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1
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
The two most common reporting verbs are “say” and “tell”. They are usually in the past simple.
Sara says, “I am going to buy a new car next week.”” (DIRECT)
Reported clause:
Sara said (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT)
or
Sara told me (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT)
→ With the verb tell we need an object pronoun
2
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Although the most common reporting verbs are say and tell, there are a number of
other reporting verbs such as “explain”, “assure”, “refuse”, “promise”, “warn”, etc. that can be used
instead of say or tell to make reported statements and questions.
STRUCTURES:
subject + reporting verb + (that) + clause
□ She explained (that) she had been abroad at the time. (‘that’ is optional)
subject + reporting verb + direct object + (that) + clause
□ They assured us (that) there would be no delay.
subject + reporting verb + infintive
□ He refused to work at weekends.
subject + reporting verb + direct object + infintive
□ She reminded me to come to the meeting.
3
FCE
by Matifmarin
GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Usually, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech:
She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired.
DIRECT SPEECH
Simple present
"I always drink coffee", she said
Present continuous
"I am reading a book", he explained.
Simple past
"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said.
Present perfect
"I have been to Spain", he told me.
Past perfect
"I had just turned out the light," he explained.
Present perfect continuous
They complained, "We have been waiting for hours".
Past continuous
"We were living in Paris", they told me.
Future
"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said
Future continuous
She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday".
REPORTED SPEECH
Simple past
She said that she always drank coffee.
Past continuous
He explained that he was reading a book
Past perfect
He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday
Past perfect
He told me that he had been to Spain
Past perfect
He explained that he had just turned out the light.
Past perfect continuous
They complained that they had been waiting for hours.
Past perfect continuous
They told me that they had been living in Paris.
Present conditional
He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
Conditional continuous
She said that she would be using the car next Friday.
4
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
NOTE:
We do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true / a universal truth,
Examples:
● He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one.
● They explained that it is very difficult to find an honest politician.
● She told the children that the sun rises in the east.
We used the indirect speech to report what we have heard from other people
Let’s see some graphical examples!!
5
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Sorry, dear, I couldn’t hear
you with the noise of the
hairdryer. Did you say that
Mary said that Peter and
Sara …
Did you know …? I saw
Sara yesterday and she
said “Peter and Mary are
having an affear.”
Martin got the
sack last week.What? I can’t believe it.
Who told you that he had
got sack?
It’s my weeding ring.
My wife said I had to
wear it here to stop
me flirting with other
female.
No, dear! I said
Sara told me that
Peter and Mary
were having
an affair.
6
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
7
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
I am going to the
opera this afternoon.
I saw Cathy two days
ago and she told me
she was going to the
opera that afternoon.
There are also changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech.
The common rules are the following:
Today changes to that day/the same day
Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day
Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day
Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year
Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year
Now/just changes to then
Ago changes to before
Here changes to there
This changes to that
Ready for a little test?
Let’s go!!
8
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Report the following sentences:
(1) Natàlia:"Our teacher will go to London tomorrow."
(2) Fátima:"I was writing a letter yesterday."
(3) Fabrizio:"My father flew to New York last year."
(4) Xavi:“Adrià went to the stadium an hour ago.“
(5) The teacher: “You should arrive earlier.”
(6) Glória said: “I wake up at six every day”
(7) Last week Núria said: “We will meet our new instructor tomorrow”
9
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
(1) Natàlia said that their teacher would go to London the next day.
(2) Fátima told me that she had been writing a letter the day before.
ANSWER
(3) Fabrizio told me that his father had flown to New York the year before.
(4) Xavi said (that) Adrià had gone / been to the stadium an hour before.
(5) The teacher recommend (that) we should arrive earlier.”
(6) Glória said (that) she woke up at six every day. / wakes up at six every day (Present if you consider it to be still true )
(7) Last week Núria said that they would meet their new instructor the following day.
10
FCE
by Matifmarin
GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Modals changes
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Can Could
Examples:
□ He said, "I can’t go to school today. - He said he couldn't go to school that day.
□ The teacher told me "you can pass the exam." - The teacher told me I could pass the exam.
May Might
Examples:
□ She asked: “May I sleep here?” - She asked whether she might sleep there?
□ The children said: “We may watch TV for two hours” - The children said they might watch TV for two hours.
Might Might
Example:
□ “You might come for a coffee tomorrow.”, he said. - He said that I might go for a coffee the following day.
Must Had to
Example:
□ The babysitter said to the children, "you must eat your meal" - The babysitter said to the children they had to eat their
meal.“
Should Should
Example:
□ "We should do our homework", the teacher told us" - The teacher told us (that) we should do our homework.
Ought to Ought to
Example:
□ The doctor recommended, "you ought to sleep more" - The doctor recommended that I ought to sleep more.
11
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
My mother always told
me (that) I should get
rid of things I didn't like.
You must tell Peter he
ought to work harder.
The boss said that
you ought to work
harder.
12
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
TYPES OF NOUNS
(1) Countable Nouns
(2) Uncountable Nouns.
(1) COUNTABLE NOUNS , these nouns can be either singular or plural, and are used with verbs in either the singular or the plural:
- a meal, meals
- this dish, those dishes
- one colour, several colours
- An Indian meal consists of a variety of dishes.
- The dishes vary in colour, texture and flavour.
(2) UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS, these nouns are always used with a singular verb:
- beauty, bread, fruit, milk, oil, water, greed, hunger
- Fruit is served at the end of a meal.
□ If you want to talk about separate, countable pieces or quantities of uncountable nouns, you use an expression like:
- a bit of, a bottle of, a piece of, a slice of
□ The following nouns are uncountable:
- advice, equipment, evidence, furniture, homework
- information, knowledge, luggage, news, work
13
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
SOME / ANY WITH COUNTABLES AND UNCOUNTABLES
We use some and any in front of plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
a) Some is usually used in positive statements:
- Some salt and pepper may be added.
- Here is some information about Mexican food.
b) Any is usually used in negative statements and questions:
- We don't serve any drinks until seven in the evening.
- Is there any milk left in the fridge?
c) Some can also be used in questions when you expect the answer to be 'yes', or you want to encourage someone to say 'yes':
- Could you get me some lemons?
- Would you like some orange juice?
d) Any can also be used in positive statements when you don't want to mention a specific person or thing:
- Any bank will accept these traveller's cheques.
- Call me any time this evening. I'll be in the whole time.
14
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
Let’s practice a bit with Countable and Uncountable nouns
Choose the suitable word or phrase in each sentence
1 a) Cathy is such a gossip | gossip that I'm afraid to tell her anything.
1 b) You shouldn't go around spreading a gossip | gossip about people.
2 a) Do you remember when the only place you could buy a paper | paper was your local newsagent shop?
2 b) She needs paper | a paper and a pen to write a letter.
3 a) Light | A light was still burning in the kitchen.
3 b) The windows let fresh air and light | a light into the living room.
4 a) How long has she been looking for work | a work?
4 b) She recognized the painting as an early work | early work by Claude Monet.
5 a) I'd like to propose a toast | toast to our new manager.
5 b) I usually have toast | a toast and butter for breakfast.
6 a) She doesn't have the skills necessary to run business | a business.
6 b) Brian has decided to go into business | a business with his sister.
15
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12
1a. a gossip → GOSSIP with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a person who listens to and passes on gossip.
1b. gossip → GOSSIP without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE)) => informal talk or stories about other people's private lives, that may be unkind or not true.
3a. a light → LIGHT with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a thing that produces light, especially an electric light.
2a. a paper → PAPER with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a newspaper.
2b. paper → PAPER without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the material that is used in the form of thin sheets for writing or printing on, wrapping things.
3b.light → LIGHT without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the energy from the sun, a flame, a lamp etc. that allows you to see things.
4a. work → WORK without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => employment.
4b. an early work → WORK with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a painting, book, play, piece of music etc.
5a. a toast → TOAST with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a call on other people to drink in honour of someone or something.
5a. toast → TOAST without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => bread that has been sliced and then made crisp and brown by heat.
6a. a business → BUSINESS with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a shop; a firm; a company.
6b. a business → BUSINESS without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the activity of making, buying, selling or supplying goods or services for money.
ANSWER
 EndEnd

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Grammar Contents Unit 12: Reported Speech & Contable-uncountable nouns

  • 1. 1 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 The two most common reporting verbs are “say” and “tell”. They are usually in the past simple. Sara says, “I am going to buy a new car next week.”” (DIRECT) Reported clause: Sara said (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT) or Sara told me (that) she was going to buy a new car the following week. (INDIRECT) → With the verb tell we need an object pronoun
  • 2. 2 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Although the most common reporting verbs are say and tell, there are a number of other reporting verbs such as “explain”, “assure”, “refuse”, “promise”, “warn”, etc. that can be used instead of say or tell to make reported statements and questions. STRUCTURES: subject + reporting verb + (that) + clause □ She explained (that) she had been abroad at the time. (‘that’ is optional) subject + reporting verb + direct object + (that) + clause □ They assured us (that) there would be no delay. subject + reporting verb + infintive □ He refused to work at weekends. subject + reporting verb + direct object + infintive □ She reminded me to come to the meeting.
  • 3. 3 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Usually, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired. DIRECT SPEECH Simple present "I always drink coffee", she said Present continuous "I am reading a book", he explained. Simple past "Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. Present perfect "I have been to Spain", he told me. Past perfect "I had just turned out the light," he explained. Present perfect continuous They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". Past continuous "We were living in Paris", they told me. Future "I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said Future continuous She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". REPORTED SPEECH Simple past She said that she always drank coffee. Past continuous He explained that he was reading a book Past perfect He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday Past perfect He told me that he had been to Spain Past perfect He explained that he had just turned out the light. Past perfect continuous They complained that they had been waiting for hours. Past perfect continuous They told me that they had been living in Paris. Present conditional He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. Conditional continuous She said that she would be using the car next Friday.
  • 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 NOTE: We do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true / a universal truth, Examples: ● He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one. ● They explained that it is very difficult to find an honest politician. ● She told the children that the sun rises in the east. We used the indirect speech to report what we have heard from other people Let’s see some graphical examples!!
  • 5. 5 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Sorry, dear, I couldn’t hear you with the noise of the hairdryer. Did you say that Mary said that Peter and Sara … Did you know …? I saw Sara yesterday and she said “Peter and Mary are having an affear.” Martin got the sack last week.What? I can’t believe it. Who told you that he had got sack? It’s my weeding ring. My wife said I had to wear it here to stop me flirting with other female. No, dear! I said Sara told me that Peter and Mary were having an affair.
  • 7. 7 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 I am going to the opera this afternoon. I saw Cathy two days ago and she told me she was going to the opera that afternoon. There are also changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech. The common rules are the following: Today changes to that day/the same day Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year Now/just changes to then Ago changes to before Here changes to there This changes to that Ready for a little test? Let’s go!!
  • 8. 8 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Report the following sentences: (1) Natàlia:"Our teacher will go to London tomorrow." (2) Fátima:"I was writing a letter yesterday." (3) Fabrizio:"My father flew to New York last year." (4) Xavi:“Adrià went to the stadium an hour ago.“ (5) The teacher: “You should arrive earlier.” (6) Glória said: “I wake up at six every day” (7) Last week Núria said: “We will meet our new instructor tomorrow”
  • 9. 9 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 (1) Natàlia said that their teacher would go to London the next day. (2) Fátima told me that she had been writing a letter the day before. ANSWER (3) Fabrizio told me that his father had flown to New York the year before. (4) Xavi said (that) Adrià had gone / been to the stadium an hour before. (5) The teacher recommend (that) we should arrive earlier.” (6) Glória said (that) she woke up at six every day. / wakes up at six every day (Present if you consider it to be still true ) (7) Last week Núria said that they would meet their new instructor the following day.
  • 10. 10 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Modals changes Direct Speech Indirect Speech Can Could Examples: □ He said, "I can’t go to school today. - He said he couldn't go to school that day. □ The teacher told me "you can pass the exam." - The teacher told me I could pass the exam. May Might Examples: □ She asked: “May I sleep here?” - She asked whether she might sleep there? □ The children said: “We may watch TV for two hours” - The children said they might watch TV for two hours. Might Might Example: □ “You might come for a coffee tomorrow.”, he said. - He said that I might go for a coffee the following day. Must Had to Example: □ The babysitter said to the children, "you must eat your meal" - The babysitter said to the children they had to eat their meal.“ Should Should Example: □ "We should do our homework", the teacher told us" - The teacher told us (that) we should do our homework. Ought to Ought to Example: □ The doctor recommended, "you ought to sleep more" - The doctor recommended that I ought to sleep more.
  • 11. 11 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 My mother always told me (that) I should get rid of things I didn't like. You must tell Peter he ought to work harder. The boss said that you ought to work harder.
  • 12. 12 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 TYPES OF NOUNS (1) Countable Nouns (2) Uncountable Nouns. (1) COUNTABLE NOUNS , these nouns can be either singular or plural, and are used with verbs in either the singular or the plural: - a meal, meals - this dish, those dishes - one colour, several colours - An Indian meal consists of a variety of dishes. - The dishes vary in colour, texture and flavour. (2) UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS, these nouns are always used with a singular verb: - beauty, bread, fruit, milk, oil, water, greed, hunger - Fruit is served at the end of a meal. □ If you want to talk about separate, countable pieces or quantities of uncountable nouns, you use an expression like: - a bit of, a bottle of, a piece of, a slice of □ The following nouns are uncountable: - advice, equipment, evidence, furniture, homework - information, knowledge, luggage, news, work
  • 13. 13 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 SOME / ANY WITH COUNTABLES AND UNCOUNTABLES We use some and any in front of plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns. a) Some is usually used in positive statements: - Some salt and pepper may be added. - Here is some information about Mexican food. b) Any is usually used in negative statements and questions: - We don't serve any drinks until seven in the evening. - Is there any milk left in the fridge? c) Some can also be used in questions when you expect the answer to be 'yes', or you want to encourage someone to say 'yes': - Could you get me some lemons? - Would you like some orange juice? d) Any can also be used in positive statements when you don't want to mention a specific person or thing: - Any bank will accept these traveller's cheques. - Call me any time this evening. I'll be in the whole time.
  • 14. 14 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 Let’s practice a bit with Countable and Uncountable nouns Choose the suitable word or phrase in each sentence 1 a) Cathy is such a gossip | gossip that I'm afraid to tell her anything. 1 b) You shouldn't go around spreading a gossip | gossip about people. 2 a) Do you remember when the only place you could buy a paper | paper was your local newsagent shop? 2 b) She needs paper | a paper and a pen to write a letter. 3 a) Light | A light was still burning in the kitchen. 3 b) The windows let fresh air and light | a light into the living room. 4 a) How long has she been looking for work | a work? 4 b) She recognized the painting as an early work | early work by Claude Monet. 5 a) I'd like to propose a toast | toast to our new manager. 5 b) I usually have toast | a toast and butter for breakfast. 6 a) She doesn't have the skills necessary to run business | a business. 6 b) Brian has decided to go into business | a business with his sister.
  • 15. 15 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 12 1a. a gossip → GOSSIP with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a person who listens to and passes on gossip. 1b. gossip → GOSSIP without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE)) => informal talk or stories about other people's private lives, that may be unkind or not true. 3a. a light → LIGHT with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a thing that produces light, especially an electric light. 2a. a paper → PAPER with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a newspaper. 2b. paper → PAPER without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the material that is used in the form of thin sheets for writing or printing on, wrapping things. 3b.light → LIGHT without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the energy from the sun, a flame, a lamp etc. that allows you to see things. 4a. work → WORK without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => employment. 4b. an early work → WORK with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a painting, book, play, piece of music etc. 5a. a toast → TOAST with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a call on other people to drink in honour of someone or something. 5a. toast → TOAST without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => bread that has been sliced and then made crisp and brown by heat. 6a. a business → BUSINESS with A/AN (COUNTABLE) => a shop; a firm; a company. 6b. a business → BUSINESS without A/AN (UNCOUNTABLE) => the activity of making, buying, selling or supplying goods or services for money. ANSWER  EndEnd