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Innovation
trends in
humanitarian
action
Frugal innovation
Good ideas come through
contacts and network
Connecting with other tribes
Considering social impact can
be reached in different ways
Where each person can
contribute
Stories from a bottom-up
movement
Innovation Trend Number 1:
Leveraging design thinking
and human-centered design
Designing meaningful and innovative solutions that
serve your constituents begins with understanding
their needs, hopes and aspirations for the future.
The Hear booklet will equip the team with methodologies
and tips for engaging people in their own contexts in
order to understand the issues at a deep level.
HEAR:
GOALS
Goals of this book are to guide:
» WHO TO TALK TO
» HOW TO GAIN EMPATHY
» HOW TO CAPTURE STORIES
79DCH
To move from research to real-world solutions, you will
go through a process of synthesis and interpretation.
This requires a mode of narrowing and culling information
and translating insights about the reality of today into a set
of opportunities for the future. This is the most abstract
part of the process, when the concrete needs of individuals
are transformed into high-level insights about the larger
population and system frameworks that the team creates.
With defined opportunities, the team will shift into a
generative mindset to brainstorm hundreds of solutions
and rapidly make a few of them tangible through
prototyping. During this phase, solutions are created
with only the customer Desirability filter in mind.
CREATE:
GOALS
Goals of the Create Phase are:
» MAKING SENSE OF DATA
» IDENTIFYING PATTERNS
» DEFINING OPPORTUNITIES
» CREATING SOLUTIONS
Once the design team has created many desirable
solutions, it is time to consider how to make these
feasible and viable. The Deliver phase will move
your top ideas toward implementation.
The activities offered here are meant to complement
your organization’s existing implementation processes
and may prompt adaptations to the way solutions
are typically rolled out.
In the Deliver Phase, your team will:
» IDENTIFY REQUIRED CAPABILITIES
» CREATE A MODEL FOR FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
» DEVELOP AN INNOVATION PIPELINE
» PLAN PILOTS & MEASURE IMPACT
DELIVER:
GOALS
The bootleg is a working document, which
impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our fo
2009 edition, we reworked many of the me
teaching and added a number of new meth
presented in this guide are culled from a w
who have helped us build the content we u
this guide as a curation of the work of many
d.school and also from other far-reaching a
the people who have contributed to the me
This resource is free for you to use and sh
We only ask that you respect the Creative
commercial use). The work is licensed und
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported L
visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b
We welcome your reactions to this guide.
use it in the field. Let us know what you fin
created yourself – write to: bootleg@dscho
Cheers,
The d.school
Check this out —
It’s the d.school bootcamp bootleg.
This compilation is intended as an active toolkit to support your design
thinking practice. The guide is not just to read – go out in the world and try
these tools yourself. In the following pages, we outline each mode of a human-
centered design process, and then describe dozens of specific methods to do
design work. These process modes and methods provide a tangible toolkit which
support the seven mindsets — shown on the following page – that are vital
attitudes for a design thinker to hold.
The bootleg is a working document, which captures some of the teaching we
impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our foundation course. An update from the
2009 edition, we reworked many of the methods based on what we learned from
teaching and added a number of new methods to the mix. The methods
presented in this guide are culled from a wide range of people and organizations
who have helped us build the content we use to impart design thinking. Think of
this guide as a curation of the work of many individuals, who hail both from the
d.school and also from other far-reaching areas of the design world. We thank all
the people who have contributed to the methods collected in this guide.
This resource is free for you to use and share – and we hope you do.
We only ask that you respect the Creative Commons license (attribution, non-
commercial use). The work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license,
visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
We welcome your reactions to this guide. Please share the stories of how you
use it in the field. Let us know what you find useful, and what methods you have
created yourself – write to: bootleg@dschool.stanford.edu
Cheers,
The d.school
Check this out —
It’s the d.school bootcamp bootleg.
This compilation is intended as an active toolkit to support your design
thinking practice. The guide is not just to read – go out in the world and try
these tools yourself. In the following pages, we outline each mode of a human-
centered design process, and then describe dozens of specific methods to do
design work. These process modes and methods provide a tangible toolkit which
support the seven mindsets — shown on the following page – that are vital
attitudes for a design thinker to hold.
The bootleg is a working document, which captures some of the teaching we
impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our foundation course. An update from the
2009 edition, we reworked many of the methods based on what we learned from
teaching and added a number of new methods to the mix. The methods
presented in this guide are culled from a wide range of people and organizations
who have helped us build the content we use to impart design thinking. Think of
this guide as a curation of the work of many individuals, who hail both from the
d.school and also from other far-reaching areas of the design world. We thank all
the people who have contributed to the methods collected in this guide.
This resource is free for you to use and share – and we hope you do.
We only ask that you respect the Creative Commons license (attribution, non-
commercial use). The work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license,
visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
We welcome your reactions to this guide. Please share the stories of how you
use it in the field. Let us know what you find useful, and what methods you have
created yourself – write to: bootleg@dschool.stanford.edu
Cheers,
The d.school
Focus on Human Values
Empathy for the people you are
designing for and feedback from these
users is fundamental to good design.
Radical Collaboration
Bring together innovators with varied
backgrounds and viewpoints. Enable
breakthrough insights and solutions to
emerge from the diversity.
Embrace Experimentation
Prototyping is not simply a way to validate your
idea; it is an integral part of your innovation
process. We build to think and learn.
Show Don’t Tell
Communicate your vision in an impactful and
meaningful way by creating experiences, using
illustrative visuals, and telling good stories.
Be Mindful Of Process
Know where you are in the design process,
what methods to use in that stage, and
what your goals are.
Craft Clarity
Produce a coherent vision out of messy
problems. Frame it in a way to inspire
others and to fuel ideation.
Bias Toward Action
Design thinking is a misnomer; it is more about
doing that thinking. Bias toward doing and
making over thinking and meeting.
Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, we:
- Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives.
- Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters.
- Immerse. Experience what your user experiences.
As a human-centered designer you need to understand the people for whom you are designing. The
problems you are trying to solve are rarely your own—they are those of particular users; in order to design
for your users, you must build empathy for who they are and what is important to them.
Watching what people do and how they interact with their environment gives you clues about what they
think and feel. It also helps you to learn about what they need. By watching people you can capture
Empathize
MODE
Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, we:
- Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives.
- Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters.
- Immerse. Experience what your user experiences.
As a human-centered designer you need to understand the people for whom you are designing. The
problems you are trying to solve are rarely your own—they are those of particular users; in order to design
for your users, you must build empathy for who they are and what is important to them.
Watching what people do and how they interact with their environment gives you clues about what they
think and feel. It also helps you to learn about what they need. By watching people you can capture
physical manifestations of their experiences, what they do and say. This will allow you to interpret
Empathize
MODE
’
We all carry our experiences, understanding, and expertise with us. These aspects of yourself are
incredibly valuable assets to bring to the design challenge – but at the right time, and with intentionality.
Your assumptions may be misconceptions and stereotypes, and can restrict the amount of real empathy you
can build. Assume a beginner’s mindset in order to put aside these biases, so that you can approach a
design challenge afresh.
Don’t judge. Just observe and engage users without the influence of value judgments upon their actions,
circumstances, decisions, or “issues.”
Question everything. Question even (and especially) the things you think you already understand. Ask
questions to learn about how the user perceives the world. Think about how a 4-year-old asks “Why?”
about everything. Follow up an answer to one “why” with a second “why.”
Be truly curious. Strive to assume a posture of wonder and curiosity, especially in circumstances that seem
either familiar or uncomfortable.
Find patterns. Look for interesting threads and themes that emerge across interactions with users.
Listen. Really. Lose your agenda and let the scene soak into your psyche. Absorb what users say to you,
and how they say it, without thinking about the next thing you’re going to say.
:: 6 ::
The solutions that emerge at the
end of the Human-Centered Design
should hit the overlap of these
three lenses; they need to be
Desirable, Feasible, and Viable.
DESIRABILIT Y
FEASIBILIT Y VIABILIT Y
Start Here
Introduction
The Three Lenses of
Human Centered Design
The following set of principles represents a concerted effort by donors to capture the most important lessons learned
by the development community in the implementation of technology-enabled programs. Having evolved from a
previous set of implementer precepts endorsed by over 300 organizations, these principles seek to serve as a set of
living guidelines that are meant to inform, but not dictate, the design of technology-enabled development programs.
PRINCIPLES FOR
DIGITAL DEVELOPMENT
ONE: DESIGN WITH THE USER
Develop context-appropriate
solutions informed by user needs.
Include all user groups in planning,
development, implementation,
and assessment.
Develop projects in an incremental
and iterative manner.
Design solutions that learn from and
enhance existingworkflows, and
plan for organizational adaptation.
Ensure solutions are sensitive to, and
useful for, the most marginalized
populations:women, children, those
with disabilities, and those affected
by conflict and disaster.
TWO: UNDERSTAND THE
ECOSYSTEM
Participate in networks and
communities of like-minded
practitioners.
Align to existing technological, legal,
and regulatory policies.
THREE: DESIGN FOR SCALE
Design for scale from the start, and
assess and mitigate dependencies
that might limit ability to scale.
Employ a “systems” approach to
design, considering implications of
design beyond an immediate project.
Be replicable and customizable in
other countries and contexts.
Demonstrate impact before scaling
a solution.
Analyze all technology choices
through the lens of national and
regional scale.
Factor in partnerships from
the beginning, and start early
negotiations.
FOUR: BUILD FOR
SUSTAINABILITY
Plan for sustainability from the start,
including planning for long-term
financial health, e.g. , assessing total
cost of ownership.
Utilize and invest in local
communities and developers by
default, and help catalyze their
growth.
Engagewith local governments to
ensure integration into national
strategy, and identify high-level
government advocates.
FIVE: BE DATA DRIVEN
Design projects so that impact
can be measured at discrete
milestoneswith a focus on outcomes
rather than outputs.
Evaluate innovative solutions and
areaswhere there are gaps in data
and evidence.
Use real-time information to
monitor and inform management
decisions at all levels.
When possible, leverage data as
a by-product of user actions and
transactions for assessments.
SIX: USE OPEN DATA, OPEN
STANDARDS, OPEN SOURCE,
OPEN INNOVATION
Adopt and expand existing
open standards.
Open data and functionalities,
and expose them in documented
APIs (Application Programming
Interfaces)where use by a larger
community is possible.
Invest in software as a public good.
Develop software to be open source by
defaultwith the code made available
in public repositories and supported
through developer communities.
SEVEN: REUSE AND IMPROVE
Use, modify, and extend existing
tools, platforms, and frameworks
when possible.
Develop in modularways favoring
approaches that are interoperable
over those that are monolithic
by design.
EIGHT: ADDRESS PRIVACY &
SECURITY
Assess and mitigate risks to the
security of users and their data.
Consider the context and needs for
privacy of personally identifiable
informationwhen designing
solutions and mitigate accordingly.
Ensure equity and fairness in
co-creation, and protect the best
interests of the end-users.
NINE: BE COLLABORATIVE
Engage diverse expertise across
disciplines and industries at all
stages.
Work across sector silos to create
coordinated and more holistic
approaches.
Documentwork, results, processes,
and best practices, and share them
widely.
Publish materials under a Creative
Commons license by default,with
strong rationale if another licensing
approach is taken.
For more information, visit
DIGITALPRINCIPLES.ORG
Innovation Trend Number 2:
Collaborative consumption
Open Data
Innovation Trend Number 3:
Change the narrative
And you will actually change the
world…
Editing your story of Palestine
•  Syria Untold is an independent digital media project
exploring the storytelling of the Syrian struggle and the
diverse forms of resistance. We are a team of Syrian
writers, journalists, programmers and designers living in
the country and abroad trying to highlight the narrative of
the Syrian revolution, which Syrian men and women are
writing day by day.
Learn from the outcast
Innovation Trend Number 4:
Foster citizen journalism
The project aims to empower Palestinians to document human rights violations and to
provide evidence both to the public and to Israeli authorities.
Become citizen journalists
'no-cuts, no censorship' approach
What Took You So Long is a team of
documentary filmmakers dedicated to
filming unsung heroes and untold stories.
We like to film what we love, and that has
led us to food, farmers, nomads,
entrepreneurs, designers, innovators and
educators.
We’ve worked with the biggest and the
smallest, the head honchos and the
grassroots.
We tell stories. Guerrilla filmmaking takes
us to the most remote areas of the world.
We look for untold stories and unsung
heroes. Care to join?
Innovation Trend Number 5:
Leverage social media
Bypass traditional structures and
hierarchies
Technological disruption tears through social norms, regulatory structures, and
adjusts the balance of power between stakeholders.
Challenge prevailing power
Innovation Trend Number 6:
Leverage simple technology
Providing mobile access to funds
Providing mobile access to jobs
Providing mobile access to education
Reconnecting people
Providing information
Innovation Trend Number 7:
Crowdsource real-time
information and visualize data
Crowdsourcing real-time information in
times of crisis
Traffic information
Visualize street harassment in Cairo
Innovation Trend Number 8:
Play!
Innovation Trend Number 9:
Explore the 

Internet of things (IoT) and the
wearables
Winner #wearablesforgood
Winner #wearablesforgood
Innovation Trend Number 10:
Raise funds differently
Develop social businesses
Crowdfunding
Lend money to entrepreneurs
Organize a party
Find new fundraising channels
Develop innovative
communication campaigns
Set up investment funds
Create hybrid models
How do these trends affect
humanitarian action?
OCHA POLICY AND STUDIES SERIES
HUMANITARIANISM
IN THE
NETWORK AGE
INCLUDING WORLD HUMANITARIAN
DATA AND TRENDS 2012
17
However, it is clear that changes have taken place. A recent ALNAP
report on the State of the Humanitarian System identified a growing
assertiveness of aid-recipient Governments and regional organizations,
alongside an increasing capacity to organize their response in
emergencies.10
This is partly a function of increased economic capacity
and partly a desire for greater self-reliance.
Relief page on
Facebook
Private-sector organizations in humanitarian communications
Private mobile phone providers, technology and logistics companies are playing an
increasingly critical role in humanitarian response. In 2011, the GSM Association11
founded a Disaster Response Programme to plan for emergencies and to cooperate
with humanitarian organizations in disasters. Mobile phone companies provide critical
infrastructure and can be a valuable source of data, which can be used to improve
preparedness and track vulnerability.
For example, in September 2012, the mobile phone company Orange launched a Data for
Development challenge in Côte d’Ivoire.12
The initiative offered researchers access to data
generated by the use of mobile phones to improve human well-being, such as identifying
early signs of epidemics.13
Google has a dedicated unit to support information access in emergencies (Google Crisis
Response). Facebook established a page after the Haiti earthquake (Global Disaster
Relief) that brings together initiatives to help during emergencies around the world, and
which has 711,000 followers. Local media, an often-overlooked private-sector actor, plays
multiple roles: it is part of the affected population, key to local information gathering and
dissemination, and can become a responder in its own right.
As the scale of these partnerships has grown, some issues have arisen. A particular
challenge lies in tensions over the use of proprietary information and systems, such as
commercial mapping platforms. Investment in more-robust partnership protocols will allow
for faster cooperation in emergencies.
20
Communicating in the world’s largest refugee camp
The Dadaab area, near the Kenya/Somalia border, is often described as the world’s largest
refugee camp. Three independent camps (Hagadera, Ifo and Dagahaely) cover an area of
over 50 km2
(the size of 7,000 football pitches) and house more than 450,000 refugees1
against an official capacity of 90,000 refugees. The camps were constructed in response
to the crisis in Somalia in the 1990s. In 2011 they became the centre of attention once
more, as thousands of refugees fled to Kenya to escape famine and conflict.
A 2011 study of Dadaab, by Internews, showed the cost of a lack of communication in
the camps. More than 70 per cent of newly arrived refugees said that they didn’t know
how to register for aid or locate family members. More than 40 per cent of long-term
camp residents found themselves unable to raise concerns with aid organizations or
Government representatives.
The study showed the opportunities for using a range of media, such as radio, cell phones
and the Internet, to reach new arrivals. Over 90 per cent of long-term residents and 60
per cent of new arrivals preferred radio as an information source. By comparison, use
of the Internet and mobile phones was at 20 per cent for long-term arrivals and 10 per
cent for new arrivals. There was also significant evidence of a gender bias: more men had
access to mobile phones and the Internet. Soldiers and policemen, Government officials
and humanitarian workers were ranked as the least valuable source of information (used
by fewer than 0.5 per cent of respondents).
The conclusions identified the need for direct humanitarian support for investment in
more appropriate media platforms, such as radio, to reach camp residents. In response,
UNHCR and others helped Star FM, a Somali-language Kenyan radio network, to establish
a local radio station.
Easy access to data and analysis, through
technology, can help people make better life-
refugee camp preferring radio
as an information source
Communicating in the world’s largest refugee camp
The Dadaab area, near the Kenya/Somalia border, is often described as the world’s largest
refugee camp. Three independent camps (Hagadera, Ifo and Dagahaely) cover an area of
over 50 km2
(the size of 7,000 football pitches) and house more than 450,000 refugees1
Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
made rainfall predictions for Pakistan that
suggested a high risk of flooding. But as the
centre did not have an agreement with the
Government of Pakistan and did not share
its information publically, the forecasts never
reached Pakistan.18
Had that information
reached the right people at the right time,
and if communities had been capable and
willing to respond rapidly, over 2,000 lives
might have been saved.19
Easy access to data and analysis, through
technology, can help people make better life-
Long-term residents of Dadaab
refugee camp preferring radio
as an information source
90%
social networks, especially in middle-income
countries. The Philippines has over 14 million
active social network users, Malaysia has 11
million and China over 150 million. It is still
early (Internet-based social networks are
only about five years old), but the growth is
striking.
As the information on the next two pages
shows, the adoption, use and choice of
technology depend on many factors. They
include affordability, availability, literacy,
gender, age, status, physical abilities,
cultural preferences, political environment,
and the media/IT/telecoms network and
infrastructure. But as costs fall and coverage
increases, all indicators suggest that usage
will continue to increase rapidly in rural areas
and among poorer people.
The desire to communicate is a fundamental
feature of the network age. Pervasive mobile
telephony coupled with increasing access
to social networks means information about
who are willing an
The combination o
technological reac
that people interac
assistance. Wherea
assumptions abou
people now have t
need and want. By
engage with their
and individuals are
help themselves a
helped by others,
and sometimes glo
needs.
Improving the flow
the realization of a
“freedom to… see
information and id
regardless of any f
the Universal Decl
Evidence from the
action suggests th
increasingly dema
found.
Together, the incre
communications n
network of people
are defining a new
humanitarian assis
Mobile phone subscribers in
Africa in 2012. About 70% of
the total population.
735
million
There is a big
ange now. Long
efore, food used
stay overnight
ecause there was no
ommunication.
ow we get
formation
mmediately, even
hen the trucks are
ll in Isiolo. We are
ware that food is
riving
morrow, and
e go ready for
stribution.”
mmunity member
donyiro
Somalia Speaks – text messaging gives people a voice
For the February 2012 London Conference on Somalia, the Al
Jazeera TV network asked Somali citizens, via text message, how
the conflict had affected their lives. With help from the diaspora,
more than 2,000 responses were translated, geo-located and
made available to conference attendees. The Somalia Speaks
project enabled the voices of people from one of the world’s
most inaccessible, conflict-ridden areas, in a language known
to few outside their community, to be heard by decision makers
from across the planet. Samples of these messages are below:
I am Abdi Wahab Sheikh Ahmed and I am in Bosaso.
My message which I am sending the Somali delegation
which is partaking in the London Conference is that
they should be sceptical about the outcomes of this
conference. They have a God given responsibility to
their people which they represent.20
My name is Faiza Mohamud Muse. I am sending the
Somali delegation. If you need or care about your
people or your nationhood, then go and include your
voices in the conference, and I hope that Allah/God
makes it one of joyful outcomes for the people of the
Horn of Africa.21
I am from the Ceelqooxle district in Galgaduud region.
This year’s events have affected me deeply. What I
experienced this year was my worst ever. The worst
event is what I have seen on the Universal TV, when
al-Shabab militia exploded students who were awaiting
their exam results in Mogadishu.22
Jaabiri, from Puntland. Please look after Somalia and do
not allow to be separated and pitted against each other,
and don’t agree to colony and take advantage of this
opportunity.23
deeper relationship between the aid agency
and the data source. Information is often
transmitted through the use of SMS short-
codes, in which pre-agreed codes are used
to relay critical information.
The Voix des Kivus57
project in Eastern DRC
launched an SMS-based crowdseeding58
effort to test whether accurate, systematic
and representative data could be collected
from a conflict zone over time. Researchers
from Columbia University distributed cell
phones and solar chargers to a representative
of a local women’s organization, a
representative elected by the community
and a traditional leader.59
These leaders
were asked to collect data on daily events
and needs using a system of shorthand
codes. To prevent retribution from local rebel
groups,60
issues around privacy and security
were carefully addressed and leaders were
able to self-classify their messages. Over 18
months, Voix des Kivus received more than
4,000 pre-coded messages and 1,000 text
person transactions, banking has gone
digital.
Mobile money, i.e. the use of cell phones
as digital wallets, has advanced faster in
developing countries than in the OECD.
Three quarters of the countries that use
mobile money most frequently are in
Adults using mobile
money in Somalia
34%
27
Saving lives with big data
A July 2012 study demonstrated that real-time monitoring of Twitter messages in Haiti
could have predicted the October/November 2010 cholera outbreaks two weeks earlier
than they were detected.33
Anonymised data, shared by Digicel, demonstrated that
population movements in response to the cholera outbreak began prior to official detec-
tion of the outbreak.34
Deaths from cholera are preventable and outbreaks are more
easily dealt with in their early stages. This means there was a lost opportunity to save
lives. While there is no way to arrive at a precise statistic, over 200 people had died by
23 October,35
four days after first detection,36
and 900 by 16 November.37
Overall,
more than 6,000 people died and over 400,000 became ill.38
The US Geological Survey (USGS) has taken a systematic approach to data generated
by Twitter through its Twitter Earthquake Detection (TED), which monitors reports of
shaking in real time. Combined with seismologists’ analysis, TED has reduced the time
required to pinpoint the epicentre of a quake from 20 minutes to three to four minutes.39
USGS has also built a system (PAGER) 40
that automatically and rapidly estimates the dis-
tribution of shaking, the number of people and settlements exposed to severe shaking,
and the range of possible fatalities and economic losses. The estimated losses trigger
the appropriate colour-coded alert, which determines the suggested levels of response:
no response needed (green), local/regional (yellow), national (orange) or international
(red).
Translating these efforts into action requires connecting raw data to analysis and then
analysis to decision makers. Ultimately, decisions have to be made by Governments,
communities, individuals and, where relevant, the international humanitarian system.
The potential of big data (or indeed all new data sources) to improve the quality of these
decisions requires the data to be used and understood.
infancy. Two uses of big data are highlighted
in the case study below, but there are many
Historical accounts [of past disasters]
were also taken into consideration.”
Leo Jasareno – Director, Department of the
Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines. 42
50
across Haiti as well as in the diaspora. Radio One was only one of many stations that
provided an ad hoc reunification service; all of these stations subsequently reported
their need for basic assistance, such as fuel and cell phone credits.102
Figure 11
Radio One reunification system
RADIO ONE REUNIFICATION SYSTEM
2010 earthquake in Haiti
Radio
One
verified
information
Requests
and
names
logged
by Radio
One team
Diffusion
of verified
informa-
tion
People searching
for missing family
or friends contact
Radio One
Reunification
Information given to
Radio’s motorbike
courier for ground
verification
via Facebook
face-to-face
contact
via Twitter
via Facebook
radio
broadcast
via Twitter
Opening Government data
to the public
In 2011, Kenya became the
first country in Africa to begin
systematically putting national data
online for access and use by citizens.
The Kenya Open Data Initiative
(KODI) includes data sets in categories
such as health, water and sanitation,
poverty and energy hosted on a
dedicated website (https://www.
opendata.go.ke). It is open to all
users to create interactive charts and
tables, or to download the data for
their own initiatives. One year on, the
platform has been widely used by
developers and activist groups, and
has considerable potential to improve
response in crises.46
Open-data policies have spread far
and wide. The cities of Lima, Peru,47
and Dalian, China,48
have open-data
portals, as do the Governments
of India49
and Brazil.50
Just as
Governments have adopted open-
data policies, transparency standards
have been embraced for international
aid programming. The UN Office for
the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA), the World Food
Programme, the United Nations
Children’s Fund and the United
Nations Development Programme
have all signed up to the International
Aid Transparency Initiative standard, as
have major donors (Australia, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,
Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the
opportunities yet to be discovered.
B. Rich data through
Geographical Information
Systems
Widespread access to Global Positioning
System information through mobile phones,
coupled with the increased availability of
satellite imagery, allows for unprecedented
geographic precision to be added to raw
data. This offers significant opportunities for
crisis responders. Geographical Information
Systems (GIS), which combine hardware
and software used for the storage, retrieval,
mapping and analysis of geographic data,
have long been an essential component
of effective crisis response.41
But today,
technology once limited to experts and
institutions is available to anyone. This has
allowed groups of self-organizing volunteers
to place SMS messages and social media
postings on dynamic maps, highlighting
clusters of cries for help in an earthquake, or
identifying where roads have been washed
away after a flood.
The use of spatial data in humanitarian
action is not new. It is, however, starting
to trickle down to the community level. To
reduce community vulnerability to crisis,
the Philippines Government has publicly
distributed geo-hazard maps that outline
disaster-prone areas. These maps colour
code areas as low, moderate or high in their
susceptibility to floods, flash floods and
landslides, mark areas that are prone to
Unicef innovation report
2014
12 INNOVATIONS SOCIAL
IMPACT in 2014
Innovative answers to the
current refugee crisis
The humanitarian world is
changing…
…how is your organization
adapting to it?

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Innovation trends in humanitarian action

  • 2.
  • 4. Good ideas come through contacts and network
  • 6. Considering social impact can be reached in different ways
  • 7. Where each person can contribute
  • 8. Stories from a bottom-up movement
  • 9. Innovation Trend Number 1: Leveraging design thinking and human-centered design
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Designing meaningful and innovative solutions that serve your constituents begins with understanding their needs, hopes and aspirations for the future. The Hear booklet will equip the team with methodologies and tips for engaging people in their own contexts in order to understand the issues at a deep level. HEAR: GOALS Goals of this book are to guide: » WHO TO TALK TO » HOW TO GAIN EMPATHY » HOW TO CAPTURE STORIES
  • 13. 79DCH To move from research to real-world solutions, you will go through a process of synthesis and interpretation. This requires a mode of narrowing and culling information and translating insights about the reality of today into a set of opportunities for the future. This is the most abstract part of the process, when the concrete needs of individuals are transformed into high-level insights about the larger population and system frameworks that the team creates. With defined opportunities, the team will shift into a generative mindset to brainstorm hundreds of solutions and rapidly make a few of them tangible through prototyping. During this phase, solutions are created with only the customer Desirability filter in mind. CREATE: GOALS Goals of the Create Phase are: » MAKING SENSE OF DATA » IDENTIFYING PATTERNS » DEFINING OPPORTUNITIES » CREATING SOLUTIONS
  • 14. Once the design team has created many desirable solutions, it is time to consider how to make these feasible and viable. The Deliver phase will move your top ideas toward implementation. The activities offered here are meant to complement your organization’s existing implementation processes and may prompt adaptations to the way solutions are typically rolled out. In the Deliver Phase, your team will: » IDENTIFY REQUIRED CAPABILITIES » CREATE A MODEL FOR FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY » DEVELOP AN INNOVATION PIPELINE » PLAN PILOTS & MEASURE IMPACT DELIVER: GOALS
  • 15.
  • 16. The bootleg is a working document, which impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our fo 2009 edition, we reworked many of the me teaching and added a number of new meth presented in this guide are culled from a w who have helped us build the content we u this guide as a curation of the work of many d.school and also from other far-reaching a the people who have contributed to the me This resource is free for you to use and sh We only ask that you respect the Creative commercial use). The work is licensed und NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported L visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b We welcome your reactions to this guide. use it in the field. Let us know what you fin created yourself – write to: bootleg@dscho Cheers, The d.school
  • 17. Check this out — It’s the d.school bootcamp bootleg. This compilation is intended as an active toolkit to support your design thinking practice. The guide is not just to read – go out in the world and try these tools yourself. In the following pages, we outline each mode of a human- centered design process, and then describe dozens of specific methods to do design work. These process modes and methods provide a tangible toolkit which support the seven mindsets — shown on the following page – that are vital attitudes for a design thinker to hold. The bootleg is a working document, which captures some of the teaching we impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our foundation course. An update from the 2009 edition, we reworked many of the methods based on what we learned from teaching and added a number of new methods to the mix. The methods presented in this guide are culled from a wide range of people and organizations who have helped us build the content we use to impart design thinking. Think of this guide as a curation of the work of many individuals, who hail both from the d.school and also from other far-reaching areas of the design world. We thank all the people who have contributed to the methods collected in this guide. This resource is free for you to use and share – and we hope you do. We only ask that you respect the Creative Commons license (attribution, non- commercial use). The work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ We welcome your reactions to this guide. Please share the stories of how you use it in the field. Let us know what you find useful, and what methods you have created yourself – write to: bootleg@dschool.stanford.edu Cheers, The d.school Check this out — It’s the d.school bootcamp bootleg. This compilation is intended as an active toolkit to support your design thinking practice. The guide is not just to read – go out in the world and try these tools yourself. In the following pages, we outline each mode of a human- centered design process, and then describe dozens of specific methods to do design work. These process modes and methods provide a tangible toolkit which support the seven mindsets — shown on the following page – that are vital attitudes for a design thinker to hold. The bootleg is a working document, which captures some of the teaching we impart in “design thinking bootcamp,” our foundation course. An update from the 2009 edition, we reworked many of the methods based on what we learned from teaching and added a number of new methods to the mix. The methods presented in this guide are culled from a wide range of people and organizations who have helped us build the content we use to impart design thinking. Think of this guide as a curation of the work of many individuals, who hail both from the d.school and also from other far-reaching areas of the design world. We thank all the people who have contributed to the methods collected in this guide. This resource is free for you to use and share – and we hope you do. We only ask that you respect the Creative Commons license (attribution, non- commercial use). The work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ We welcome your reactions to this guide. Please share the stories of how you use it in the field. Let us know what you find useful, and what methods you have created yourself – write to: bootleg@dschool.stanford.edu Cheers, The d.school Focus on Human Values Empathy for the people you are designing for and feedback from these users is fundamental to good design. Radical Collaboration Bring together innovators with varied backgrounds and viewpoints. Enable breakthrough insights and solutions to emerge from the diversity. Embrace Experimentation Prototyping is not simply a way to validate your idea; it is an integral part of your innovation process. We build to think and learn. Show Don’t Tell Communicate your vision in an impactful and meaningful way by creating experiences, using illustrative visuals, and telling good stories. Be Mindful Of Process Know where you are in the design process, what methods to use in that stage, and what your goals are. Craft Clarity Produce a coherent vision out of messy problems. Frame it in a way to inspire others and to fuel ideation. Bias Toward Action Design thinking is a misnomer; it is more about doing that thinking. Bias toward doing and making over thinking and meeting.
  • 18. Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, we: - Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives. - Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters. - Immerse. Experience what your user experiences. As a human-centered designer you need to understand the people for whom you are designing. The problems you are trying to solve are rarely your own—they are those of particular users; in order to design for your users, you must build empathy for who they are and what is important to them. Watching what people do and how they interact with their environment gives you clues about what they think and feel. It also helps you to learn about what they need. By watching people you can capture Empathize MODE Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, we: - Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives. - Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters. - Immerse. Experience what your user experiences. As a human-centered designer you need to understand the people for whom you are designing. The problems you are trying to solve are rarely your own—they are those of particular users; in order to design for your users, you must build empathy for who they are and what is important to them. Watching what people do and how they interact with their environment gives you clues about what they think and feel. It also helps you to learn about what they need. By watching people you can capture physical manifestations of their experiences, what they do and say. This will allow you to interpret Empathize MODE ’ We all carry our experiences, understanding, and expertise with us. These aspects of yourself are incredibly valuable assets to bring to the design challenge – but at the right time, and with intentionality. Your assumptions may be misconceptions and stereotypes, and can restrict the amount of real empathy you can build. Assume a beginner’s mindset in order to put aside these biases, so that you can approach a design challenge afresh. Don’t judge. Just observe and engage users without the influence of value judgments upon their actions, circumstances, decisions, or “issues.” Question everything. Question even (and especially) the things you think you already understand. Ask questions to learn about how the user perceives the world. Think about how a 4-year-old asks “Why?” about everything. Follow up an answer to one “why” with a second “why.” Be truly curious. Strive to assume a posture of wonder and curiosity, especially in circumstances that seem either familiar or uncomfortable. Find patterns. Look for interesting threads and themes that emerge across interactions with users. Listen. Really. Lose your agenda and let the scene soak into your psyche. Absorb what users say to you, and how they say it, without thinking about the next thing you’re going to say. :: 6 ::
  • 19. The solutions that emerge at the end of the Human-Centered Design should hit the overlap of these three lenses; they need to be Desirable, Feasible, and Viable. DESIRABILIT Y FEASIBILIT Y VIABILIT Y Start Here Introduction The Three Lenses of Human Centered Design
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  • 25. The following set of principles represents a concerted effort by donors to capture the most important lessons learned by the development community in the implementation of technology-enabled programs. Having evolved from a previous set of implementer precepts endorsed by over 300 organizations, these principles seek to serve as a set of living guidelines that are meant to inform, but not dictate, the design of technology-enabled development programs. PRINCIPLES FOR DIGITAL DEVELOPMENT ONE: DESIGN WITH THE USER Develop context-appropriate solutions informed by user needs. Include all user groups in planning, development, implementation, and assessment. Develop projects in an incremental and iterative manner. Design solutions that learn from and enhance existingworkflows, and plan for organizational adaptation. Ensure solutions are sensitive to, and useful for, the most marginalized populations:women, children, those with disabilities, and those affected by conflict and disaster. TWO: UNDERSTAND THE ECOSYSTEM Participate in networks and communities of like-minded practitioners. Align to existing technological, legal, and regulatory policies. THREE: DESIGN FOR SCALE Design for scale from the start, and assess and mitigate dependencies that might limit ability to scale. Employ a “systems” approach to design, considering implications of design beyond an immediate project. Be replicable and customizable in other countries and contexts. Demonstrate impact before scaling a solution. Analyze all technology choices through the lens of national and regional scale. Factor in partnerships from the beginning, and start early negotiations. FOUR: BUILD FOR SUSTAINABILITY Plan for sustainability from the start, including planning for long-term financial health, e.g. , assessing total cost of ownership. Utilize and invest in local communities and developers by default, and help catalyze their growth. Engagewith local governments to ensure integration into national strategy, and identify high-level government advocates. FIVE: BE DATA DRIVEN Design projects so that impact can be measured at discrete milestoneswith a focus on outcomes rather than outputs. Evaluate innovative solutions and areaswhere there are gaps in data and evidence. Use real-time information to monitor and inform management decisions at all levels. When possible, leverage data as a by-product of user actions and transactions for assessments. SIX: USE OPEN DATA, OPEN STANDARDS, OPEN SOURCE, OPEN INNOVATION Adopt and expand existing open standards. Open data and functionalities, and expose them in documented APIs (Application Programming Interfaces)where use by a larger community is possible. Invest in software as a public good. Develop software to be open source by defaultwith the code made available in public repositories and supported through developer communities. SEVEN: REUSE AND IMPROVE Use, modify, and extend existing tools, platforms, and frameworks when possible. Develop in modularways favoring approaches that are interoperable over those that are monolithic by design. EIGHT: ADDRESS PRIVACY & SECURITY Assess and mitigate risks to the security of users and their data. Consider the context and needs for privacy of personally identifiable informationwhen designing solutions and mitigate accordingly. Ensure equity and fairness in co-creation, and protect the best interests of the end-users. NINE: BE COLLABORATIVE Engage diverse expertise across disciplines and industries at all stages. Work across sector silos to create coordinated and more holistic approaches. Documentwork, results, processes, and best practices, and share them widely. Publish materials under a Creative Commons license by default,with strong rationale if another licensing approach is taken. For more information, visit DIGITALPRINCIPLES.ORG
  • 26. Innovation Trend Number 2: Collaborative consumption
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  • 31. Innovation Trend Number 3: Change the narrative
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  • 34. And you will actually change the world…
  • 35. Editing your story of Palestine
  • 36. •  Syria Untold is an independent digital media project exploring the storytelling of the Syrian struggle and the diverse forms of resistance. We are a team of Syrian writers, journalists, programmers and designers living in the country and abroad trying to highlight the narrative of the Syrian revolution, which Syrian men and women are writing day by day.
  • 37. Learn from the outcast
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  • 39. Innovation Trend Number 4: Foster citizen journalism
  • 40. The project aims to empower Palestinians to document human rights violations and to provide evidence both to the public and to Israeli authorities.
  • 41. Become citizen journalists 'no-cuts, no censorship' approach
  • 42. What Took You So Long is a team of documentary filmmakers dedicated to filming unsung heroes and untold stories. We like to film what we love, and that has led us to food, farmers, nomads, entrepreneurs, designers, innovators and educators. We’ve worked with the biggest and the smallest, the head honchos and the grassroots. We tell stories. Guerrilla filmmaking takes us to the most remote areas of the world. We look for untold stories and unsung heroes. Care to join?
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  • 44. Innovation Trend Number 5: Leverage social media
  • 45. Bypass traditional structures and hierarchies Technological disruption tears through social norms, regulatory structures, and adjusts the balance of power between stakeholders.
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  • 51. Innovation Trend Number 6: Leverage simple technology
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  • 60. Innovation Trend Number 7: Crowdsource real-time information and visualize data
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  • 70. Innovation Trend Number 9: Explore the 
 Internet of things (IoT) and the wearables
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  • 81. Innovation Trend Number 10: Raise funds differently
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  • 92. How do these trends affect humanitarian action?
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  • 106. OCHA POLICY AND STUDIES SERIES HUMANITARIANISM IN THE NETWORK AGE INCLUDING WORLD HUMANITARIAN DATA AND TRENDS 2012
  • 107. 17 However, it is clear that changes have taken place. A recent ALNAP report on the State of the Humanitarian System identified a growing assertiveness of aid-recipient Governments and regional organizations, alongside an increasing capacity to organize their response in emergencies.10 This is partly a function of increased economic capacity and partly a desire for greater self-reliance. Relief page on Facebook Private-sector organizations in humanitarian communications Private mobile phone providers, technology and logistics companies are playing an increasingly critical role in humanitarian response. In 2011, the GSM Association11 founded a Disaster Response Programme to plan for emergencies and to cooperate with humanitarian organizations in disasters. Mobile phone companies provide critical infrastructure and can be a valuable source of data, which can be used to improve preparedness and track vulnerability. For example, in September 2012, the mobile phone company Orange launched a Data for Development challenge in Côte d’Ivoire.12 The initiative offered researchers access to data generated by the use of mobile phones to improve human well-being, such as identifying early signs of epidemics.13 Google has a dedicated unit to support information access in emergencies (Google Crisis Response). Facebook established a page after the Haiti earthquake (Global Disaster Relief) that brings together initiatives to help during emergencies around the world, and which has 711,000 followers. Local media, an often-overlooked private-sector actor, plays multiple roles: it is part of the affected population, key to local information gathering and dissemination, and can become a responder in its own right. As the scale of these partnerships has grown, some issues have arisen. A particular challenge lies in tensions over the use of proprietary information and systems, such as commercial mapping platforms. Investment in more-robust partnership protocols will allow for faster cooperation in emergencies.
  • 108. 20 Communicating in the world’s largest refugee camp The Dadaab area, near the Kenya/Somalia border, is often described as the world’s largest refugee camp. Three independent camps (Hagadera, Ifo and Dagahaely) cover an area of over 50 km2 (the size of 7,000 football pitches) and house more than 450,000 refugees1 against an official capacity of 90,000 refugees. The camps were constructed in response to the crisis in Somalia in the 1990s. In 2011 they became the centre of attention once more, as thousands of refugees fled to Kenya to escape famine and conflict. A 2011 study of Dadaab, by Internews, showed the cost of a lack of communication in the camps. More than 70 per cent of newly arrived refugees said that they didn’t know how to register for aid or locate family members. More than 40 per cent of long-term camp residents found themselves unable to raise concerns with aid organizations or Government representatives. The study showed the opportunities for using a range of media, such as radio, cell phones and the Internet, to reach new arrivals. Over 90 per cent of long-term residents and 60 per cent of new arrivals preferred radio as an information source. By comparison, use of the Internet and mobile phones was at 20 per cent for long-term arrivals and 10 per cent for new arrivals. There was also significant evidence of a gender bias: more men had access to mobile phones and the Internet. Soldiers and policemen, Government officials and humanitarian workers were ranked as the least valuable source of information (used by fewer than 0.5 per cent of respondents). The conclusions identified the need for direct humanitarian support for investment in more appropriate media platforms, such as radio, to reach camp residents. In response, UNHCR and others helped Star FM, a Somali-language Kenyan radio network, to establish a local radio station. Easy access to data and analysis, through technology, can help people make better life- refugee camp preferring radio as an information source Communicating in the world’s largest refugee camp The Dadaab area, near the Kenya/Somalia border, is often described as the world’s largest refugee camp. Three independent camps (Hagadera, Ifo and Dagahaely) cover an area of over 50 km2 (the size of 7,000 football pitches) and house more than 450,000 refugees1 Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts made rainfall predictions for Pakistan that suggested a high risk of flooding. But as the centre did not have an agreement with the Government of Pakistan and did not share its information publically, the forecasts never reached Pakistan.18 Had that information reached the right people at the right time, and if communities had been capable and willing to respond rapidly, over 2,000 lives might have been saved.19 Easy access to data and analysis, through technology, can help people make better life- Long-term residents of Dadaab refugee camp preferring radio as an information source 90% social networks, especially in middle-income countries. The Philippines has over 14 million active social network users, Malaysia has 11 million and China over 150 million. It is still early (Internet-based social networks are only about five years old), but the growth is striking. As the information on the next two pages shows, the adoption, use and choice of technology depend on many factors. They include affordability, availability, literacy, gender, age, status, physical abilities, cultural preferences, political environment, and the media/IT/telecoms network and infrastructure. But as costs fall and coverage increases, all indicators suggest that usage will continue to increase rapidly in rural areas and among poorer people. The desire to communicate is a fundamental feature of the network age. Pervasive mobile telephony coupled with increasing access to social networks means information about who are willing an The combination o technological reac that people interac assistance. Wherea assumptions abou people now have t need and want. By engage with their and individuals are help themselves a helped by others, and sometimes glo needs. Improving the flow the realization of a “freedom to… see information and id regardless of any f the Universal Decl Evidence from the action suggests th increasingly dema found. Together, the incre communications n network of people are defining a new humanitarian assis Mobile phone subscribers in Africa in 2012. About 70% of the total population. 735 million
  • 109. There is a big ange now. Long efore, food used stay overnight ecause there was no ommunication. ow we get formation mmediately, even hen the trucks are ll in Isiolo. We are ware that food is riving morrow, and e go ready for stribution.” mmunity member donyiro Somalia Speaks – text messaging gives people a voice For the February 2012 London Conference on Somalia, the Al Jazeera TV network asked Somali citizens, via text message, how the conflict had affected their lives. With help from the diaspora, more than 2,000 responses were translated, geo-located and made available to conference attendees. The Somalia Speaks project enabled the voices of people from one of the world’s most inaccessible, conflict-ridden areas, in a language known to few outside their community, to be heard by decision makers from across the planet. Samples of these messages are below: I am Abdi Wahab Sheikh Ahmed and I am in Bosaso. My message which I am sending the Somali delegation which is partaking in the London Conference is that they should be sceptical about the outcomes of this conference. They have a God given responsibility to their people which they represent.20 My name is Faiza Mohamud Muse. I am sending the Somali delegation. If you need or care about your people or your nationhood, then go and include your voices in the conference, and I hope that Allah/God makes it one of joyful outcomes for the people of the Horn of Africa.21 I am from the Ceelqooxle district in Galgaduud region. This year’s events have affected me deeply. What I experienced this year was my worst ever. The worst event is what I have seen on the Universal TV, when al-Shabab militia exploded students who were awaiting their exam results in Mogadishu.22 Jaabiri, from Puntland. Please look after Somalia and do not allow to be separated and pitted against each other, and don’t agree to colony and take advantage of this opportunity.23 deeper relationship between the aid agency and the data source. Information is often transmitted through the use of SMS short- codes, in which pre-agreed codes are used to relay critical information. The Voix des Kivus57 project in Eastern DRC launched an SMS-based crowdseeding58 effort to test whether accurate, systematic and representative data could be collected from a conflict zone over time. Researchers from Columbia University distributed cell phones and solar chargers to a representative of a local women’s organization, a representative elected by the community and a traditional leader.59 These leaders were asked to collect data on daily events and needs using a system of shorthand codes. To prevent retribution from local rebel groups,60 issues around privacy and security were carefully addressed and leaders were able to self-classify their messages. Over 18 months, Voix des Kivus received more than 4,000 pre-coded messages and 1,000 text person transactions, banking has gone digital. Mobile money, i.e. the use of cell phones as digital wallets, has advanced faster in developing countries than in the OECD. Three quarters of the countries that use mobile money most frequently are in Adults using mobile money in Somalia 34%
  • 110. 27 Saving lives with big data A July 2012 study demonstrated that real-time monitoring of Twitter messages in Haiti could have predicted the October/November 2010 cholera outbreaks two weeks earlier than they were detected.33 Anonymised data, shared by Digicel, demonstrated that population movements in response to the cholera outbreak began prior to official detec- tion of the outbreak.34 Deaths from cholera are preventable and outbreaks are more easily dealt with in their early stages. This means there was a lost opportunity to save lives. While there is no way to arrive at a precise statistic, over 200 people had died by 23 October,35 four days after first detection,36 and 900 by 16 November.37 Overall, more than 6,000 people died and over 400,000 became ill.38 The US Geological Survey (USGS) has taken a systematic approach to data generated by Twitter through its Twitter Earthquake Detection (TED), which monitors reports of shaking in real time. Combined with seismologists’ analysis, TED has reduced the time required to pinpoint the epicentre of a quake from 20 minutes to three to four minutes.39 USGS has also built a system (PAGER) 40 that automatically and rapidly estimates the dis- tribution of shaking, the number of people and settlements exposed to severe shaking, and the range of possible fatalities and economic losses. The estimated losses trigger the appropriate colour-coded alert, which determines the suggested levels of response: no response needed (green), local/regional (yellow), national (orange) or international (red). Translating these efforts into action requires connecting raw data to analysis and then analysis to decision makers. Ultimately, decisions have to be made by Governments, communities, individuals and, where relevant, the international humanitarian system. The potential of big data (or indeed all new data sources) to improve the quality of these decisions requires the data to be used and understood. infancy. Two uses of big data are highlighted in the case study below, but there are many Historical accounts [of past disasters] were also taken into consideration.” Leo Jasareno – Director, Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines. 42
  • 111. 50 across Haiti as well as in the diaspora. Radio One was only one of many stations that provided an ad hoc reunification service; all of these stations subsequently reported their need for basic assistance, such as fuel and cell phone credits.102 Figure 11 Radio One reunification system RADIO ONE REUNIFICATION SYSTEM 2010 earthquake in Haiti Radio One verified information Requests and names logged by Radio One team Diffusion of verified informa- tion People searching for missing family or friends contact Radio One Reunification Information given to Radio’s motorbike courier for ground verification via Facebook face-to-face contact via Twitter via Facebook radio broadcast via Twitter
  • 112. Opening Government data to the public In 2011, Kenya became the first country in Africa to begin systematically putting national data online for access and use by citizens. The Kenya Open Data Initiative (KODI) includes data sets in categories such as health, water and sanitation, poverty and energy hosted on a dedicated website (https://www. opendata.go.ke). It is open to all users to create interactive charts and tables, or to download the data for their own initiatives. One year on, the platform has been widely used by developers and activist groups, and has considerable potential to improve response in crises.46 Open-data policies have spread far and wide. The cities of Lima, Peru,47 and Dalian, China,48 have open-data portals, as do the Governments of India49 and Brazil.50 Just as Governments have adopted open- data policies, transparency standards have been embraced for international aid programming. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the World Food Programme, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the United Nations Development Programme have all signed up to the International Aid Transparency Initiative standard, as have major donors (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the opportunities yet to be discovered. B. Rich data through Geographical Information Systems Widespread access to Global Positioning System information through mobile phones, coupled with the increased availability of satellite imagery, allows for unprecedented geographic precision to be added to raw data. This offers significant opportunities for crisis responders. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which combine hardware and software used for the storage, retrieval, mapping and analysis of geographic data, have long been an essential component of effective crisis response.41 But today, technology once limited to experts and institutions is available to anyone. This has allowed groups of self-organizing volunteers to place SMS messages and social media postings on dynamic maps, highlighting clusters of cries for help in an earthquake, or identifying where roads have been washed away after a flood. The use of spatial data in humanitarian action is not new. It is, however, starting to trickle down to the community level. To reduce community vulnerability to crisis, the Philippines Government has publicly distributed geo-hazard maps that outline disaster-prone areas. These maps colour code areas as low, moderate or high in their susceptibility to floods, flash floods and landslides, mark areas that are prone to
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  • 157. The humanitarian world is changing…
  • 158. …how is your organization adapting to it?