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INDONESIAN CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND RESOURCE
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
INDONESIAN AGENCY FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
2019
Soil mappingSoil mapping to support sustainable agricultureto support sustainable agriculture
ICALRD :
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 12, Bogor 16114
Telp. +62 251 8323012
Fax. +62 251 8311256
Email: csar@indosat.net.id
http://bbsdlp.litbang.deptan.go.id
 Increasing food production and sustainable food self
sufficiency (for 265 million people)
 Food security and nutrition
 Increasing competitiveness, added value and export
 Increase farmer’s income
 Optimation of soil productivity, climate change
adaptation and mitigation, and soil conservation
GOALS OF AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA
Swampy land
Non-swampy
wetland 9.5 Mha
Upland wet
climate (acid)
104.6 M ha
Upland dry
climate 10.8 M ha
 Tidal swampy land 7.6 M ha
 Inland swampy land 11.6 M
ha
 Peatland 14.9 M ha (1.4 M ha
tide and 13.6 Mha inland)
 Tidal swampy land 7.6 M ha
 Inland swampy land 11.6 M
ha
 Peatland 14.9 M ha (1.4 M ha
tide and 13.6 Mha inland)
Land grouping based on
Agro-ecosystem
(source: soil map 1:250.000
scale)
Upland wet climate
(Non-acid): 20.9 M ha
Flowchart of soil map production and its derivative map generation in Indonesia
Base/supporting mapsBase/supporting maps
Topographic mapsTopographic maps
SRTM (DEM)SRTM (DEM)
Geological mapsGeological maps
IMAGEIMAGE
INTERPRETATIONINTERPRETATION
(Landsat, Radar)(Landsat, Radar)
Delineation based on relief,Delineation based on relief,
contour, pattern, texture,contour, pattern, texture,
wetness, color featurewetness, color feature
LAND SUITABILITYLAND SUITABILITY
MAPSMAPS
Image geometricImage geometric
correctionscorrections
LANDFORMLANDFORM
UNITSUNITS
Field observations:
profiles, minipit,
augering , landuse
LAND EVALUATIONLAND EVALUATION
Land useLand use
requirementsrequirements
e.g. SPECIFIC CROPe.g. SPECIFIC CROP
SUITABILITY MAPSUITABILITY MAP
RECOMMENDATIONRECOMMENDATION
MAPSMAPS
Present LandPresent Land
useuse
SPATIALSPATIAL
PLANNINGPLANNING
Land qualities: soil,Land qualities: soil,
climate,climate,
environmentsenvironments
SOIL MAPSSOIL MAPS
U
S
Mt. Tangkuban
Perahu
Mt. Burangrang
Landsat imagery
Images used for soil mapping in Indonesia
AerialAerial
photographphotograph
Mt. Merapi - 2003
SPOT imagery
RADAR
Method for Soil mapping: Remote Sensing utilization
AerialAerial
PhotographPhotograph
IntensivelyIntensively
usedused
RegionalRegional
capabilitycapability
NotNot
intensivelyintensively
usedused
Pra 1962Pra 1962 1972-19811972-1981 1981-19861981-1986 1987-20041987-2004
Soil MappingSoil Mapping Soil MappingSoil Mapping
Intensively usedIntensively used
FAOFAO
Landsat ERTS-1Landsat ERTS-1
Test caseTest case
South SulawesiSouth Sulawesi
Landsat TMLandsat TM
Test caseTest case
 East BorneoEast Borneo
Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse
MappingMapping
Intensively usedIntensively used
LREPLREP
Landsat TM 5Landsat TM 5
Radar STAR-1Radar STAR-1
Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse
MappingMapping
AerialAerial
PhotographPhotograph
AerialAerial
PhotographPhotograph
AerialAerial
PhotographPhotograph
TopographicTopographic
map Intensivelymap Intensively
usedused
Method for Soil mapping: Remote Sensing utilization
2005-20082005-2008
Landsat ETM 7Landsat ETM 7
Intensively used:Intensively used:
ReconnaisanceReconnaisance
AEZAEZ
Primary farmPrimary farm
Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse
mappingmapping
2008 - present2008 - present
Landsat ETM 7Landsat ETM 7
Intensively used:Intensively used:
ReconnaisanceReconnaisance
Semi detailSemi detail
Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse
mappingmapping
Other land resources mappingOther land resources mapping
Test case :Test case :
ReconnaisanceReconnaisance
JERS, ASTERJERS, ASTER
ALOS AVNIR-2ALOS AVNIR-2
1998 - present1998 - present
Lansat -8, Spot-6Lansat -8, Spot-6
www.litbang.deptan.go.id
Various landform
features due to
geomorphological
processes
Alluvial
Marine
Peat dome
Karst
Techtonics
• Plain
• Hill
• Mountain
Volcano
Soil map sheet of Cigudeg district, Bogor Regency, west Java (scale 1:50.000)
Mapping units legend:
2. Gleisol Distrik (Typic Endoaquept), alluvial plain, clay sediment)
43. Andosol Distrik (Typic Hapludand), deep, well drainage, fine texture, slightly acid,
low CEC, medum BS; old volcanic hill landform, Andesite and basalt
44. Kambisol Oksik (Oxic Dystrudept) old volcanic hill landform, Andesite
48. Kambisol litik (Lithic Dystrudept) and Andosol Distrik (Typic Hapludand), old
volcanic mountain landform, Andesite and basalt
Key success: drainage management, raised bed cultivation, ameliorant,Key success: drainage management, raised bed cultivation, ameliorant,
fertilizersfertilizers
Syahbudin and Alwi, 2012
Horticultural crop (shallot, Bauji variety) performance on a peat soilHorticultural crop (shallot, Bauji variety) performance on a peat soil
Rice husk biochar + chicken manure (15
t/ha) was able to increase shallot yield 2.5
order of magnitude compared to control
(cow manure) and suppress CO2
emission. Yield of shallot is 6,5 t/ha
(Kalampangan, Central Kalimantan)
Application of NPK 500kg/ha, KCl
200kg/ha fertilizer: shallot yield 9 t/ha
in Landasan ulin, South Kalimantan
Photo: Dr. Eni Mufta
Item 9: Soil mapping to support sustainable agriculture
Pine apple in Tangkit district, Jambi
Rubber crops in 8 mRubber crops in 8 m
deep peat soils withdeep peat soils with
minimum drainageminimum drainage
(6 years old,(6 years old,
starting tapping)starting tapping)
Peat soils used for rubber, rambutan and forest in Tangkit district, Jambi
Rambutan Forest for conservationRubber
Oil palm at famer’s farm, shallow waterOil palm at famer’s farm, shallow water
table 60 cm in peat soil, Tanjungtable 60 cm in peat soil, Tanjung
Jabung, JambiJabung, Jambi
Sukarman et al,2012
LOKASI
 JAMBI :
 Desa Arang-arang, Kecamatan Kumpeh Ulu, Kabupaten
Muaro Jambi, Provinsi Jambi.
 RIAU
Desa Lubuk Ogong, Kecamatan Bandar Sei Kijang,
Kabupaten Pelalawan, Provinsi Riau.
 Kedua lokasi merupakan lokasi Percobaan ICCTF
Correlation between CO2 flux and water table
under oil palm plantation
Water table
depth
Y = 0,593e 0,015x
R2
= 0,3764
CO2 flux increases with
increasing water table
depth
Sukarman et al. (2012)
Water table (cm)
Relationship between CO2 flux and soil water
content
Soil moisture
content
Y = 41,582e -0,007x
R2
= 0,6002
CO2 flux decreases with
increasing water content
Sukarman et al. (2012)
Soil water content (%)
Pengukuran CO2 pada lahan gambut diukur pada bagian serasah dan tanpa serasah
Syahbudin and Alwi, 2012
Primary canal during tidal flooding
Syahbudin and Alwi, 2012
Tertiary canal
Secondary canal
Primary canal during down tide
Supiandi and Sukarman, 2012)
24
Maswar et al. 2014
GAPKI, 2014
UNSUR WMS:
1. Zoning  Based on Hydrotopografi
2. Infrastructure Drainage construction  Based on Hydrotopografi
3. Water Level  Based on Roots of Oil Palm
a. Water Level Monitoring  Piezometer
b. Water Level Control  Bangunan Air /Overflow
c. Akar Sawit : 1. 0 - 20 cm = 50%
2. 20 - 40 cm = 25%
3. 40 - 60 cm = 25%
4. Monitoring Subsidence
5. Fire Prevention System
C. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
GAPKI, 2014
Thank you for your
kind attention
ICALRD :
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.12, Bogor 16114
Telp. +62 251 8323012
Fax. +62 251 8311256
Email: csar@indosat.net.id
http://bbsdlp.litbang.deptan.go.id
Sharing the management
of fragile soils promotes
soil use sustainability

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LesothoLesotho
Lesotho
 
Kenya
KenyaKenya
Kenya
 
ICRAF: Soil-plant spectral diagnostics laboratory
ICRAF: Soil-plant spectral diagnostics laboratoryICRAF: Soil-plant spectral diagnostics laboratory
ICRAF: Soil-plant spectral diagnostics laboratory
 
Ghana
GhanaGhana
Ghana
 
Ethiopia
EthiopiaEthiopia
Ethiopia
 
Item 15
Item 15Item 15
Item 15
 
Item 14
Item 14Item 14
Item 14
 
Item 13
Item 13Item 13
Item 13
 
Item 7
Item 7Item 7
Item 7
 
Item 6
Item 6Item 6
Item 6
 
Item 3
Item 3Item 3
Item 3
 
Item 16
Item 16Item 16
Item 16
 
Item 8: WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resouces
Item 8: WRB, World Reference Base for Soil ResoucesItem 8: WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resouces
Item 8: WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resouces
 
Item 7: Progress made in Nepal
Item 7: Progress made in NepalItem 7: Progress made in Nepal
Item 7: Progress made in Nepal
 
Item 6: International Center for Biosaline Agriculture
Item 6: International Center for Biosaline AgricultureItem 6: International Center for Biosaline Agriculture
Item 6: International Center for Biosaline Agriculture
 
Item 5: Japanese Soil Map based on World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2...
Item 5: Japanese Soil Map based on World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2...Item 5: Japanese Soil Map based on World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2...
Item 5: Japanese Soil Map based on World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2...
 

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Item 9: Soil mapping to support sustainable agriculture

  • 1. Markus AndaMarkus Anda INDONESIAN CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INDONESIAN AGENCY FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 2019 Soil mappingSoil mapping to support sustainable agricultureto support sustainable agriculture ICALRD : Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 12, Bogor 16114 Telp. +62 251 8323012 Fax. +62 251 8311256 Email: csar@indosat.net.id http://bbsdlp.litbang.deptan.go.id
  • 2.  Increasing food production and sustainable food self sufficiency (for 265 million people)  Food security and nutrition  Increasing competitiveness, added value and export  Increase farmer’s income  Optimation of soil productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and soil conservation GOALS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA
  • 3. Swampy land Non-swampy wetland 9.5 Mha Upland wet climate (acid) 104.6 M ha Upland dry climate 10.8 M ha  Tidal swampy land 7.6 M ha  Inland swampy land 11.6 M ha  Peatland 14.9 M ha (1.4 M ha tide and 13.6 Mha inland)  Tidal swampy land 7.6 M ha  Inland swampy land 11.6 M ha  Peatland 14.9 M ha (1.4 M ha tide and 13.6 Mha inland) Land grouping based on Agro-ecosystem (source: soil map 1:250.000 scale) Upland wet climate (Non-acid): 20.9 M ha
  • 4. Flowchart of soil map production and its derivative map generation in Indonesia Base/supporting mapsBase/supporting maps Topographic mapsTopographic maps SRTM (DEM)SRTM (DEM) Geological mapsGeological maps IMAGEIMAGE INTERPRETATIONINTERPRETATION (Landsat, Radar)(Landsat, Radar) Delineation based on relief,Delineation based on relief, contour, pattern, texture,contour, pattern, texture, wetness, color featurewetness, color feature LAND SUITABILITYLAND SUITABILITY MAPSMAPS Image geometricImage geometric correctionscorrections LANDFORMLANDFORM UNITSUNITS Field observations: profiles, minipit, augering , landuse LAND EVALUATIONLAND EVALUATION Land useLand use requirementsrequirements e.g. SPECIFIC CROPe.g. SPECIFIC CROP SUITABILITY MAPSUITABILITY MAP RECOMMENDATIONRECOMMENDATION MAPSMAPS Present LandPresent Land useuse SPATIALSPATIAL PLANNINGPLANNING Land qualities: soil,Land qualities: soil, climate,climate, environmentsenvironments SOIL MAPSSOIL MAPS
  • 5. U S Mt. Tangkuban Perahu Mt. Burangrang Landsat imagery Images used for soil mapping in Indonesia AerialAerial photographphotograph Mt. Merapi - 2003 SPOT imagery RADAR
  • 6. Method for Soil mapping: Remote Sensing utilization AerialAerial PhotographPhotograph IntensivelyIntensively usedused RegionalRegional capabilitycapability NotNot intensivelyintensively usedused Pra 1962Pra 1962 1972-19811972-1981 1981-19861981-1986 1987-20041987-2004 Soil MappingSoil Mapping Soil MappingSoil Mapping Intensively usedIntensively used FAOFAO Landsat ERTS-1Landsat ERTS-1 Test caseTest case South SulawesiSouth Sulawesi Landsat TMLandsat TM Test caseTest case  East BorneoEast Borneo Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse MappingMapping Intensively usedIntensively used LREPLREP Landsat TM 5Landsat TM 5 Radar STAR-1Radar STAR-1 Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse MappingMapping AerialAerial PhotographPhotograph AerialAerial PhotographPhotograph AerialAerial PhotographPhotograph TopographicTopographic map Intensivelymap Intensively usedused
  • 7. Method for Soil mapping: Remote Sensing utilization 2005-20082005-2008 Landsat ETM 7Landsat ETM 7 Intensively used:Intensively used: ReconnaisanceReconnaisance AEZAEZ Primary farmPrimary farm Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse mappingmapping 2008 - present2008 - present Landsat ETM 7Landsat ETM 7 Intensively used:Intensively used: ReconnaisanceReconnaisance Semi detailSemi detail Soil & LanduseSoil & Landuse mappingmapping Other land resources mappingOther land resources mapping Test case :Test case : ReconnaisanceReconnaisance JERS, ASTERJERS, ASTER ALOS AVNIR-2ALOS AVNIR-2 1998 - present1998 - present Lansat -8, Spot-6Lansat -8, Spot-6
  • 8. www.litbang.deptan.go.id Various landform features due to geomorphological processes Alluvial Marine Peat dome Karst Techtonics • Plain • Hill • Mountain Volcano
  • 9. Soil map sheet of Cigudeg district, Bogor Regency, west Java (scale 1:50.000) Mapping units legend: 2. Gleisol Distrik (Typic Endoaquept), alluvial plain, clay sediment) 43. Andosol Distrik (Typic Hapludand), deep, well drainage, fine texture, slightly acid, low CEC, medum BS; old volcanic hill landform, Andesite and basalt 44. Kambisol Oksik (Oxic Dystrudept) old volcanic hill landform, Andesite 48. Kambisol litik (Lithic Dystrudept) and Andosol Distrik (Typic Hapludand), old volcanic mountain landform, Andesite and basalt
  • 10. Key success: drainage management, raised bed cultivation, ameliorant,Key success: drainage management, raised bed cultivation, ameliorant, fertilizersfertilizers Syahbudin and Alwi, 2012
  • 11. Horticultural crop (shallot, Bauji variety) performance on a peat soilHorticultural crop (shallot, Bauji variety) performance on a peat soil Rice husk biochar + chicken manure (15 t/ha) was able to increase shallot yield 2.5 order of magnitude compared to control (cow manure) and suppress CO2 emission. Yield of shallot is 6,5 t/ha (Kalampangan, Central Kalimantan) Application of NPK 500kg/ha, KCl 200kg/ha fertilizer: shallot yield 9 t/ha in Landasan ulin, South Kalimantan Photo: Dr. Eni Mufta
  • 13. Pine apple in Tangkit district, Jambi
  • 14. Rubber crops in 8 mRubber crops in 8 m deep peat soils withdeep peat soils with minimum drainageminimum drainage (6 years old,(6 years old, starting tapping)starting tapping)
  • 15. Peat soils used for rubber, rambutan and forest in Tangkit district, Jambi Rambutan Forest for conservationRubber
  • 16. Oil palm at famer’s farm, shallow waterOil palm at famer’s farm, shallow water table 60 cm in peat soil, Tanjungtable 60 cm in peat soil, Tanjung Jabung, JambiJabung, Jambi
  • 17. Sukarman et al,2012 LOKASI  JAMBI :  Desa Arang-arang, Kecamatan Kumpeh Ulu, Kabupaten Muaro Jambi, Provinsi Jambi.  RIAU Desa Lubuk Ogong, Kecamatan Bandar Sei Kijang, Kabupaten Pelalawan, Provinsi Riau.  Kedua lokasi merupakan lokasi Percobaan ICCTF
  • 18. Correlation between CO2 flux and water table under oil palm plantation Water table depth Y = 0,593e 0,015x R2 = 0,3764 CO2 flux increases with increasing water table depth Sukarman et al. (2012) Water table (cm)
  • 19. Relationship between CO2 flux and soil water content Soil moisture content Y = 41,582e -0,007x R2 = 0,6002 CO2 flux decreases with increasing water content Sukarman et al. (2012) Soil water content (%)
  • 20. Pengukuran CO2 pada lahan gambut diukur pada bagian serasah dan tanpa serasah
  • 22. Primary canal during tidal flooding Syahbudin and Alwi, 2012 Tertiary canal Secondary canal Primary canal during down tide
  • 26. UNSUR WMS: 1. Zoning  Based on Hydrotopografi 2. Infrastructure Drainage construction  Based on Hydrotopografi 3. Water Level  Based on Roots of Oil Palm a. Water Level Monitoring  Piezometer b. Water Level Control  Bangunan Air /Overflow c. Akar Sawit : 1. 0 - 20 cm = 50% 2. 20 - 40 cm = 25% 3. 40 - 60 cm = 25% 4. Monitoring Subsidence 5. Fire Prevention System C. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM GAPKI, 2014
  • 27. Thank you for your kind attention ICALRD : Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.12, Bogor 16114 Telp. +62 251 8323012 Fax. +62 251 8311256 Email: csar@indosat.net.id http://bbsdlp.litbang.deptan.go.id Sharing the management of fragile soils promotes soil use sustainability