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E. Bryan - Traditional Knowledge Digital Repository - Considerations for Dominica's Kalinago Heritage [UWI-DMCC20170808]

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Traditional knowledge (TK) is knowledge, know-how, skills and practices that are developed, sustained and passed on from generation to generation within a community, often forming part of its cultural or spiritual identity. The Kalinago Barana Aute has been a fixture on the landscape of Waitukubuli for years, however, aside from the direct encounter with the indigenous peoples, physical access to the Council, and limited literary and artefacts within various repositories such as the Documentation Centre, the Dominica Museum or the Ministry of Kalinago Affairs in Roseau. However, there is a clear need to expand access to not just the physical artefacts accessible via these repositories, but also through the development of a specific resource to support the work of the Kalinago Council to revive, assist and maintain Kalinago traditions through song, dances, herbal medicine and some aspects of the ancient Kalinago language. Such a repository would support Dominica’s ratification of the UNESO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003. This support of a repository is especially critical for the continued survival of the Kalinago’s heritage, as the Commonwealth of Dominica is also a small island development state, and therefore has to remain competitive should it hope to realize the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs ), and especially under goals 11 and 13.
Also, the role and participation of indigenous peoples such as the Kalinago in global concerns such as traditional medicine, oral tradition, climate change, disaster risk reduction, tourism and sustainable development require great access to resources, including in cyberspace, to drive awareness of the Kalinago, as well as provide access to perspectives specific to Dominica, and the rich cultural heritage of these indigenous people .
Objectives:
The presentation will:
• Introduce some definitions on the subject of traditional knowledge
• Discuss the global and regional initiatives aimed at addressing traditional knowledge
• Consider some “Implementable” current best practices for developing a TK Repository
• Describe some necessary stages which must be considered for a proposed Kalinago TK Repository

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E. Bryan - Traditional Knowledge Digital Repository - Considerations for Dominica's Kalinago Heritage [UWI-DMCC20170808]

  1. 1. “Traditional Knowledge Digital Repository - Considerations for Dominica's Kalinago Heritage” Presentation Topic
  2. 2. 1. Some Definitions… 2. TK: Global, Regional & National Initiatives 3. Benefits: TK & Kalinago Heritage 4. Best Practices Presentation Outline
  3. 3. Some Definitions... • We define the knowledge economy as production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as rapid obsolescence. The key component of a knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources. Walter W. Powell and Kaisa Snellman, Annu. Rev. Sociol. 2004. • Traditional knowledge (TK) is knowledge, know-how, skills and practices that are developed, sustained and passed on from generation to generation within a community, often forming part of its cultural or spiritual identity. Word Intellectual Property Organization, 2017 • “The ‘intangible cultural heritage’ means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.” UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Expression, 2003 • Indigenous Peoples are social groups that have resided in a region for a long period of time and whose social and cultural identities are different from that of the dominant culture.Word Intellectual Property Organization, 2017
  4. 4. “Traditional knowledge is an important element of the intellectual and cultural heritage of indigenous peoples. It reflects their social and historical identity and significantly contributes to the future well- being and sustainable development of these peoples.” Ulia Popova-Gosart
  5. 5. TK: Global Initiatives • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) • Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) • protection/preservation of “intangible cultural property” for the benefit of the state and/or humanity • “The ‘intangible cultural heritage’ means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.” UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Expression, 2003 • The “intangible cultural heritage”, as defined in paragraph 1 above, is manifested inter alia in the following domains: (a) oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage; (b) performing arts; (c) social practices, rituals and festive events; (d) knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; (e) traditional craftsmanship.
  6. 6. Caribbean Regional Framework for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partners hip/?p=7663 TK: Regional Initiatives Source: UNGA (A/RES/70/1), 2015 EU-LAC-MUSEUMS and the Virtual Museum of the Caribbean http://eu-lac.org/virtual-museums/
  7. 7. TK: National Initiatives (noteworthy) • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) TKDL is an initiative to provide the information on traditional knowledge existing in the country, in languages and format understandable by patent examiners at International Patent Offices (IPOs), so as to prevent the grant of wrong patents. http://www.tkdl.res.in/ • Mātauranga Māori http://maaori.com/research/ • Gulisi Garifuna Museum The museum offers a full multimedia experience for the visitor. You will learn the origins of the Garifuna people, their history and customs. http://gulisimuseum.wixsite.com/gulisi • The First Nations Centre (FNC) at the National Aboriginal Health Organization (NAHO) The goal of the Centre at NAHO is to advance and promote the health and well-being of First Nations populations http://www.naho.ca/firstnations/about-new/
  8. 8. In Tanzania, home of the Serengeti and the Mount Kilimanjaro, nature-based tourism accounts for about 10 percent of GDP. Tourist numbers have doubled between 2000 and 2012 and the sector generates the bulk of export revenues for the country. This is not unique to Tanzania. In Namibia, 19 percent of all employment (direct and indirect) has been attributed to nature-based tourism, and in the Maldives, tourism is the major source of government revenue that finances health and education. (World Bank, 2017). Nature-based tourism is one of the Caribbean region's major economic sectors, with 25 million visitors contributing US$49 billion towards the area's GDP in 2014, and supporting about 11.3 percent of jobs. World Bank, 2017
  9. 9. Some Possible Benefits • Traditional Knowledge: WIPO IGC Objective 1 Recognise that indigenous peoples and communities consider their cultural heritage to have intrinsic value, including social, cultural, spiritual, economic, scientific, intellectual, commercial and educational values, and acknowledge that traditional cultures and folklore constitute frameworks of innovation and creativity that benefit indigenous peoples and traditional and other cultural communities, as well as all humanity 1. Loss of income: copying and mass production by outsiders deprive artisans of a source of income, and represents a loss of export revenue for the country hosting the indigenous group 2. Disappearance of culture: continued production and development of traditional handicrafts and artworks are threatened by the disappearance of traditional skills 3. Misappropriation and misuse: Where sacred images or music are recorded or taken, and disseminated either in original form or in a different context which is felt to be disparaging, etc.
  10. 10. Some Possible Benefits • Traditional Knowledge: WIPO IGC Objective 4 1. Prevent the misappropriation and misuse of traditional cultural expressions 2. Provide the legal and practical means, including effective enforcement measures, to prevent the misappropriation of their cultural expressions and derivatives/adaptations 3. To control ways in which they are used beyond the customary and traditional context promote the equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use
  11. 11. The National Library of New Zealand’s [2007] Digital Content Strategy argues that digitisation is both a useful tool to remove such constraints and vital to our understanding of our history: Digitisation is a powerful means of unlocking content for wider access and use …The scale of New Zealand content relevant to our national and cultural identity is vast, and yet will be lost to searchers if it is not digitised [pp. 26-27]. Mātauranga Māori
  12. 12. Best Practices Documentation Challenges Concerns that if documentation makes traditional knowledge more widely available to the general public, especially if it can be accessed on the Internet, could lead to misappropriation and use in ways that were not anticipated or intended by traditional knowledge holders. At the same time, documentation can help protect traditional knowledge, for example, by providing a confidential or secret record of traditional knowledge reserved for the relevant community only. Some formal documentation and registries of traditional knowledge support sui generis protection systems, while traditional knowledge databases - such as India’s database on traditional medicine - play a role in defensive protection within the existing IP system.
  13. 13. Best Practices The United Nations Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) establishes a right for Indigenous Peoples to be included in impact assessment processes. UNDRIP stipulates that Free and Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) needs to be respected when Indigenous Peoples are implicated by projects on, and near their lands and traditional territories. The declaration also establishes a right for Indigenous Peoples to consider themselves distinct from the dominant society and be respected as such. The objective of best practices are to: • Allow potentially affected indigenous groups to present their opinion and to meaningfully take part in the development proceedings. • Use traditional knowledge to complement the knowledge gained from "Western" scientific methods. • Use traditional knowledge to preserve indigenous culture in development projects.
  14. 14. Best Practices • Nature-Based Tourism and Poverty Reduction according to World Bank recommendations: • Protect the assets: The natural assets underlying the nature-based tourism sector need to be well managed to ensure that they are maintained. Revenues will be short-lived if the tourism venture exceeds the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystems resulting in natural resource degradation. • Article 31 of the United Nations [2007] Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples states that: • Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.
  15. 15. Where exactly should be the priority?… Information governance support and authority to: • Support the TKDR’s Overall Mandate • Support IPR concerns: E.g. classification, provenance, counterfeit, copyright & royalties. Digital Information Assets Challenges: • Relationships with community & collaboration • Digital curation and preservation challenges • Digital divide and access Funding corridors: • UNESCO (World Heritage Fund/IFPC) • WIPO Voluntary Fund • UN Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Peoples • Global Heritage Fund • Crowd Funding
  16. 16. The indigenous populace are holding rich traditions, rich cultures, and a rich heritage since time of immemorial. But there are rare efforts of codifying, collection and dissemination of traditional and indigenous culture and heritage by developing a Digital Library or Repositories of Traditional Knowledge System in this part of the world. Manoj Kumar Sinha & Arup Barman (regarding India’s TKDL)
  17. 17. END OF PRESENTATION
  18. 18. Questions
  19. 19. Want to know more About Information Management? http://www.bryanconsultancies.com/ Contact: Emerson O. Bryan emerson@bryanconsultancies.com emerson.bryan@gmail.com Tel: +1246 267 7026 (m1) +1 868 302 6986 (m2)

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