2
People Instruments
ANALYSIS:
+ chemical reactions +
Staff but also…
students
every body must work the
same way…. how? SOP !
© NERC All rights reserved
Quality Management-summary
• Documented SOPs, clearly defined responsibilities
and checks on data
→ promote reproducibility
→ promote safe working practices
→ provide confidence in data outputs
Traceability from arrival of sample to reporting of data
Evaluate and monitor

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Item 13

  • 1. © NERC All rights reserved Quality Assurance - Giving Confidence in Analytical Reliability Prepared by Dr Charles Gowing UKAS Quality Manager, Inorganic Geochemistry Presented by Dr Michael Watts, Inorganic Geochemistry
  • 2. © NERC All rights reserved Dr Charles Gowing • UKAS Quality Manager • Sample Handling Manager • Reference Material Production • Radiometics Lab Manager • HH-XRFS • Radiation Protection • Internal Auditor • Proficiency Testing • Capacity Building
  • 3. © NERC All rights reserved Quality management principles Customer focus – to meet customer requirements to exceed customer expectations Leadership – to establish unity of purpose and direction Engagement of people – competent, empowered staff enhance capability Process approach – a coherent system achieves consistent and predictable results Improvement – leads to successful organizations Evidence-based decision making - produce desired results. Relationship management – for sustained success
  • 4. © NERC All rights reserved 4 Objectives of the workshop 1. Quality Management principles for Good Laboratory Practice 2. Examples for when a Quality Management system is essential – challenges faced in Africa. 3. Simple approach to making in-house Reference Materials and an example from Southern Africa 4. Data management – handling of data for judging data performance 5. How will an organisational and regional network of laboratories plan to improve their Quality Management: (i) Exchange information between members (ii) Context for own setting.
  • 5. © NERC All rights reserved Context Many important decisions are based on the results of laboratory analysis. Thus, it is important to have some indications on the quality of the results, i.e. client confidence/trust in your results to make a decision regulatory, commercial or scientific decision. With globalisation, the lab managers are coming under an increasing pressure: (i) to demonstrate the quality of their results and (ii) to demonstrate their results can be compared to results obtained by other laboratories or with the scientific literature.
  • 6. © NERC All rights reserved Everybody can measure, but not everybody can do professional quality measures.
  • 7. © NERC All rights reserved 7 for one egg, one ruler, but different people==> different measures
  • 8. © NERC All rights reserved cannot know error can only minimise the errors… cannot know ‘true value’
  • 9. © NERC All rights reserved measure the egg…. METROLOGY teach us that all measures contain errors - UNCERTAINTY: measure = true value +/- error
  • 10. © NERC All rights reserved Factors e.g. operator / environment
  • 11. © NERC All rights reserved Accuracy: high low Precision: high low
  • 12. © NERC All rights reserved International Standards for Quality Management • ISO 9001:2015 – generic management Standard • refers to an organization's structure for managing its activities • can be applied to any business enterprise, public administration, or government department • ISO 17025:2005 – technical competency Standard • for laboratories - specifying the additional requirements for demonstrating technical competence • ISO 17025:2017 –released 2019 • based on ISO 9001:2015 • specifies the additional technical requirements
  • 13. © NERC All rights reserved ISO 17025:2017 - what’s new? Document suitable for publication by Dec 2016 likely to be available for use by Oct 2017 • Specifies the minimum requirements for implementation of a management system in a laboratory • No major changes to requirements • Removal of out-of-date features • Inclusion of explanations and annexes • Introduction of “Decision Rules” – for acceptance criteria • Resource: “What one needs to have” • Process: “What one needs to do” • Re-ordering of clauses
  • 14. © NERC All rights reserved ISO/IEC 17025:2005 4. Management requirements 4.1. Organization 4.2. Management system 4.3. Document control 4.4. Review of requests, tenders, contracts 4.5. Subcontracting of tests 4.6. Purchasing services and supplies 4.7. Service to the customer 4.8. Complaints 4.9. Control of non-conforming work 4.10. Improvement 4.11. Corrective actions 4.12. Preventive actions 4.13. Control of quality records 4.14. Internal audits 4.15. Management review 5. Technical requirements 5.1. General 5.2. Personnel 5.3. Accommodation & environmental conditions 5.4. Test methods and validation 5.5. Equipment 5.6. Measurement traceability 5.7. Sampling 5.8. Handling of Test items 5.9. Assuring the quality of test results 5.10. Reporting the results Quality system Technical competency ISO 17025
  • 15. © NERC All rights reserved Management Requirements
  • 16. © NERC All rights reserved Organization • The organization will be held legally responsible • Work carried out at permanent or mobile facilities • Define responsibilities of key staff - conflict of interest • Staff to have authority, responsibility and resources • Ensure protection of confidential information • Define structure and specify interrelationships • Quality Manager with direct access to top management • Ensure staff are aware of the relevance of their roles • Effective communication processes Director Scientist Technician Administration Quality Manager
  • 17. © NERC All rights reserved Management system • Establish, implement and maintain documentation of policies and procedures - review • Management commitment to stated standard of service and to improve • Staff to familiarize themselves with and implement the policy • Define roles of Quality and Technical Management
  • 18. © NERC All rights reserved Document control • Establish procedures for review and approval • Approval and issue • Availability at point of use • Periodic review • Version control (archiving) • Unique identification • Change review and approval • Traceability • Hand written or computerized
  • 19. © NERC All rights reserved Review of requests, tenders and contracts • Define, document and understand all requirements • Ensure capability and resources • Select appropriate test method • Resolve differences before staring work • Record checks and changes • communications with the client • Include subcontracting • Communicate deviation
  • 20. © NERC All rights reserved Subcontracting of tests and calibrations • Competent subcontractor • Advise customer • Responsibility for subcontractor • Keep a register
  • 21. © NERC All rights reserved Purchasing services and supplies • Policy & procedure – purchase, reception, storage • Inspection for compliance • Specify services and supplies • Evaluate suppliers and keep a record
  • 22. © NERC All rights reserved Service to the customer • Cooperate to clarify request • Access to witness • Confidentiality • Communication • throughout the work • Seek feedback • Analyse for improvement
  • 23. © NERC All rights reserved Complaints • Policy and procedure for handling complaints • Keep records of complaints, investigations and actions
  • 24. © NERC All rights reserved Control of non-conforming work • Policy and procedure for investigation when any aspect does not conform • Results of Audits or other observations • QC failures • Responsibility for who does what • Evaluation • Corrective and Preventative Actions • Notification or recall? • Authorize resumption
  • 25. © NERC All rights reserved Corrective actions • Continually improve the effectiveness of the management system • Quality policy and objectives • Audit results • Corrective and Preventative Actions • Management review
  • 26. © NERC All rights reserved Preventive actions • Identify needed improvements • Potential sources of non-conformities • Improvement opportunities • Ensure effectiveness
  • 27. © NERC All rights reserved Control of quality records • Identification, collection, indexing, access, filing, storage, maintenance and disposal • Readily retrievable suitable environment • Secure and in confidence • Protect and back up electronic records
  • 28. © NERC All rights reserved Internal audits • Predetermined schedule and procedure • Verify operations continue to comply • Address all elements of Standard • Carried out by trained and qualified personnel • Independent of activity • Timely response • Notify clients if results have been affected • Implementation and effectiveness of Corrective Actions
  • 29. © NERC All rights reserved Management review • Review of management system and testing by top management • Suitability • Internal and external audits • Corrective and Preventative Actions • Interlaboratory comparisons and Quality Control • Changes in work load • Customer feedback • Recommendations for improvement • Actions carried out in a timely manner
  • 30. © NERC All rights reserved Technical requirements
  • 31. © NERC All rights reserved Personnel • Competence – operation, evaluation, reporting • Qualification – training, education, experience • Training goals and training needs • Employed – supervised and competent • Job descriptions for key staff • Authorization • Training records
  • 32. © NERC All rights reserved Accommodation and environmental conditions • Ensure environmental conditions do not invalidate • Monitor and control: sterility, dust, electromagnetics, radiation, humidity, electricity, lighting, temperature, sound, vibration, etc. • Effective separation for incompatibles • Laboratory access • Housekeeping
  • 33. © NERC All rights reserved Test methods and validation 1 • Select appropriate methods – inform client • Client preference – define, suitability • Plan a method for – revise • Qualified operator • Non-standard methods by agreement • Document method
  • 34. © NERC All rights reserved Method description - SOPs • Appropriate identification and specified scope • Parameters and ranges • Equipment (performance requirements) • Reference standards and reference materials • Environmental conditions - stabilization • Labelling, checks on samples, instrument checks, how to record results, safety measures • Approval criteria • Recording and presenting of data • Uncertainty
  • 35. © NERC All rights reserved Test methods and validation 2 • Validation • Confirmation by examination • Provision of objective evidence • Range and accuracy… • Estimate uncertainty of measurement • identify components – performance, scope, experience • Control of data – making checks • document computer programs
  • 36. © NERC All rights reserved Method performance • Sampling, handling and transportation • Calibration using traceable standards • Comparison of data with other methods/results • Interlaboratory comparisons – PT schemes • Systematic assessment of factors influencing results • Theoretical understanding and practical experience - Uc range accuracy detection limit selectivity linearity repeatability reproducibility robustness matrix sensitivity
  • 37. © NERC All rights reserved Equipment • Furnish with all required items for work • Capable of required accuracy before use • Checked and calibrated • Identify calibration status/out of use • Use by authorized personnel • Operating and maintenance instructions readily available • Equipment records and unique identification • Safe handling, storage, use and maintenance
  • 38. © NERC All rights reserved Measurement traceability • Calibrate all equipment before use • following set procedure • Traceable to International System of Units (SI) • reference to a primary standard • Calibration standards • Certified Reference Materials (CRM) • Intermediate checks to maintain confidence in the calibration • Handling, storage - prevent contamination/deterioration
  • 39. © NERC All rights reserved Sampling • Sampling plan to address controlling factors • Based on appropriate statistical methods • Record client requested deviations for reporting • Procedures for recording sampling data
  • 40. © NERC All rights reserved Handling of test items • Procedures for transportation, receipt, handling, protection, storage, retention, disposal • Protect sample integrity • System for sample identification – avoid confusion • Record state on receipt – seek further information • Facilities to avoid deterioration, loss or damage • Maintain, monitor and record conditions
  • 41. © NERC All rights reserved Assuring the quality of test results • Quality Control (QC) procedures • Record results - to view trends • Statistical evaluation of QC data • Plan and review monitoring of QC data • CRMs, secondary standards • Proficiency Testing schemes - EPTIS • Replicates and repeats • Predefined acceptance criteria • Shewhart chart – Westgard rules • Planned action to correct and prevent
  • 42. © NERC All rights reserved Shewhart QC chart 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Concentration(mg/kg) Index As As Mean +2sd +3sd -2sd -3sd Expected
  • 43. © NERC All rights reserved Analytical errors can be of 2 categories: 2. Systematic or ‘predictable’, regular deviation from the "true" value. BIA S
  • 44. © NERC All rights reserved Data management • Ongoing records for Quality control samples • Requires discipline to collate QC/RM data for each batch • Monitor within and between batch variation • Knowledge of MS Excel – formulae, charts? • QC software can be expensive • Possible to make QC charts in MS Excel - plug-in for MS Excel called SPCC – see BGS report
  • 45. © NERC All rights reserved Reporting the results • Accurate, clear, unambiguous, objective • Specified contents of test report • Basis for opinions and interpretations • Results from subcontractors identified • Format to minimize misuse or misunderstanding • Allow for amendments or supplementary reports with independent reference
  • 46. © NERC All rights reserved Test reports • Report title • Laboratory address • Unique identification • Customer details • Method identification • Description of items tested • Date of receipt and of test • Sampling details • Test results • Name, function and signature of authorizer Where necessary for the interpretation of results: • Deviations • Compliance, uncertainty, opinions/interpretations • Sampling procedure, location and date
  • 47. © NERC All rights reserved Quality system Technical competency ISO 17025 provides General requirements for the competence of laboratories to demonstrate that they: operate a quality system, are technically competent are able to generate technically valid results ISO 17025
  • 48. © NERC All rights reserved Benefits of accreditation 1. Increased prestige on a national and international level. 2. Customers can trust valid and documented results. 3. Proven traceability to National Standards. 4. Well organized, customer-oriented laboratory operation. 5. Recognition of professional and technical staff ability. 6. Assurance that equipment is suitable for measurements, properly maintained and frequently checked. 7. Proven and documented uncertainty budget.
  • 49. © NERC All rights reserved Accreditation process • Document a quality management system; a manual is a basic requirement for laboratory accreditation. • Establish quality management procedures for how the system is maintained. • Implement the quality management system in the laboratory. • Apply for accreditation. • Establish (over several months) the records that will be reviewed at an accreditation audit. • Assessment by an accreditation body that is certified to perform laboratory accreditation (ILAC).
  • 50. © NERC All rights reserved Accreditation Bodies Regional cooperation bodies: African Accreditation Cooperation (AFRAC) Phone: +27 12 740 8420 Email: nonhlanhlah@sanas.co.za Website: http://www.intra-afrac.com Southern African Development Community in Accreditation Secretariat - South Africa (SADCA) Phone: +27 12 740 8420 Email: nonhlanhlah@sanas.co.za Website: http://www.sadca.org Stakeholder: National Laboratories Association of Zimbabwe (NLAZ) Phone: +263 4 753 800/2 Fax: +263 4 749 181 Email: nlaz@mweb.co.zw Website: http://www.nlaz.co.zw International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
  • 51. © NERC All rights reserved Quality Management • You do not need accreditation for good quality management – accreditation is expensive to set- up and to maintain. • However, the principles can be applied anywhere. • Not funding dependent – a Quality Assurance system requires lab staff and management to take responsibility and support the process. • Where resources are limited, networks can assist – peer review.
  • 52. © NERC All rights reserved 2 People Instruments ANALYSIS: + chemical reactions + Staff but also… students every body must work the same way…. how? SOP !
  • 53. © NERC All rights reserved Quality Management-summary • Documented SOPs, clearly defined responsibilities and checks on data → promote reproducibility → promote safe working practices → provide confidence in data outputs Traceability from arrival of sample to reporting of data Evaluate and monitor