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SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 Relative clauses
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
These type of clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing
we are talking about. Therefore, we must use a relative pronoun in defining clauses.
SUMMARY:
 
(a) Defining (no comma and essential information)
Subject Object (can be omitted) Possessive
(b) non-defining (comma and extra information)
subject object (can be omitted) possessive
For persons who who/whom whose
that that
Who who/whom            whose
_____ _______
For things which which whose / of which which                     which   whose/of which
  ( Note that here we don’t use ‘that’)
Examples:
• In  defining relative clause we use who/ that/which instead of he/she/they/it.
- The woman –she lives next door –is a doctor.
→ The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (subject of the relative sentence → can’t be omitted)
□ We can use “that” instead of “who”: The woman that lives next door is a doctor (Not in non-defining)
→ We know a lot of people who live in London.
- We know a lot of people –they live in London.
2
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 Relative clauses
□ When we’re talking about things, we use that or which (not who) in relative clauses:
e.g.: - Where is the cheese? -It was in the fridge.
that
- Where is the cheese was in the fridge? (the cheese is the subject of the R. clause → It can’t be omitted)
which
♦ When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. Thus, you say:
- The woman (who/that) I wanted to see was away (I wanted to see “the woman” = object)
- Have you found the book (that) you lost? (You lost “the book”)
→ The object pronouns can be omitted.
♦ The relative pronouns ‘whom/who/that’ are used for people (‘whom’ is very formal):
EXAMPLES:
-The man whom/who/that I saw told me to come back today (I saw a man = object → the rel. pron can be omitted)
→ The man I saw told me to come back today.
♦The possessive whose is the only possible form for: people, animals and things (things also “of which”):
EXAMPLES:
- Dogs whose puppies have been sold can’t be very happy. - The window whose glass / the glass of which has been broken must be repaired.
- People whose rents have been raised are very happy. - The girl whose parents are rich has everything she wants.
3
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 Relative clauses
Practice:
1.- An architect is someone _____ designs buildings.
2.- I don’t like stories ______ have unhappy endings.
3.- What was the name of the man ______ lent you the money?
4.- Anyone ______ wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.
5.- Barbara works for a company _____ makes washing machines.
6.- The machine ______ broke down has now been repaired.
4
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 Relative clauses
ANSWERANSWER
1.- An architect is someone who designs buildings.
2.- I don’t like stories that have unhappy endings. (or …. stories which have…)
3.- What was the name of the man who lent you the money?
4.- Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.
5.- Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. (or … a company which makes …)
6.- The machine that broke down has now been repaired. (or … which broke down …)
Notice that we can use that instead of who: The woman that lives next door is very
friendly. And that is more usual than which for things.
→ Don’t forget to study the contents of UNIT 23 and do the activities both in SB & WB!!
5
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
•fond, proud, ashamed, jealous, envious
•suspicious, critical, tolerant
•afraid, frightened, terrified, scared
+
OF
(1) ADJECTIVES + OF
●aware, conscious
•capable, incapable
•full, short
•typical
•tired, sick, certain, sure
•independent
+
OF
●good, bad, brilliant, better, hopeless +
AT
(2) ADJECTIVES + AT
●married, engaged
•similar
+
TO
(3) ADJECTIVES + TO
•different
+
FROM
(4) ADJECTIVES + TO (5) ADJECTIVES + TO
•keen
•dependent
+
ON
(6) ADJECTIVES + TO
● crowded +
WITH
●famous
•responsible
+
FOR
(7) ADJECTIVES + TO
6
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
(1) nice / kind / good / intelligent / clever / sensible/polite reasonable
(+) silly / stupid / impolite / rude / unreasonable (-) OF someone (to do
something):
EXAMPLES:
- It was stupid of me to go out so late at night.
- Thank you. It was nice/kind/polite of you to help me.
Adjective + preposition
nice of
Oh, thank you ! It's very nice
of you to remember my
birthday!
7
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET
by Matifmarin.
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
(1) ADJECTIVES + OF
afraid, frightened, terrified, scared OF someone / something
e.g.: Are you afraid of dogs?
(1.2) ashamed, proud, aware, (in)capable, conscious, fond , full, , jealous, envious, suspicious, short, tired OF sb/sth
EXAMPLES:
- I´m ashamed of what I did.
- I´m short of money. Can you lend me some?
- I´m tired of waiting, try to be more punctual.
-She was jealous of her husband’s secretary.
(2) ADJECTIVES + TO
nice, kind, good, generous, mean, (im)polite, rude, (un)pleasant, (un)friendly, cruel TO someone
EXAMPLES:
- They have always been nice to me.
- She is always rude to Ann
(2.1) married, engaged TO someone
e.g.: Sara is married to an American.
(2.2) addicted, allergic, attentive, grateful, immune, indifferent, liable (likely to suffer from) TO something
e.g.: He has become addicted to drugs very early
CONTEXTUALISED EXAMPLES
8
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
CONTEXTUALISED EXAMPLES
(3) ADJECTIVES + WITH
delighted, pleased, satisfied, disappointed, bored, fed up, connected, happy, obsessed, preoccupied, crowded WITH
someone/something
e.g.: I was disappointed with the gift.
(3.1) ADJECTIVES + WITH / ABOUT
angry, annoyed, furious WITH someone for doing something; angry, annoyed, furious ABOUT something
EXAMPLE:
A.- What are you so angry about? B.- I’m furious with her for not inviting me to her party.
(3.2) ADJECTIVES + ABOUT
excited, worried, upset, sorry, anxious, certain, right, wrong ABOUT something
EXAMPLE:
- I’m sorry about the noise last night.
-I was right about the exam results
(4) ADJECTIVES + AT
good, bad, excellent, brilliant, hopeless AT something
e.g.: I´m hopeless at repairing things.
(4.1) ADJECTIVES + AT / BY
e.g.: Everybody was shocked at/by the news.
(5) ADJECTIVES + FOR
famous, sorry, late, ready, responsible FOR something
EXAMPLE:
- I’m sorry for shouting at you.
- She is responsible for everything at the office.
(6) ADJECTIVES + IN
interested, experienced IN something
e.g.: Are you interested in arts?
9
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
Look at the extracts from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English to find the
prepositions which follow the adjectives below.
bored adj tired and impatient because you do not think something is interesting, or because you have nothing to do:
Children easily get bored.| [+ with] I’m bored with the same old routine day after day.
con•fused adj unable to understand clearly what someone is saying or what is happening: I am totally confused. Could you
explain that again?| [+ about] If you are confused about anything, phone my office.
de•pressed adj a) feeling very unhappy: She felt lonely and depressed.| [+ about] Carter seemed depressed about the
situation.
dis•ap•point•ed adj sad because something you hoped for did not happen, or because someone or something was not as
good as expected: Dad seemed more disappointed than angry.| [+ about] Nathan’s really disappointed about not being able
to go.
em•bar•rassed adj ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable in a social situation: I managed to spill water on one of the guests
– I was so embarrassed!| [+ about] At about the age of twelve, girls start feeling embarrassed about changing their clothes in
front of other people.
ex•cit•ed adj happy, interested or hopeful because something good has happened or will happen: Steve’s flying home
tomorrow – we’re all very excited. | excited crowds of shoppers. | [+ about] The kids are so excited about Christmas.
fright•ened adj feeling afraid: a frightened animal| [+ of] I was frightened of being left by myself in the house.
in•terest•ed adj giving a lot of attention to something because you want to find out more about it: [+ in] I’m not really
interested in politics.
sur•prised adj having a feeling of surprise: Mr Benson looked surprised when I told him I was leaving. |[+ at/by] We were
all surprised at Sue’s outburst.
wor•ried adj unhappy because you keep thinking about a problem or are anxious about something: Don’t look so worried –
we’ll find him.| [about] She’s so worried about her
10
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
1 bored _____with______
2 confused ________________
3 depressed ________________
4 disappointed ________________
5 embarrassed ________________
6 excited ________________
7 frightened ________________
8 interested ________________
9 surprised ________________
10 worried ________________
ACTIVITIES
1. Decide which preposition follows the adjectives below:
2. Match a beginning from A with an ending from B. Then complete the sentences with a preposition.
A
1 Nobody seems to be interested
2 I’m so bored
3 Are you still frightened
4 We were really disappointed
5 Are you excited
6 My boss was surprised
7 Everyone seems to be worried
8 Don’t be embarrassed
9 My sister’s really depressed
10 I’m not confused
B
a _________ my decision to leave.
b _________ saying what you really think.
c _________ money at the moment.
d _________ the dark?
e _________ what I’m saying.
f _________ my job.
g _________ missing your party.
h _________ her weight.
i __________ English grammar any more.
j __________ your wedding?
11
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
ANSWERSANSWERS
UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS
1 bored _______with______
2 confused ____about_____
3 depressed ___about_____
4 disappointed _about_____
5 embarrassed _about_____
6 excited _____ about_____
7 frightened ____of_______
8 interested ____in_______
9 surprised __ at / by_____
10 worried ____about____
1. Decide which preposition follows the adjectives below:
2. Match a beginning from A with an ending from B. Then complete the sentences with a preposition.
A
1 Nobody seems to be interested
2 I’m so bored
3 Are you still frightened
4 We were really disappointed
5 Are you excited
6 My boss was surprised
7 Everyone seems to be worried
8 Don’t be embarrassed
9 My sister’s really depressed
10 I’m not confused
B
a __at / by_ my decision to leave.
b __about__saying what you really think.
c __about__ money at the moment.
d __of_____ the dark?
e __in_____ what I’m saying.
f ___with___ my job.
g __about__ missing your party.
h __about__ her weight.
i __about___ English grammar any more.
j __about___ your wedding?
12
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
(1) I’m good ___
maths.
(2) I’m worried ____
losing my job.
(3) I’m ashamed
_____ what I
did.
(4) I’m worried
______ his
health.
(5) She’s
affraid ____
spiders.
(6) I’m really bad ____
repairing things.
Help these people with the suitable prepositions!!Help these people with the suitable prepositions!!
ANSWERS: 1. AT 2. ABOUT 3. OF 4. ABOUT 5. OF 6. AT
 EndEnd

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PET Unit 23 Relative Sentences and Adjs and Prep

  • 1. 1 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 Relative clauses DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES These type of clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Therefore, we must use a relative pronoun in defining clauses. SUMMARY:   (a) Defining (no comma and essential information) Subject Object (can be omitted) Possessive (b) non-defining (comma and extra information) subject object (can be omitted) possessive For persons who who/whom whose that that Who who/whom            whose _____ _______ For things which which whose / of which which                     which   whose/of which   ( Note that here we don’t use ‘that’) Examples: • In  defining relative clause we use who/ that/which instead of he/she/they/it. - The woman –she lives next door –is a doctor. → The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (subject of the relative sentence → can’t be omitted) □ We can use “that” instead of “who”: The woman that lives next door is a doctor (Not in non-defining) → We know a lot of people who live in London. - We know a lot of people –they live in London.
  • 2. 2 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 Relative clauses □ When we’re talking about things, we use that or which (not who) in relative clauses: e.g.: - Where is the cheese? -It was in the fridge. that - Where is the cheese was in the fridge? (the cheese is the subject of the R. clause → It can’t be omitted) which ♦ When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. Thus, you say: - The woman (who/that) I wanted to see was away (I wanted to see “the woman” = object) - Have you found the book (that) you lost? (You lost “the book”) → The object pronouns can be omitted. ♦ The relative pronouns ‘whom/who/that’ are used for people (‘whom’ is very formal): EXAMPLES: -The man whom/who/that I saw told me to come back today (I saw a man = object → the rel. pron can be omitted) → The man I saw told me to come back today. ♦The possessive whose is the only possible form for: people, animals and things (things also “of which”): EXAMPLES: - Dogs whose puppies have been sold can’t be very happy. - The window whose glass / the glass of which has been broken must be repaired. - People whose rents have been raised are very happy. - The girl whose parents are rich has everything she wants.
  • 3. 3 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 Relative clauses Practice: 1.- An architect is someone _____ designs buildings. 2.- I don’t like stories ______ have unhappy endings. 3.- What was the name of the man ______ lent you the money? 4.- Anyone ______ wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday. 5.- Barbara works for a company _____ makes washing machines. 6.- The machine ______ broke down has now been repaired.
  • 4. 4 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 Relative clauses ANSWERANSWER 1.- An architect is someone who designs buildings. 2.- I don’t like stories that have unhappy endings. (or …. stories which have…) 3.- What was the name of the man who lent you the money? 4.- Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday. 5.- Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. (or … a company which makes …) 6.- The machine that broke down has now been repaired. (or … which broke down …) Notice that we can use that instead of who: The woman that lives next door is very friendly. And that is more usual than which for things. → Don’t forget to study the contents of UNIT 23 and do the activities both in SB & WB!!
  • 5. 5 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS •fond, proud, ashamed, jealous, envious •suspicious, critical, tolerant •afraid, frightened, terrified, scared + OF (1) ADJECTIVES + OF ●aware, conscious •capable, incapable •full, short •typical •tired, sick, certain, sure •independent + OF ●good, bad, brilliant, better, hopeless + AT (2) ADJECTIVES + AT ●married, engaged •similar + TO (3) ADJECTIVES + TO •different + FROM (4) ADJECTIVES + TO (5) ADJECTIVES + TO •keen •dependent + ON (6) ADJECTIVES + TO ● crowded + WITH ●famous •responsible + FOR (7) ADJECTIVES + TO
  • 6. 6 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS (1) nice / kind / good / intelligent / clever / sensible/polite reasonable (+) silly / stupid / impolite / rude / unreasonable (-) OF someone (to do something): EXAMPLES: - It was stupid of me to go out so late at night. - Thank you. It was nice/kind/polite of you to help me. Adjective + preposition nice of Oh, thank you ! It's very nice of you to remember my birthday!
  • 7. 7 SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETPET by Matifmarin. UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS (1) ADJECTIVES + OF afraid, frightened, terrified, scared OF someone / something e.g.: Are you afraid of dogs? (1.2) ashamed, proud, aware, (in)capable, conscious, fond , full, , jealous, envious, suspicious, short, tired OF sb/sth EXAMPLES: - I´m ashamed of what I did. - I´m short of money. Can you lend me some? - I´m tired of waiting, try to be more punctual. -She was jealous of her husband’s secretary. (2) ADJECTIVES + TO nice, kind, good, generous, mean, (im)polite, rude, (un)pleasant, (un)friendly, cruel TO someone EXAMPLES: - They have always been nice to me. - She is always rude to Ann (2.1) married, engaged TO someone e.g.: Sara is married to an American. (2.2) addicted, allergic, attentive, grateful, immune, indifferent, liable (likely to suffer from) TO something e.g.: He has become addicted to drugs very early CONTEXTUALISED EXAMPLES
  • 8. 8 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS CONTEXTUALISED EXAMPLES (3) ADJECTIVES + WITH delighted, pleased, satisfied, disappointed, bored, fed up, connected, happy, obsessed, preoccupied, crowded WITH someone/something e.g.: I was disappointed with the gift. (3.1) ADJECTIVES + WITH / ABOUT angry, annoyed, furious WITH someone for doing something; angry, annoyed, furious ABOUT something EXAMPLE: A.- What are you so angry about? B.- I’m furious with her for not inviting me to her party. (3.2) ADJECTIVES + ABOUT excited, worried, upset, sorry, anxious, certain, right, wrong ABOUT something EXAMPLE: - I’m sorry about the noise last night. -I was right about the exam results (4) ADJECTIVES + AT good, bad, excellent, brilliant, hopeless AT something e.g.: I´m hopeless at repairing things. (4.1) ADJECTIVES + AT / BY e.g.: Everybody was shocked at/by the news. (5) ADJECTIVES + FOR famous, sorry, late, ready, responsible FOR something EXAMPLE: - I’m sorry for shouting at you. - She is responsible for everything at the office. (6) ADJECTIVES + IN interested, experienced IN something e.g.: Are you interested in arts?
  • 9. 9 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS Look at the extracts from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English to find the prepositions which follow the adjectives below. bored adj tired and impatient because you do not think something is interesting, or because you have nothing to do: Children easily get bored.| [+ with] I’m bored with the same old routine day after day. con•fused adj unable to understand clearly what someone is saying or what is happening: I am totally confused. Could you explain that again?| [+ about] If you are confused about anything, phone my office. de•pressed adj a) feeling very unhappy: She felt lonely and depressed.| [+ about] Carter seemed depressed about the situation. dis•ap•point•ed adj sad because something you hoped for did not happen, or because someone or something was not as good as expected: Dad seemed more disappointed than angry.| [+ about] Nathan’s really disappointed about not being able to go. em•bar•rassed adj ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable in a social situation: I managed to spill water on one of the guests – I was so embarrassed!| [+ about] At about the age of twelve, girls start feeling embarrassed about changing their clothes in front of other people. ex•cit•ed adj happy, interested or hopeful because something good has happened or will happen: Steve’s flying home tomorrow – we’re all very excited. | excited crowds of shoppers. | [+ about] The kids are so excited about Christmas. fright•ened adj feeling afraid: a frightened animal| [+ of] I was frightened of being left by myself in the house. in•terest•ed adj giving a lot of attention to something because you want to find out more about it: [+ in] I’m not really interested in politics. sur•prised adj having a feeling of surprise: Mr Benson looked surprised when I told him I was leaving. |[+ at/by] We were all surprised at Sue’s outburst. wor•ried adj unhappy because you keep thinking about a problem or are anxious about something: Don’t look so worried – we’ll find him.| [about] She’s so worried about her
  • 10. 10 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS 1 bored _____with______ 2 confused ________________ 3 depressed ________________ 4 disappointed ________________ 5 embarrassed ________________ 6 excited ________________ 7 frightened ________________ 8 interested ________________ 9 surprised ________________ 10 worried ________________ ACTIVITIES 1. Decide which preposition follows the adjectives below: 2. Match a beginning from A with an ending from B. Then complete the sentences with a preposition. A 1 Nobody seems to be interested 2 I’m so bored 3 Are you still frightened 4 We were really disappointed 5 Are you excited 6 My boss was surprised 7 Everyone seems to be worried 8 Don’t be embarrassed 9 My sister’s really depressed 10 I’m not confused B a _________ my decision to leave. b _________ saying what you really think. c _________ money at the moment. d _________ the dark? e _________ what I’m saying. f _________ my job. g _________ missing your party. h _________ her weight. i __________ English grammar any more. j __________ your wedding?
  • 11. 11 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET ANSWERSANSWERS UNIT 23 ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS 1 bored _______with______ 2 confused ____about_____ 3 depressed ___about_____ 4 disappointed _about_____ 5 embarrassed _about_____ 6 excited _____ about_____ 7 frightened ____of_______ 8 interested ____in_______ 9 surprised __ at / by_____ 10 worried ____about____ 1. Decide which preposition follows the adjectives below: 2. Match a beginning from A with an ending from B. Then complete the sentences with a preposition. A 1 Nobody seems to be interested 2 I’m so bored 3 Are you still frightened 4 We were really disappointed 5 Are you excited 6 My boss was surprised 7 Everyone seems to be worried 8 Don’t be embarrassed 9 My sister’s really depressed 10 I’m not confused B a __at / by_ my decision to leave. b __about__saying what you really think. c __about__ money at the moment. d __of_____ the dark? e __in_____ what I’m saying. f ___with___ my job. g __about__ missing your party. h __about__ her weight. i __about___ English grammar any more. j __about___ your wedding?
  • 12. 12 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET (1) I’m good ___ maths. (2) I’m worried ____ losing my job. (3) I’m ashamed _____ what I did. (4) I’m worried ______ his health. (5) She’s affraid ____ spiders. (6) I’m really bad ____ repairing things. Help these people with the suitable prepositions!!Help these people with the suitable prepositions!! ANSWERS: 1. AT 2. ABOUT 3. OF 4. ABOUT 5. OF 6. AT  EndEnd