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Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
HECU – high energy efficiency solution for
condensing units fitted with DC compressors.
Ing. Giovanni Tonin
Application Specialist
Business Unit Retail Marketing dept.
CAREL INDUSTRIES S.p.A. - Brugine (Padova)
12th of June, 2015
XVI European Conference Milano
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
1.  Target application
2.  Regulations
3.  Hecu sistema
4.  Control algorithm
5.  Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology
6.  Natural refrigerants
7.  Conclusions
Summary
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Small stores, such as convenience stores, service stations,
small discount supermarkets or corner shops, are a segment
with a higher rate of growth than larger stores such as
supermarkets and hypermarkets.
This growth is the result of both new openings and retrofits
of existing stores.
~ + 27%
Growth rate per year
(worldwide mkt survey)
Target application
400000	
  
410000	
  
420000	
  
430000	
  
440000	
  
450000	
  
460000	
  
470000	
  
480000	
  
490000	
  
500000	
  
2014	
   2015	
   2016	
   2017	
  
Total	
  Condensing	
  Unit	
  
source
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (Energy Related
Product, ERP, also called “Ecodesign”), defines:
• the minimum COP (coefficient of performance) for units with a capacity of less than 5 kW,
• the minimum SEPR (seasonal energy performance ratio) for units between 5 and 50 kW.
To fulfil these requirements, it will be important to use technology that can modulate
capacity based on effective system requirements, thus also reducing condensing unit
energy consumption.
Regulations: Energy Performance
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
HFCs	
  will	
  become	
  less	
  available	
  and	
  more	
  expensive	
  
The main pillar of the new EU 2014 F-Gas regulation
is the reduction of emissions by moving to lower
GWP solutions.
The aim is to reduce the total quantity of CO2
equivalent placed on the EU market by 79% before
2030.
GWP	
  up	
  to	
  2500	
  
January	
  2020	
  
GWP	
  up	
  to	
  150	
  
January	
  2022	
  
Regulations: EU 2014 F-Gas
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Typically, the refrigeration system in these stores is made
up of one or more condensing units, mostly medium
temperature units, and a variable number of refrigerated
units (typically around five), either showcases or cold
rooms.
Traditional system:
•  ON-OFF compressor
•  1 to 3 configuration or 1 to 1 configuration (i.e. 3 ref. units require 3 independent CDUs)
•  Stand alone and not optimized operation of the units
Hecu sistema 1/3
ON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMP
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
•  The use of DC compressors
allows condensing unit capacity
modulation across a range from
a minimum of 20 rps to a
maximum of 120 rps.
(17%-100%)
•  Serial connection between the
condensing unit and each
refrigerated unit inside the store
permits information to be
exchanged in real time.
Hecu sistema:
•  DC compressor
•  Up to 5 refrigerated units
•  Synchronized operation thanks to serial communication
DC	
  COMPRESSOR	
  
Hecu sistema 2/3
SERIAL	
  
COMMUNICATION	
  
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Hecu sistema 3/3
Other important benefits are:
• DC technology has also low operating noise, making it ideal for
installations in residential areas
• With Hecu sistema it is possible to obtain a fine regulation that means
stable product temperature and gives optimal food preservation
• Wide range of remote monitoring systems in order to optimize system
performance, carry out preventive maintenance and analyze energy
consumption
• It Includes guided procedure to configure the unit (Wizard) and to
configure the system (Fast commissioning) together with a wide number
of optimized default
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Condensing unit operating conditions are affected
considerably by outside temperature
65% of the time the condensing
unit operates at part loads
between 50% and 80%
only 8% of the time at full load
The unit operates at part loads for most of the time
The temperature varies throughout the day and year
Control algorithm: part load operation
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Smooth Lines function
is used to optimise evaporator capacity based on actual cooling demand, allowing more
effective and stable control of cabinet temperature.
This function modulates the temperature inside the cabinet exclusively using the
electronic expansion valve, and adjusting the superheat set point by adopting accurate
PI control.
Control:
1.  If the control temperature is
approaching the set point
2.  SH set point is increased
3.  To reduce cooling capacity to the
refrigerated unit
Control algorithm: refrigerated unit
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
FLOATING SET POINT
CALCULATION:
1.  Request from each evaporator
2.  Capacity of each evaporator
3.  Defrost status of each evaporator
Moving from the minimum to maximum set point, the DC compressor will
decrease its speed, operating at high efficiency and avoiding ON-OFF cycles.
The wide range of modulation allows the compressor
to precisely follow the floating set point.
Control algorithm: condensig unit
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
We will now examine three different situations involving a system made up of
•  1 condensing unit
•  3 showcases (3000W, 2000W, 1000W)
Control algorithm 1/4
MULTISPLIT	
  PIPING	
  	
  
Same	
  refrigerant	
  speed	
  along	
  
the	
  sucAon	
  line	
  to	
  help	
  the	
  
return	
  of	
  the	
  oil	
  
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
All the temperatures of the refrigerated units
are below the set point.
The set point of the condensing unit moves rapidly
to the maximum value , providing less cooling
capacity and more energy saving.
There is cooling demand from all the
refrigerated units.
The largest (3000W) has the highest
demand.
The set point of the condensing unit moves
rapidly to the minimum value so as to provide
maximum cooling capacity.
Control algorithm 2/4
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
There is cooling demand from all the
refrigerated units.
The smallest (1000W) has the highest
demand.
The set point of the condensing unit moves
slowly to the minimum value to provide
maximum cooling capacity.
All the temperatures of the refrigerated
units are below the set point and then
reach the set point.
The set point of the condensing unit
moves to the maximum value and stops
when all the set points are reached
Control algorithm 3/4
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Unit 1 no demand
The set point of the condensing unit moves
slowly to the minimum value until all the set
points are reached and remains at that value
Unit 2 with cooling demand
Unit 3 is defrosting
The temperatures of these 2 refrigerated
units are below the set point and then
reach the set point.
Unit 3 is still defrosting
The set point of the condensing unit moves to
the maximum value and stops when all the set
points are reached
Control algorithm 4/4
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
ON-OFF TECHNOLOGY
•  R404A refrigerant
•  Fixed set point
•  3 refrigerated units (4000 kW)
DC TECHNOLOGY
•  R410A refrigerant
•  Floating set point
•  3 refrigerated units (4000 kW)
•  Wide range for capacity modulation with DC
compressor
•  At part loads, this solution reduces refrigerant
flow-rate through the heat exchangers, thus
increasing efficiency
•  DC technology also features better motor energy
efficiency
•  No capacity modulation with ON-OFF compressor
•  The heat exchangers are used at design conditions,
with lower energy efficiency
•  ON-OFF technology sees “cycling losses” every time
the compressor is started
Pressure
Enthalpy
Increased
efficiency
Pressure
Enthalpy
Design
condition
Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology 1/2
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
The energy saving is given by:
•  adjustment of evaporator set point by advanced control algorithm;
•  higher thermodynamic efficiency by changing capacity according to load;
•  higher motor energy efficiency.
Estimated monthly power consumption for both types of system.
Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology 2/2
0	
  
5000	
  
10000	
  
15000	
  
20000	
  
25000	
  
Total	
  ConsumpJon(kWh)	
  
	
  DC	
  unit	
  	
   ON-­‐OFF	
  unit	
  
Total energy saving of 27%
for the climate profile of
Rome.
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
In accordance with the new F-Gas regulation, in force as of 2014 and with the objective of reducing the
use of HFC refrigerants by 79% before 2030:
•  R404A (GWP 3920) until 1st January 2020
•  R410A (GWP 2090) until 1st January 2022
Current refrigerants used are:
•  R404A (GWP 3920)
•  R410A (GWP 2090)
Efficiency can be increased even in less favorable climates,
using the same algorithms as analyzed previously.
For condensing unit manufacturers, such a combination represents
a truly effective response to the new requirements.
Condensing	
  units	
  need	
  be	
  ready	
  to	
  operate	
  on	
  natural	
  refrigerants.	
  
This	
  system	
  is	
  going	
  to	
  combine	
  the	
  high	
  energy	
  efficiency	
  of	
  DC	
  compressors	
  with	
  the	
  
use	
  of	
  natural	
  refrigerants	
  such	
  as	
  CO2.	
  
Natural refrigerants
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
•  Considerable energy saving results obtained by DC technology and advanced
control algorithms
•  Significant reductions in operating costs for the user, and consequently an
estimated return on investment (ROI) of 12-18 months
•  Optimum food preservation with more stable product temperature
•  Lower operating noise, making this technology ideal for installations in residential
areas
•  Wide range of remote monitoring systems in order to optimize system performance,
carry out preventive maintenance and analyze energy consumption
•  Guided configuration procedures and a vast choice of standard settings that maximize
usability
Conclusions
Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015
Thank you for your attention!

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Hecu – high energy efficiency solution for condensing units fitted with DC compressors.

  • 1. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 HECU – high energy efficiency solution for condensing units fitted with DC compressors. Ing. Giovanni Tonin Application Specialist Business Unit Retail Marketing dept. CAREL INDUSTRIES S.p.A. - Brugine (Padova) 12th of June, 2015 XVI European Conference Milano
  • 2. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 1.  Target application 2.  Regulations 3.  Hecu sistema 4.  Control algorithm 5.  Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology 6.  Natural refrigerants 7.  Conclusions Summary
  • 3. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Small stores, such as convenience stores, service stations, small discount supermarkets or corner shops, are a segment with a higher rate of growth than larger stores such as supermarkets and hypermarkets. This growth is the result of both new openings and retrofits of existing stores. ~ + 27% Growth rate per year (worldwide mkt survey) Target application 400000   410000   420000   430000   440000   450000   460000   470000   480000   490000   500000   2014   2015   2016   2017   Total  Condensing  Unit   source
  • 4. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (Energy Related Product, ERP, also called “Ecodesign”), defines: • the minimum COP (coefficient of performance) for units with a capacity of less than 5 kW, • the minimum SEPR (seasonal energy performance ratio) for units between 5 and 50 kW. To fulfil these requirements, it will be important to use technology that can modulate capacity based on effective system requirements, thus also reducing condensing unit energy consumption. Regulations: Energy Performance
  • 5. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 HFCs  will  become  less  available  and  more  expensive   The main pillar of the new EU 2014 F-Gas regulation is the reduction of emissions by moving to lower GWP solutions. The aim is to reduce the total quantity of CO2 equivalent placed on the EU market by 79% before 2030. GWP  up  to  2500   January  2020   GWP  up  to  150   January  2022   Regulations: EU 2014 F-Gas
  • 6. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Typically, the refrigeration system in these stores is made up of one or more condensing units, mostly medium temperature units, and a variable number of refrigerated units (typically around five), either showcases or cold rooms. Traditional system: •  ON-OFF compressor •  1 to 3 configuration or 1 to 1 configuration (i.e. 3 ref. units require 3 independent CDUs) •  Stand alone and not optimized operation of the units Hecu sistema 1/3 ON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMPON-OFF COMP
  • 7. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 •  The use of DC compressors allows condensing unit capacity modulation across a range from a minimum of 20 rps to a maximum of 120 rps. (17%-100%) •  Serial connection between the condensing unit and each refrigerated unit inside the store permits information to be exchanged in real time. Hecu sistema: •  DC compressor •  Up to 5 refrigerated units •  Synchronized operation thanks to serial communication DC  COMPRESSOR   Hecu sistema 2/3 SERIAL   COMMUNICATION  
  • 8. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Hecu sistema 3/3 Other important benefits are: • DC technology has also low operating noise, making it ideal for installations in residential areas • With Hecu sistema it is possible to obtain a fine regulation that means stable product temperature and gives optimal food preservation • Wide range of remote monitoring systems in order to optimize system performance, carry out preventive maintenance and analyze energy consumption • It Includes guided procedure to configure the unit (Wizard) and to configure the system (Fast commissioning) together with a wide number of optimized default
  • 9. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Condensing unit operating conditions are affected considerably by outside temperature 65% of the time the condensing unit operates at part loads between 50% and 80% only 8% of the time at full load The unit operates at part loads for most of the time The temperature varies throughout the day and year Control algorithm: part load operation
  • 10. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Smooth Lines function is used to optimise evaporator capacity based on actual cooling demand, allowing more effective and stable control of cabinet temperature. This function modulates the temperature inside the cabinet exclusively using the electronic expansion valve, and adjusting the superheat set point by adopting accurate PI control. Control: 1.  If the control temperature is approaching the set point 2.  SH set point is increased 3.  To reduce cooling capacity to the refrigerated unit Control algorithm: refrigerated unit
  • 11. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 FLOATING SET POINT CALCULATION: 1.  Request from each evaporator 2.  Capacity of each evaporator 3.  Defrost status of each evaporator Moving from the minimum to maximum set point, the DC compressor will decrease its speed, operating at high efficiency and avoiding ON-OFF cycles. The wide range of modulation allows the compressor to precisely follow the floating set point. Control algorithm: condensig unit
  • 12. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 We will now examine three different situations involving a system made up of •  1 condensing unit •  3 showcases (3000W, 2000W, 1000W) Control algorithm 1/4 MULTISPLIT  PIPING     Same  refrigerant  speed  along   the  sucAon  line  to  help  the   return  of  the  oil  
  • 13. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 All the temperatures of the refrigerated units are below the set point. The set point of the condensing unit moves rapidly to the maximum value , providing less cooling capacity and more energy saving. There is cooling demand from all the refrigerated units. The largest (3000W) has the highest demand. The set point of the condensing unit moves rapidly to the minimum value so as to provide maximum cooling capacity. Control algorithm 2/4
  • 14. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 There is cooling demand from all the refrigerated units. The smallest (1000W) has the highest demand. The set point of the condensing unit moves slowly to the minimum value to provide maximum cooling capacity. All the temperatures of the refrigerated units are below the set point and then reach the set point. The set point of the condensing unit moves to the maximum value and stops when all the set points are reached Control algorithm 3/4
  • 15. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Unit 1 no demand The set point of the condensing unit moves slowly to the minimum value until all the set points are reached and remains at that value Unit 2 with cooling demand Unit 3 is defrosting The temperatures of these 2 refrigerated units are below the set point and then reach the set point. Unit 3 is still defrosting The set point of the condensing unit moves to the maximum value and stops when all the set points are reached Control algorithm 4/4
  • 16. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 ON-OFF TECHNOLOGY •  R404A refrigerant •  Fixed set point •  3 refrigerated units (4000 kW) DC TECHNOLOGY •  R410A refrigerant •  Floating set point •  3 refrigerated units (4000 kW) •  Wide range for capacity modulation with DC compressor •  At part loads, this solution reduces refrigerant flow-rate through the heat exchangers, thus increasing efficiency •  DC technology also features better motor energy efficiency •  No capacity modulation with ON-OFF compressor •  The heat exchangers are used at design conditions, with lower energy efficiency •  ON-OFF technology sees “cycling losses” every time the compressor is started Pressure Enthalpy Increased efficiency Pressure Enthalpy Design condition Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology 1/2
  • 17. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 The energy saving is given by: •  adjustment of evaporator set point by advanced control algorithm; •  higher thermodynamic efficiency by changing capacity according to load; •  higher motor energy efficiency. Estimated monthly power consumption for both types of system. Comparison of ON-OFF vs DC technology 2/2 0   5000   10000   15000   20000   25000   Total  ConsumpJon(kWh)    DC  unit     ON-­‐OFF  unit   Total energy saving of 27% for the climate profile of Rome.
  • 18. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 In accordance with the new F-Gas regulation, in force as of 2014 and with the objective of reducing the use of HFC refrigerants by 79% before 2030: •  R404A (GWP 3920) until 1st January 2020 •  R410A (GWP 2090) until 1st January 2022 Current refrigerants used are: •  R404A (GWP 3920) •  R410A (GWP 2090) Efficiency can be increased even in less favorable climates, using the same algorithms as analyzed previously. For condensing unit manufacturers, such a combination represents a truly effective response to the new requirements. Condensing  units  need  be  ready  to  operate  on  natural  refrigerants.   This  system  is  going  to  combine  the  high  energy  efficiency  of  DC  compressors  with  the   use  of  natural  refrigerants  such  as  CO2.   Natural refrigerants
  • 19. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 •  Considerable energy saving results obtained by DC technology and advanced control algorithms •  Significant reductions in operating costs for the user, and consequently an estimated return on investment (ROI) of 12-18 months •  Optimum food preservation with more stable product temperature •  Lower operating noise, making this technology ideal for installations in residential areas •  Wide range of remote monitoring systems in order to optimize system performance, carry out preventive maintenance and analyze energy consumption •  Guided configuration procedures and a vast choice of standard settings that maximize usability Conclusions
  • 20. Latest Technologies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - XVI European Conference Milano, 12th - 13th June 2015 Thank you for your attention!