SlideShare a Scribd company logo
GRAVITATION
Gravity is matter's
memory it once was
light.
• Gravitation, the attractive force existing
between any two particles of matter.
• It was Sir Isaac Newton who not only provided
this explanation in his famous inverse square
law of gravitation, but managed to "synthesize"
the explanation of motion on earth and motion in
the heavens. This had profound philosophical
and scientific consequences.
What Gravitation is??
• The unification into what became the laws of
gravitation became a symbol of the predictive
and quantitative power of science. The fact that
a single law could explain the motion of a
cannonball and the motion of Mars
revolutionized our understanding of our place in
the universe.
• Kepler’s First Law (Law of Orbits): Each
planet moves in an elliptical orbit with the Sun at
one focus.
KEPLER’S LAWS
• Kepler’s Second Law (Law of Areas): The
speed of planet varies in such a way that the
radius vector drawn from the
• Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal
times. Thus the law states that the areal velocity of
the planet is constant.
• Areas; A1, A2 and A3 are swept by the radius vector
in equal times. So, according to Kepler’s second
law,
A1 = A2 = A3
• Also, the planet covers unequal distances S1, S2
and S3 in equal times due to the variable speed of
the planet. Maximum distance is covered in a given
time when planet is closest to the Sun. When the
planet is closest from the sun, its velocity and the
kinetic energy of the planet is maximum.
• When the planet is farthest from the Sun, its velocity
and the kinetic energy is minimum. However, the
total energy of the planet remains constant.
• Kepler’s Third Law (Law of Periods)- The square
of the period of revolution of a planet around the
Sun is proportional to the cube of the semi-major
axis of its elliptical orbit. AB is the major axis and CD
is the minor axis. AO or OB is called semi-major
axis.
• Let, T = Period of revolution of planet around Sun.
R = length of semi- major axis
According to Kepler’s third law,
T2 ∝ R3 or T2 = KR3
• Let T1 and T2 be the periods of any two planets
around the Sun.
Let , R1 and R2 be the lengths of their
respective semi – major axes
Then,
• Every particle of matter in the universe attracts
every other particle with a
• force which is directly proportional to the product
of their masses and
• inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them.
UNIVERSAL LAW OF
GRAVITATION
• The force of attraction between any two particles
in the universe is known as force of gravitation.
• The force of gravitational attraction between the
two bodies acts along the line joining their
center. This force is mutual and
Characteristics of
gravitational force
• Combining these factors we get 
&
• {Where the value of G in SI units is (6.67 × 10–
11 Nm2 kg–2). The universal gravitational
constant (G) is numerically equal to the force of
attraction between two bodies, each of unit
mass, separated by unit distance.
• In vector notation, Newton’s law of
gravitation is written as follows:
• Let us consider a body of mass
m lying on the surface of the
Earth of mass M and radius R.
Let g be the value of
acceleration due to gravity on
the free surface of Earth.
ACCELERATION DUE TO
GRAVITY OF THE EARTH
•
• Since the value of g at a given
place on the Earth is constant
and R is also constant
Therefore 
• Thus, the value of acceleration
due to gravity decreases with
increase in height above the
surface of Earth.
Variation of g with Altitude
(Height)
• We know that,
• ∴
Loss of Weight at Height h(<<R)
• Assume the Earth to be a
homogeneous sphere (having
uniform density) of radius R
and mass M. If at a depth h,
the gravity will be gh. Then,
the difference is given by 
Variation of g with Depth
• Here g- gh gives the decrease in the value of
g.
• Since g is constant at a given place of the
Earth and R is also a constant,
∴
Thus the value of acceleration
due to gravity decreases with
the increase of depth.
• The force of gravity is a
conservative force and we can
calculate the potential energy
of a body arising out of this
force, called the gravitational
potential energy.
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL
ENERGY
• This work done is equal to the gravitational
potential energy U of mass m.
• According to convention, the
gravitational potential energy at
the surface of the Earth is taken
to be zero.
∴ U = m x g
x h
• A satellite is a body which is
continuously revolving around a
bigger body. Satellite may be
regarded as a ‘secondary body’.
• The centripetal force required
by a satellite to move in a
circular orbit is provided by
the gravitational force of
attraction between the
satellite and the body around
which it revolves.
SATELLITES
• Planets can be said to be the
natural satellites of the sun.
• Moon is a natural satellite of
the Earth which revolves around
the Earth in a nearly circular
orbit of radius
• 3.85 x 105 km and completes one
revolution is 27.3 days.
• GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
• POLAR SATELLITES
TYPES OF SATELLITES
• A geosynchronous satellite is
a satellite in
geosynchronous orbit, with an
orbital period the same as the
Earth's rotation period. Such a
satellite returns to the same
position in the sky after each
sidereal day.
GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
• These satellites have
revolutionized
global communications, television
broadcasting and weather
forecasting, and have a number of
important defense and intelligence
applications.
USES
• Polar satellite is a satellite
that revolves around the Earth
in a polar orbit. It is usually
as close as ≈ 250km.
• As the Earth rotates about its
axis a polar satellite passes
many different places during
its motion unlike the
geostationary satellite.
POLAR SATELLITES
• Polar satellites are being used to record the
land and sea temperatures, take pictures of
cloud and predict the movement of winds and
ultimately forecast the weather reporting.
• It is hence also called a Monitoring or
weather satellite.
USES
Gravitation (Class XI Brief)

More Related Content

What's hot

Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
Presentation on gravitation for class 9th  Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
Rahul Shukla
 
Motion ppt for class 9
Motion ppt for class 9Motion ppt for class 9
Motion ppt for class 9
Mridul Verma
 
units and measurement xi physics
units and measurement xi physics  units and measurement xi physics
units and measurement xi physics
ASWIN SPARKZ XD
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
Raja Durai Durai
 
Motion in a straight line
Motion in a straight lineMotion in a straight line
Motion in a straight line
MV Rajakumar
 
Circular motion
Circular motionCircular motion
Circular motion
Mukesh Tekwani
 
Work and energy
Work and energyWork and energy
Work and energy
NityaSharma32
 
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobViewClass 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
Manik Bhola
 
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wiseGravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
Rohan Jain
 
Friction Class 11 Physics
Friction  Class 11 PhysicsFriction  Class 11 Physics
Friction Class 11 Physics
DevangSPSingh
 
System Of Particles And Rotational Motion
System Of Particles And Rotational MotionSystem Of Particles And Rotational Motion
System Of Particles And Rotational Motion
Akrita Kaur
 
Thermal properties of matter
Thermal properties of matterThermal properties of matter
Thermal properties of matter
Nikhil Agrawal
 
laws of motion class-XI
laws of motion class-XIlaws of motion class-XI
laws of motion class-XI
lashika madaan
 
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity) 1 d
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity)  1 dPhysics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity)  1 d
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity) 1 d
rebelman10
 
Newton's law of gravitation
Newton's law of gravitationNewton's law of gravitation
Newton's law of gravitation
itutor
 
Physics - Oscillations
Physics - OscillationsPhysics - Oscillations
Physics - Oscillations
Catherine He
 
Gravitation ppt
Gravitation pptGravitation ppt
Gravitation ppt
Arpan Shakya
 
Ppt on work energy and power class xi science
Ppt on work energy and power class xi sciencePpt on work energy and power class xi science
Ppt on work energy and power class xi science
acceleration gravity
 
Motion along-a-straight-line
Motion along-a-straight-lineMotion along-a-straight-line
Motion along-a-straight-line
ngothithanhgiang
 
Rotational motion
Rotational motionRotational motion

What's hot (20)

Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
Presentation on gravitation for class 9th  Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
Presentation on gravitation for class 9th
 
Motion ppt for class 9
Motion ppt for class 9Motion ppt for class 9
Motion ppt for class 9
 
units and measurement xi physics
units and measurement xi physics  units and measurement xi physics
units and measurement xi physics
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
 
Motion in a straight line
Motion in a straight lineMotion in a straight line
Motion in a straight line
 
Circular motion
Circular motionCircular motion
Circular motion
 
Work and energy
Work and energyWork and energy
Work and energy
 
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobViewClass 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
Class 11 Mechanical Properties of Solids MobView
 
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wiseGravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
Gravitation, free fall, variation in 'g' and keplers law lecture wise
 
Friction Class 11 Physics
Friction  Class 11 PhysicsFriction  Class 11 Physics
Friction Class 11 Physics
 
System Of Particles And Rotational Motion
System Of Particles And Rotational MotionSystem Of Particles And Rotational Motion
System Of Particles And Rotational Motion
 
Thermal properties of matter
Thermal properties of matterThermal properties of matter
Thermal properties of matter
 
laws of motion class-XI
laws of motion class-XIlaws of motion class-XI
laws of motion class-XI
 
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity) 1 d
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity)  1 dPhysics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity)  1 d
Physics (displacement, distance, speed, velocity) 1 d
 
Newton's law of gravitation
Newton's law of gravitationNewton's law of gravitation
Newton's law of gravitation
 
Physics - Oscillations
Physics - OscillationsPhysics - Oscillations
Physics - Oscillations
 
Gravitation ppt
Gravitation pptGravitation ppt
Gravitation ppt
 
Ppt on work energy and power class xi science
Ppt on work energy and power class xi sciencePpt on work energy and power class xi science
Ppt on work energy and power class xi science
 
Motion along-a-straight-line
Motion along-a-straight-lineMotion along-a-straight-line
Motion along-a-straight-line
 
Rotational motion
Rotational motionRotational motion
Rotational motion
 

Viewers also liked

Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
Moira Whitehouse
 
Chapter 7 gravitation
Chapter 7 gravitationChapter 7 gravitation
Chapter 7 gravitation
ecphysics
 
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitationCh 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
cphsastronomy
 
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
wjerlinger
 
Sci rev
Sci revSci rev
Sci rev
Anna Yang
 
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of GravityUnit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
KCTCS
 
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, GalileoKepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
Sapphirexox
 
Gravity 2
Gravity 2Gravity 2
Lecture chapter 8_gravitation
Lecture chapter 8_gravitationLecture chapter 8_gravitation
Lecture chapter 8_gravitation
Arinah Alias
 
Newton’s universal law of gravitation
Newton’s universal  law of gravitationNewton’s universal  law of gravitation
Newton’s universal law of gravitation
Vineetha Vijayan
 
Gravity
GravityGravity
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
Arpan Bose
 
Ppt Gravity
Ppt GravityPpt Gravity
Ppt Gravity
ffiala
 

Viewers also liked (13)

Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
Gravity for Elementary and Middle students (Teach)
 
Chapter 7 gravitation
Chapter 7 gravitationChapter 7 gravitation
Chapter 7 gravitation
 
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitationCh 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
Ch 2 -newton’s law of universal gravitation
 
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
04-23-08 - Law Of Universal Gravitation
 
Sci rev
Sci revSci rev
Sci rev
 
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of GravityUnit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
Unit 16 - The Universal Law of Gravity
 
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, GalileoKepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
Kepler, Copernicus, Ptolemy, Galileo
 
Gravity 2
Gravity 2Gravity 2
Gravity 2
 
Lecture chapter 8_gravitation
Lecture chapter 8_gravitationLecture chapter 8_gravitation
Lecture chapter 8_gravitation
 
Newton’s universal law of gravitation
Newton’s universal  law of gravitationNewton’s universal  law of gravitation
Newton’s universal law of gravitation
 
Gravity
GravityGravity
Gravity
 
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
MOTION Class IX PowerPoint Presentation
 
Ppt Gravity
Ppt GravityPpt Gravity
Ppt Gravity
 

Similar to Gravitation (Class XI Brief)

Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptxGravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
bablivashisht
 
gravitation ppt srinivasa
 gravitation ppt srinivasa gravitation ppt srinivasa
gravitation ppt srinivasa
SrinivasaKalkani
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
lashika madaan
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
Sanchay Gumber
 
gravity.ppt
gravity.pptgravity.ppt
Fisica
FisicaFisica
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdfgravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
abcidkpyh
 
Gravity origin & evolution
Gravity origin & evolutionGravity origin & evolution
Gravity origin & evolution
dsvthampi
 
MOTION (The Restless Universe)
MOTION (The Restless Universe)MOTION (The Restless Universe)
MOTION (The Restless Universe)
Hanna Elise
 
Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
Overview of GTR and Introduction to CosmologyOverview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
Pratik Tarafdar
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
itutor
 
Universal Gravitation
Universal GravitationUniversal Gravitation
Universal Gravitation
Galen West
 
Gravity
GravityGravity
GPS sattelite orbit
GPS sattelite orbitGPS sattelite orbit
GPS sattelite orbit
Kutubuddin ANSARI
 
gravitation.pptx
gravitation.pptxgravitation.pptx
gravitation.pptx
KjSrikkanth1
 
Gravitation ppt.pdf
Gravitation ppt.pdfGravitation ppt.pdf
Gravitation ppt.pdf
BommaganiSrinivasGou
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
Abhimanyu Chauhan
 
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
Srikant Gupta
 
Universal Gravitation PPP
Universal Gravitation PPPUniversal Gravitation PPP
Universal Gravitation PPP
eliseb
 
GRAVITATION
GRAVITATION GRAVITATION
GRAVITATION
Giridhar D
 

Similar to Gravitation (Class XI Brief) (20)

Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptxGravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
Gravitation ch-7 class-11 phy..pptx
 
gravitation ppt srinivasa
 gravitation ppt srinivasa gravitation ppt srinivasa
gravitation ppt srinivasa
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
 
gravity.ppt
gravity.pptgravity.ppt
gravity.ppt
 
Fisica
FisicaFisica
Fisica
 
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdfgravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
gravitationppt-180122143106.pdf
 
Gravity origin & evolution
Gravity origin & evolutionGravity origin & evolution
Gravity origin & evolution
 
MOTION (The Restless Universe)
MOTION (The Restless Universe)MOTION (The Restless Universe)
MOTION (The Restless Universe)
 
Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
Overview of GTR and Introduction to CosmologyOverview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
Overview of GTR and Introduction to Cosmology
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
 
Universal Gravitation
Universal GravitationUniversal Gravitation
Universal Gravitation
 
Gravity
GravityGravity
Gravity
 
GPS sattelite orbit
GPS sattelite orbitGPS sattelite orbit
GPS sattelite orbit
 
gravitation.pptx
gravitation.pptxgravitation.pptx
gravitation.pptx
 
Gravitation ppt.pdf
Gravitation ppt.pdfGravitation ppt.pdf
Gravitation ppt.pdf
 
Gravitation
GravitationGravitation
Gravitation
 
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
3gravitation-181206145827-converted.pptx
 
Universal Gravitation PPP
Universal Gravitation PPPUniversal Gravitation PPP
Universal Gravitation PPP
 
GRAVITATION
GRAVITATION GRAVITATION
GRAVITATION
 

More from Aryavarta Giri

Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
Aryavarta Giri
 
Medicinal chemistry
Medicinal chemistry Medicinal chemistry
Medicinal chemistry
Aryavarta Giri
 
Renewable and non renewable resources for class 10 {PHYSICS}
Renewable and non renewable resources  for class 10 {PHYSICS}Renewable and non renewable resources  for class 10 {PHYSICS}
Renewable and non renewable resources for class 10 {PHYSICS}
Aryavarta Giri
 
Resources and development
Resources and developmentResources and development
Resources and development
Aryavarta Giri
 
Softwares
SoftwaresSoftwares
Softwares
Aryavarta Giri
 
Geometry
GeometryGeometry
Geometry
Aryavarta Giri
 
Euclids five postulates
Euclids five postulatesEuclids five postulates
Euclids five postulates
Aryavarta Giri
 

More from Aryavarta Giri (7)

Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!
 
Medicinal chemistry
Medicinal chemistry Medicinal chemistry
Medicinal chemistry
 
Renewable and non renewable resources for class 10 {PHYSICS}
Renewable and non renewable resources  for class 10 {PHYSICS}Renewable and non renewable resources  for class 10 {PHYSICS}
Renewable and non renewable resources for class 10 {PHYSICS}
 
Resources and development
Resources and developmentResources and development
Resources and development
 
Softwares
SoftwaresSoftwares
Softwares
 
Geometry
GeometryGeometry
Geometry
 
Euclids five postulates
Euclids five postulatesEuclids five postulates
Euclids five postulates
 

Recently uploaded

Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Henry Hollis
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
PECB
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
melliereed
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 

Gravitation (Class XI Brief)

  • 2. • Gravitation, the attractive force existing between any two particles of matter. • It was Sir Isaac Newton who not only provided this explanation in his famous inverse square law of gravitation, but managed to "synthesize" the explanation of motion on earth and motion in the heavens. This had profound philosophical and scientific consequences. What Gravitation is??
  • 3. • The unification into what became the laws of gravitation became a symbol of the predictive and quantitative power of science. The fact that a single law could explain the motion of a cannonball and the motion of Mars revolutionized our understanding of our place in the universe.
  • 4. • Kepler’s First Law (Law of Orbits): Each planet moves in an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focus. KEPLER’S LAWS
  • 5. • Kepler’s Second Law (Law of Areas): The speed of planet varies in such a way that the radius vector drawn from the
  • 6. • Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Thus the law states that the areal velocity of the planet is constant. • Areas; A1, A2 and A3 are swept by the radius vector in equal times. So, according to Kepler’s second law, A1 = A2 = A3
  • 7. • Also, the planet covers unequal distances S1, S2 and S3 in equal times due to the variable speed of the planet. Maximum distance is covered in a given time when planet is closest to the Sun. When the planet is closest from the sun, its velocity and the kinetic energy of the planet is maximum.
  • 8. • When the planet is farthest from the Sun, its velocity and the kinetic energy is minimum. However, the total energy of the planet remains constant.
  • 9. • Kepler’s Third Law (Law of Periods)- The square of the period of revolution of a planet around the Sun is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its elliptical orbit. AB is the major axis and CD is the minor axis. AO or OB is called semi-major axis. • Let, T = Period of revolution of planet around Sun. R = length of semi- major axis According to Kepler’s third law, T2 ∝ R3 or T2 = KR3
  • 10. • Let T1 and T2 be the periods of any two planets around the Sun. Let , R1 and R2 be the lengths of their respective semi – major axes Then,
  • 11. • Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a • force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and • inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION
  • 12.
  • 13. • The force of attraction between any two particles in the universe is known as force of gravitation. • The force of gravitational attraction between the two bodies acts along the line joining their center. This force is mutual and Characteristics of gravitational force
  • 14. • Combining these factors we get  & • {Where the value of G in SI units is (6.67 × 10– 11 Nm2 kg–2). The universal gravitational constant (G) is numerically equal to the force of attraction between two bodies, each of unit mass, separated by unit distance.
  • 15. • In vector notation, Newton’s law of gravitation is written as follows:
  • 16. • Let us consider a body of mass m lying on the surface of the Earth of mass M and radius R. Let g be the value of acceleration due to gravity on the free surface of Earth. ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY OF THE EARTH
  • 17. • • Since the value of g at a given place on the Earth is constant and R is also constant Therefore  • Thus, the value of acceleration due to gravity decreases with increase in height above the surface of Earth. Variation of g with Altitude (Height)
  • 18. • We know that, • ∴ Loss of Weight at Height h(<<R)
  • 19. • Assume the Earth to be a homogeneous sphere (having uniform density) of radius R and mass M. If at a depth h, the gravity will be gh. Then, the difference is given by  Variation of g with Depth
  • 20. • Here g- gh gives the decrease in the value of g. • Since g is constant at a given place of the Earth and R is also a constant, ∴
  • 21. Thus the value of acceleration due to gravity decreases with the increase of depth.
  • 22. • The force of gravity is a conservative force and we can calculate the potential energy of a body arising out of this force, called the gravitational potential energy. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
  • 23. • This work done is equal to the gravitational potential energy U of mass m.
  • 24. • According to convention, the gravitational potential energy at the surface of the Earth is taken to be zero. ∴ U = m x g x h
  • 25. • A satellite is a body which is continuously revolving around a bigger body. Satellite may be regarded as a ‘secondary body’. • The centripetal force required by a satellite to move in a circular orbit is provided by the gravitational force of attraction between the satellite and the body around which it revolves. SATELLITES
  • 26. • Planets can be said to be the natural satellites of the sun. • Moon is a natural satellite of the Earth which revolves around the Earth in a nearly circular orbit of radius • 3.85 x 105 km and completes one revolution is 27.3 days.
  • 27. • GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES • POLAR SATELLITES TYPES OF SATELLITES
  • 28. • A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same as the Earth's rotation period. Such a satellite returns to the same position in the sky after each sidereal day. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
  • 29. • These satellites have revolutionized global communications, television broadcasting and weather forecasting, and have a number of important defense and intelligence applications. USES
  • 30. • Polar satellite is a satellite that revolves around the Earth in a polar orbit. It is usually as close as ≈ 250km. • As the Earth rotates about its axis a polar satellite passes many different places during its motion unlike the geostationary satellite. POLAR SATELLITES
  • 31. • Polar satellites are being used to record the land and sea temperatures, take pictures of cloud and predict the movement of winds and ultimately forecast the weather reporting. • It is hence also called a Monitoring or weather satellite. USES