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DSB INTERNATIONAL
PUBLIC SCHOOL
PHYSICS PROJECT FOR
CLASS XII
SUBMITTED BY – Aryavarta Giri
(1111111)
Automatic Water Level
Controller.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
 In the accomplishment of this project
successfully, many people have best owned
upon me their blessings and the heart pledged
support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the
people who have been concerned with project.
Then I would like to thank my physics teacher
Mr. Rajesh Bhandari whose valuable
guidance helped me patch this project and
make it a success. I would also thank my
principal Mr. Shiv Sehgal for his sincere
attention on us.
INTRODUCTION
 Automatic water level controller circuit is a
simple engineering project. It can
automatically switch ON and OFF the
domestic water pump set depending on the
tank water level. You can implement this motor
driver circuit at your home or college using
less costly components.
 The approximated cost of the project is about
$5 only. The main advantage of this water
level controller circuit is that it automatically
controls the water pump without any user
interaction.
The heart of this pump controller circuit is a NE
555 IC.
ABSTRACT
 The drinking water crisis in India is reaching
alarming proportions. It might very soon attain
the nature of global crisis. Hence, it is of
utmost importance to preserve water. In many
houses there is unnecessary wastage of water
due to overflow in Overhead Tanks. Automatic
Water Level Controller can provide a solution
to this problem. The operation of water level
controller works upon the fact that water
conducts electricity.
 So water can be used to open or close a
circuit. As the water level rises or falls, different
circuits in the controller send different signals.
These signals are used to switch ON or switch
OFF the motor pump as per our requirements.
MOTIVATION
 The total amount of water available on Earth
has been estimated at 1.4 billion km3, enough
to cover the planet with a layer of about 3 km.
About 95% of the Earth's water is in the
oceans, 1% is in the form of vapours and in
the clouds which is unfit for human
consumption leaving us with 4% of water to
use.
 A study estimated that a person in India
consumes an average of 135 litres per
day.This consumption would rise by 40% by
the year 2025. This signifies the need to
preserve our fresh water resources
ELECTRICAL DEVICES USED
1. NE 555 timer IC
2. Resistors (100Ωx2, 10kΩ)
3. Relay (6V, 30A)
4. BC 548 transistor x2
5. Diode
6. Capacitors x2
7. Step Down Transformer
8. LED
NE 555 TIMER IC
 IC 555 timer is a one of the most widely used
IC in electronics and is used in various
electronic circuits for its robust and stable
properties. It works as square-wave form
generator with duty cycle varying from 50% to
100%, Oscillator and can also provide time
delay in circuits. The 555 timer got its name
from the three 5k Ω resistor connected in a
voltage-divider pattern.
APPLICATIONS
 The IC 555 timer is used in many circuits, for
example One-shot pulse generator in
Monostable mode as an Oscillator in Astable
Mode or in Bistable mode to produce a flip/flop
type action, also in Pulse Amplitude
Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) etc.
RESISTORS
 Resistors are electronic components which
have a specific, never-changing electrical
resistance. The resistor’s resistance limits the
flow of electrons through a circuit. They
are passive components, meaning they only
consume power (and can’t generate it).
 Resistors are usually added to circuits where
they complement active components like op-
amps, microcontrollers, and other integrated
circuits. Commonly resistors are used to limit
current, divide voltages, and pull-up I/O lines.
 Resistors are used in many fields the basic of
all are LED current limiting so that they don’t
blow up, they act as voltage dividers and many
more.
RELAY(6V,30A)
 A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Many relays use an electromagnet to
mechanically operate a switch, but other
operating principles are also used, such
as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it
is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power
signal (with complete electrical isolation
between control and controlled circuits), or
where several circuits must be controlled by
one signal.
 The first relays were used in long
distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they
repeated the signal coming in from one circuit
and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays
were used extensively in telephone exchanges
and early computers to perform logical
operations.
BC548 TRANSISTOR
 The BC548 is a general purpose NPN bipolar
junction transistor found commonly in
European electronic equipment and present-
day designs in Australian and British
electronics magazines where a commonly-
available low-cost NPN transistor is required. It
is a part of a family of NPN and
PNP epitaxial silicon transistors that include
higher-quality variants.
DIODE
 A diode is an electrical device allowing current to
move through it in one direction with far greater
ease than in the other.
 A diode is a two-terminal electronic component
with asymmetric conductance. it has low (ideally
zero) resistance to current in one direction, and
high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A
semiconductor diode, the most common type
today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor
material with a p-n junction connected to two
electrical terminals.[5]
CAPACITORS
 A capacitor is used to store energy
electrostatically in an electric feild. There are
two types of capacitor. Plate and cylindrical.
The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase
the capacitor's charge capacity. Capacitors are
widely used as parts of electrical circuits in
many common electrical devices to provide
large amount of charge.
Various types of resistors
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER
 It is electrical device which convert high
voltage current into low voltage current. It is
based on the concept of electromagnetic
induction. It consists of three parts:-
 A)Primary coil- the coil in which input currents
goes.
 B)Secondary coil- the coil from which output
current comes outwith voltage reduced.
LED
 A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead
semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction
diode, which emits light when activated. When a
suitable voltage is applied to the leads,
electrons are able to recombine with electron
holes within the device, releasing energy in the
form of photons. This effect is called
electroluminescence, and the color of the light is
determined by the energy band gap of the
semiconductor.
CONCLUSION
 Thus by using this simple arrangement we can
save wastage of water and electricity. It is very
important for us to control the use of natural
source of energy. By using this circuit we can
solve our purpose very easily.
THANK YOU!!
MADE BY THE JOINT EFFORTS OF –
ARYAVARTA GIRI
CLASS – XII ‘A’
SUBMITTED TO –
MR. RAJESH BHANDARI

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Physics Investigatory Project Class XII.. Water Level Controller.!!

  • 1. DSB INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL PHYSICS PROJECT FOR CLASS XII SUBMITTED BY – Aryavarta Giri (1111111)
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many people have best owned upon me their blessings and the heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have been concerned with project. Then I would like to thank my physics teacher Mr. Rajesh Bhandari whose valuable guidance helped me patch this project and make it a success. I would also thank my principal Mr. Shiv Sehgal for his sincere attention on us.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Automatic water level controller circuit is a simple engineering project. It can automatically switch ON and OFF the domestic water pump set depending on the tank water level. You can implement this motor driver circuit at your home or college using less costly components.
  • 5.  The approximated cost of the project is about $5 only. The main advantage of this water level controller circuit is that it automatically controls the water pump without any user interaction. The heart of this pump controller circuit is a NE 555 IC.
  • 6. ABSTRACT  The drinking water crisis in India is reaching alarming proportions. It might very soon attain the nature of global crisis. Hence, it is of utmost importance to preserve water. In many houses there is unnecessary wastage of water due to overflow in Overhead Tanks. Automatic Water Level Controller can provide a solution to this problem. The operation of water level controller works upon the fact that water conducts electricity.
  • 7.  So water can be used to open or close a circuit. As the water level rises or falls, different circuits in the controller send different signals. These signals are used to switch ON or switch OFF the motor pump as per our requirements.
  • 8. MOTIVATION  The total amount of water available on Earth has been estimated at 1.4 billion km3, enough to cover the planet with a layer of about 3 km. About 95% of the Earth's water is in the oceans, 1% is in the form of vapours and in the clouds which is unfit for human consumption leaving us with 4% of water to use.
  • 9.  A study estimated that a person in India consumes an average of 135 litres per day.This consumption would rise by 40% by the year 2025. This signifies the need to preserve our fresh water resources
  • 10. ELECTRICAL DEVICES USED 1. NE 555 timer IC 2. Resistors (100Ωx2, 10kΩ) 3. Relay (6V, 30A) 4. BC 548 transistor x2 5. Diode 6. Capacitors x2 7. Step Down Transformer 8. LED
  • 11. NE 555 TIMER IC  IC 555 timer is a one of the most widely used IC in electronics and is used in various electronic circuits for its robust and stable properties. It works as square-wave form generator with duty cycle varying from 50% to 100%, Oscillator and can also provide time delay in circuits. The 555 timer got its name from the three 5k Ω resistor connected in a voltage-divider pattern.
  • 12.
  • 13. APPLICATIONS  The IC 555 timer is used in many circuits, for example One-shot pulse generator in Monostable mode as an Oscillator in Astable Mode or in Bistable mode to produce a flip/flop type action, also in Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) etc.
  • 14. RESISTORS  Resistors are electronic components which have a specific, never-changing electrical resistance. The resistor’s resistance limits the flow of electrons through a circuit. They are passive components, meaning they only consume power (and can’t generate it).
  • 15.  Resistors are usually added to circuits where they complement active components like op- amps, microcontrollers, and other integrated circuits. Commonly resistors are used to limit current, divide voltages, and pull-up I/O lines.  Resistors are used in many fields the basic of all are LED current limiting so that they don’t blow up, they act as voltage dividers and many more.
  • 16.
  • 17. RELAY(6V,30A)  A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
  • 18.  The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
  • 19.
  • 20. BC548 TRANSISTOR  The BC548 is a general purpose NPN bipolar junction transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment and present- day designs in Australian and British electronics magazines where a commonly- available low-cost NPN transistor is required. It is a part of a family of NPN and PNP epitaxial silicon transistors that include higher-quality variants.
  • 21.
  • 22. DIODE  A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other.  A diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance. it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals.[5]
  • 23.
  • 24. CAPACITORS  A capacitor is used to store energy electrostatically in an electric feild. There are two types of capacitor. Plate and cylindrical. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices to provide large amount of charge.
  • 25. Various types of resistors
  • 26. STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER  It is electrical device which convert high voltage current into low voltage current. It is based on the concept of electromagnetic induction. It consists of three parts:-  A)Primary coil- the coil in which input currents goes.  B)Secondary coil- the coil from which output current comes outwith voltage reduced.
  • 27.
  • 28. LED  A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.
  • 29.
  • 30. CONCLUSION  Thus by using this simple arrangement we can save wastage of water and electricity. It is very important for us to control the use of natural source of energy. By using this circuit we can solve our purpose very easily.
  • 31. THANK YOU!! MADE BY THE JOINT EFFORTS OF – ARYAVARTA GIRI CLASS – XII ‘A’ SUBMITTED TO – MR. RAJESH BHANDARI