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Concepts and Proposal
Critical analysis
1.The Concept of Heritage
2. Structure of a Proposal
3. Implications of Heritage
4. Legislation and Copyright
5. Critical Analysis
6. Context Analysis
7. Services and Interpretations
8. Stakeholders
9.Target Groups
10.Authenticity
Map a territory
Context analysis proposal budget
Analyse Message(s) promoted
Identify legislation and rights
SWOT
Research and references
Identify Services
Identify Heritage/Stakeholders
Analyze Target groups involved
Identify Existing Gaps
Lessons Assignment Competence
Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, Università di Bergamo, 2018.
iolanda.pensa@supsi.ch - http://iopensa.it
As-is analysis
Critical analysis
As-is analysis
Critical analysis
Oral Exam
Questions for the oral exam
1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”?
1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live?
1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism?
1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage is concerned?
2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live.
2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here?
2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places?
2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities?
2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply?
3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism?
3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive?
3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is concerned?
3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation?
4.Why have we conserved our past(s)?
4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active?
4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are there any exceptions?
4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality?
4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural impact that heritage managers have to face?
5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed?
5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage?
5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed?
5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage?
6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation?
6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites?
6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor?
6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media?
7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift from one type to another?
7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place?
7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past?
8.Why is heritage a political concept?
8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism?
8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism?
8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism?
8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level?
9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism?
9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism?
9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation?
9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
Discussions based on notions
1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”?
1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism?
3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive?
3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is
concerned?
4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active?
4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are
there any exceptions?
5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed?
5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage?
6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites?
6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media?
7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift
from one type to another?
9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism?
Term ‘heritage’
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, pp. 3-4
Different uses of the term heritage (Tunbridge and Ashworth
1996:1-3)
1. A synonym for any relic of the past
2. the product of modern conditions that are attributed to, and influenced by, the
past
3. all cultural and artistic productivity produced in the past or the present
4. includes elements from the natural environment that are survivals from the past,
seen as original, typical and appropriate to be passed on to future generations
5. a major commercial activity, loosely recognized as the heritage industry, that is
based on selling goods and services with a heritage component
6. adopted by the political extremism where heritage is used to discusse ethnic or
racial exclusivism.
Authenticity
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p. 241
Typology of authenticity - dynamic (Cohen 1979)
1. Truly authentic experiences (objectively real and accepted by the tourists as real)
2. Staged authenticity (staged or made up for the tourists but the tourists are unable
to distinguish this from reality) - covert tourist space
3. Denial of authenticity: the scene is presented as genuine but the tourists question
its authenticity.
4. Contrived authenticity. Overly inauthentic and preened as such by the tourist
establishment and perceived as such by the tourist - overt tourist space.
Critical discussions
1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage
is concerned?
2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places?
2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities?
2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply?
3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism?
4.Why have we conserved our past(s)?
5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed?
5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage?
6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation?
6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor?
7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place?
7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past?
8.Why is heritage a political concept?
8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism?
8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism?
8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism?
8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level?
9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation?
9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism?
9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
Information
considering purely what information is available, what are the facts?
Optimistic response / Positive aspects / yes
Logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony. The brighter, sunny side of situations.
Discernment / Negative aspects / no
Critical issues, reasons to be cautious and conservative. Practical, realistic.
Emotions / personal examples
intuitive or instinctive gut reactions or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification)
Creativity / Perspectives
statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes. Outside the box.
Management / Decision
what is the subject? what are we thinking about? what is the goal? Can look at the big picture.
SixThinking Hats designed by Edward de Bono 
Experience
1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live?
2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live.
2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here?
3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation?
4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality?
4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural
impact that heritage managers have to face?
Heritage management essential chronology
Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, pp. 88-107
1945  Constitution of UNESCO, signed on 16 November 1945, came into force on 4 November
1946. UNESCO is responsible for coordinating international cooperation in education, science,
culture and communication
1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted by
the General Conference of UNESCO
2003 Conventions and Agreements of Standard-Setting Nature adopted under the auspices of
UNESCO solely or jointly with other International Organizations. Member states who sign or
agree to abide by the convention are added to the list of state parties. 
2007 The Commission's role is based on Article 3.3 of the Lisbon Treaty which states:“The Union
shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and [...] ensure that Europe’s cultural
heritage is safeguarded and enhanced”.
2018 EuropeanYear of Cultural Heritage

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Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management 2018, Università di Bergamo. Oral exam

  • 1. Concepts and Proposal Critical analysis 1.The Concept of Heritage 2. Structure of a Proposal 3. Implications of Heritage 4. Legislation and Copyright 5. Critical Analysis 6. Context Analysis 7. Services and Interpretations 8. Stakeholders 9.Target Groups 10.Authenticity Map a territory Context analysis proposal budget Analyse Message(s) promoted Identify legislation and rights SWOT Research and references Identify Services Identify Heritage/Stakeholders Analyze Target groups involved Identify Existing Gaps Lessons Assignment Competence Iolanda Pensa, Heritage Management, Università di Bergamo, 2018. iolanda.pensa@supsi.ch - http://iopensa.it As-is analysis Critical analysis As-is analysis Critical analysis Oral Exam
  • 2. Questions for the oral exam 1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”? 1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live? 1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism? 1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage is concerned? 2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live. 2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here? 2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places? 2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities? 2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply? 3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism? 3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive? 3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is concerned? 3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation? 4.Why have we conserved our past(s)? 4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active? 4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are there any exceptions? 4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality? 4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural impact that heritage managers have to face? 5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed? 5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage? 5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed? 5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage? 6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation? 6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites? 6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor? 6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media? 7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift from one type to another? 7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place? 7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past? 8.Why is heritage a political concept? 8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism? 8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism? 8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism? 8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level? 9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism? 9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism? 9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation? 9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
  • 3. Discussions based on notions 1.What factors account for the complexity that exists with the term “heritage”? 1.What is the evidence to support heritage tourism as one of the oldest forms of tourism? 3. Do heritage visitors have certain key characteristics that make them distinctive? 3.To what extend is latent demand the most important type of demand where heritage tourism is concerned? 4. How useful is it to classify perspectives of conservation as passive and active? 4.Why are conservation bodies and legislation predominantly found in developed world nations? Are there any exceptions? 5.Along what lines have visitors management frameworks developed? 5. How is heritage marketing linked to managing heritage? 6.What are the key factors influencing formal and informal education at heritage sites? 6. Evaluate the pros and cons of personal and non personal interpretative media? 7.What are the four types of authenticity described by Cohen? To what extent is it possible to shift from one type to another? 9. Can a consensus be reached over what is meant by heritage tourism?
  • 4. Term ‘heritage’ Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, pp. 3-4 Different uses of the term heritage (Tunbridge and Ashworth 1996:1-3) 1. A synonym for any relic of the past 2. the product of modern conditions that are attributed to, and influenced by, the past 3. all cultural and artistic productivity produced in the past or the present 4. includes elements from the natural environment that are survivals from the past, seen as original, typical and appropriate to be passed on to future generations 5. a major commercial activity, loosely recognized as the heritage industry, that is based on selling goods and services with a heritage component 6. adopted by the political extremism where heritage is used to discusse ethnic or racial exclusivism.
  • 5. Authenticity Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, p. 241 Typology of authenticity - dynamic (Cohen 1979) 1. Truly authentic experiences (objectively real and accepted by the tourists as real) 2. Staged authenticity (staged or made up for the tourists but the tourists are unable to distinguish this from reality) - covert tourist space 3. Denial of authenticity: the scene is presented as genuine but the tourists question its authenticity. 4. Contrived authenticity. Overly inauthentic and preened as such by the tourist establishment and perceived as such by the tourist - overt tourist space.
  • 6. Critical discussions 1. How much support do you give to the idea that we are creating new “Grand Tours” where heritage is concerned? 2.Why are components of heritage supply often connected with mainly urban places? 2. Do you think that heritage attractions can exist in the absence of support services and facilities? 2. Is there a danger of over segmenting the heritage tourism supply? 3.What factors, as of late, explain the growth in interest in heritage tourism? 4.Why have we conserved our past(s)? 5. How does ownership of heritage influence how it is managed? 5.What are the pros and the cons of asking visitors to pay to see heritage? 6. Is education more important than entertainment regarding heritage interpretation? 6. In what ways are heritage attractions accommodating the special needs visitor? 7.To what extent is authenticity within heritage shaped by culture, context and place? 7.Are heritage places guilty of sanitizing and idealizing the past? 8.Why is heritage a political concept? 8. How have power arrangements influenced and shaped heritage tourism? 8. Can the ‘contestation’ element ever be removed from heritage tourism? 8. How has war and conflict impacted upon and affected heritage and heritage tourism? 8.What are the benefits of heritage tourism planning being developed to the community level? 9.What role(s) can technology play in heritage interpretation? 9.Which of the two is more important - heritage tourism supply or the demand for heritage tourism? 9. Does heritage tourism have a long-term future?
  • 7. Information considering purely what information is available, what are the facts? Optimistic response / Positive aspects / yes Logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony. The brighter, sunny side of situations. Discernment / Negative aspects / no Critical issues, reasons to be cautious and conservative. Practical, realistic. Emotions / personal examples intuitive or instinctive gut reactions or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification) Creativity / Perspectives statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes. Outside the box. Management / Decision what is the subject? what are we thinking about? what is the goal? Can look at the big picture. SixThinking Hats designed by Edward de Bono 
  • 8. Experience 1.What significance do you attach to heritage that is present in the region in which you currently live? 2. Describe the type of heritage attractions that can be found in the area in which you currently live. 2.To what extend do you see scale playing a role here? 3. Using heritage places in your locality, what factors best explain their non-use in terms of visitation? 4.What are the major challenges facing heritage conservation in your locality? 4.With reference to heritage in your own locality, what are the major physical and socio-cultural impact that heritage managers have to face?
  • 9. Heritage management essential chronology Source:Timothy & Boyd, Heritage Tourism, 2003, pp. 88-107 1945  Constitution of UNESCO, signed on 16 November 1945, came into force on 4 November 1946. UNESCO is responsible for coordinating international cooperation in education, science, culture and communication 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO 2003 Conventions and Agreements of Standard-Setting Nature adopted under the auspices of UNESCO solely or jointly with other International Organizations. Member states who sign or agree to abide by the convention are added to the list of state parties.  2007 The Commission's role is based on Article 3.3 of the Lisbon Treaty which states:“The Union shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and [...] ensure that Europe’s cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced”. 2018 EuropeanYear of Cultural Heritage