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PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
There are 4 kinds
1.- Zero conditional (if + present simple, ... present simple)
e.g.: If you cut your finger, it bleeds.
2.- First conditional (if + present simple, ... will + infinitive)
e.g.: If it is sunny tomorrow, we'll go for a picnic.
3.- Second conditional (if + past simple, ... would + infinitive)
e.g.: If we had a lot of money, we would travel around the world.
4.- Third conditional (if + past perfect, ... would + have + past participle)
e.g.: If I had studied harder, I would have passed my exam.
UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals
2
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
if ...Zero
First
Second
Third
General truth
If you freeze water, it becomes ice.
Possibilities in the present or in the future
If it's sunny, we'll go for a walk.
Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future
If we won the lottery, we would travel around the world.
Imaginary Past
If I had known your phone, I would have called.
PET
by Matifmarin.
3
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 +28
All conditional sentences consist of two clauses, an "if-clause” and a “main clause”
if clause
present
main clause
present
If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
0 - The structure of a zero conditional sentence (General truth)
□ If the "if-clause” comes first, a comma is usually placed. If the "if-clause” comes second, there is no comma:
main clause if clause
Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees.
□ We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present
tense:
if clause if + subject + simple present verb
main clause subject + simple present verb
→ Note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"):
When you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
PET
by Matifmarin.
4
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
Using the zero conditional
The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths, and so on:
Examples Explanations
● If you cross an international dateline, the time changes. □ This always happens, every time you cross a dateline.
●If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases
to two atmospheres.
□ This is basically always true - the pressure of 10 meters of water
equals one atmosphere.
● Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. □ This is a scientific fact - you can test it in a laboratory.
Are you ready for a little test on zero conditional?
ORDER AND WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
1. you / cut/ your finger / it / bleed
2. cork / float / you / drop / it / in water
3. you / not / eat / you die
4. it / not / rain / the grass / not / grow
5. iron / rust / it / get / wet
6. you / heat / butter / it / melt
PET
by Matifmarin.
5
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
1. If you cut your finger, it bleeds.
2. Cork floats if you drop it in water. / If you drop corn in water, it floats.
3. If you don’t eat, you die.
4. If it doesn’t rain, the grass doesn’t grow.
5. Iron rusts if it gets wet. / If iron gets wet, it rusts.
6. If you heat butter, it melts.
ANSWERS
PET
by Matifmarin.
6
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
1st
- The structure of a first conditional sentence (possibility in present or future)
if clause main clause
If you study hard, you will pass the test.
main clause if clause
You will pass the test if you study hard.
We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional:
if clause if + subject + simple present verb
main clause subject + will + verb (future simple)
PET
by Matifmarin.
7
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future - things which may happen:
Example Explanation
If it's sunny, we'll go jogging. Maybe it will be sunny – there is a possibility.
You won’t pass your exam if don’t study hard. Maybe you won’t pass - there is a possibility.
If the baby is hungry, it'll cry. Maybe it will be hungry - that's possible.
USE of the first conditional:
I think you are ready for a little test on first conditional!
PET
by Matifmarin.
8
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26-28
1 If you ________ an apple every day, _________ very healthy. (eat – be)
2 If you _______ so much sugar in your coffee, you ________ a lot of weight! (put – put on)
3 You ________ higher insurance if you ________ a sports car. (pay – buy)
4 He ________ nicer if he ________ this awful fringe. (look – cut)
5 You ________ better if you _______ the lamp. (able / see - turn on)
ACTIVITY with the FIRST CONDITIONAL:
PET
by Matifmarin.
9
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals
1. eat / you’ll be
2. put / will put on
3. will pay / buy
4. will look / cuts
5. will be able / turn on
ANSWERS
10
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
2nd
- The structure of a second conditional sentence (Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future)
if clause main clause
• The Second Conditional expresses a hypothesis in present and can be used to talk about imaginary present situations,
where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that
are unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met. We use the past simple in the condition part and
would /could or might + bare infinitive for the result.
If I had money, I would buy a better car
if clause if + subject + past simple verb
main clause subject + would + base verb (bare infinitive)
We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional:
→ but I don’t have money, so won’t buy it.
present future
If I had
the
money …
PET
by Matifmarin.
11
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
IF Condition Time Result Possibility
  past simple present WOULD + base verb impossible
If I had the time, I would learn Chinese. I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Chinese.
  past simple future WOULD + base verb unlikely
If I won the lottery I would travel around the world. There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so the trip is unlikely
If I had the
time …
If I won the
lottery …
…
Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future
PET
by Matifmarin.
12
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26-28
□ Poor Peter!
Complete the sentences with the correct verb. In the sentences where both was/were are possible, use were:
ACTIVITY with the SECOND CONDITIONAL:
(a) If Peter ____ (not/watch) so many horror films, he ____ (not/be) scared of the dark.
(b) If Peter ____ (be) braver, he ____ (not/feel) frightened of thunder and lightning.
(c) If Peter ____ (not/spend) so much time playing video games, he ____ (get) better grades at
school.
(d) If Peter ____ (eat) healthier food, he ____ (not/be) ill so often.
(e) If he ____ (not/be) ill so often, he ____ (not/miss) so many classes.
(f) If his parents ____ (not/allow) him to drink so much coke, he ____ (sleep) much better.
(g) If Peter ____ (sleep) better at night, he ____ (start) his day with more energy.
(h) If he ____ (start) his day with more energy, he ____ (do) many more things.
(i) If Peter ____ (practise) a sport, he ____ (keep) fit and healthy.
(j) If he ____ (keep) fit and healthy, he ____ (feel) more confident.
(k) If he ____ (feel) more confident, his self-esteem ____ (increase).
(l) If his self-esteem ____ (increase), he ____ (not/have) so many problems to sleep at night.
PET
by Matifmarin.
13
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals
ANSWERS
Poor Peter!
(a) didn't watch / wouldn't be
(b) were / wouldn't feel
(c) didn't spend / would get
(d) ate / wouldn't be
(e) weren't / wouldn't miss
(f) didn't allow / would sleep
(g) slept / would start
(h) started / would do
(i) practised / would keep
(j) kept / would feel
(k) felt / would increase
(l) increased / would have
14
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
3rd
- The structure of a third conditional sentence (Imaginary Past)
• The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened:
if clause main clause
If had known his telephone number, I would have phoned him.
→ but I didn’t know it, so I didn’t phone him.
past past
If I had known
his number…
We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional:
if clause if + subject + past perfect verb
main clause subject + would + present perfect verb (would + have + participle)
PET
by Matifmarin.
15
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
Third Conditional: Imaginary Past
IF Condition Result Certainty
  past perfect  WOULD HAVE + past participle   
If  I had known,  I would have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the speaker is sure about the result.
If  I had known,  I could have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility.
If  I had known,  I might have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility.
If  you had known, You should have helped.
Although this didn't happen, it is only a good suggestion or piece of 
advice.
I would have
helped if I had
known.
You
shouldn’t
have done …
I wouldn't have touched
you if I had known.
PET
by Matifmarin.
16
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
ACTIVITY with the THIRD CONDITIONAL:
1. Complete the following sentences with the THIRD CONDITIONAL. Use contractions for the negative verbs:
(a) If Roberto _____ (not/lose) his job as a salesman in Madrid, he ____ (not/move) to Barcelona.
(b) If he _____ (not/move) to Barcelona, he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company.
(c) If he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company, he ____ (not/meet) Sara.
(d) If he ____ (not/meet) Sara, they ____ (not/fall) in love.
(e) If they ____ (not/fall) in love, they ____ (not/marry).
(1) If the weather had been better yesterday, …
2. Choose the correct ending for the following sentences:
(a) we had gone to the lake (b) we'd have gone to the lake (c) we'd had gone to the lake.
(2) If Julia had arrived on time last night, …
(a) we would have watched a film together. (b) we had watched a film together (c) we could watch a film together.
(3) If I had studied more for my exams, …
(b) my grades would be better. (b) my grades would have been better (c) my grades had been better.
(4) We would have had a wonderful weekend …
(a) if it hadn't begun to rain (b) if it hadn't began to rain (c) if it would have begun to rain.
5. The party would have been more fun …
(a) if my parents hadn't decided to stay (b) wouldn't have decided to stay (c) would have decided to stay.
PET
by Matifmarin.
17
GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28
ANSWERS
(a) hadn’t lost / wouldn’t have moved
(b) hadn’t moved / wouldn’t have found
(c) hadn’t found / wouldn’t have met
(d) hadn’t met / wouldn’t have fallen
(e) hadn’t fallen / wouldn’t have married
1. Complete the following sentences…
2. Choose the correct ending
1 (b)
2 (a)
3 (b)
4 (a)
5 (a)
PET
by Matifmarin.
18
PET
by Matifmarin.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET
UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals
Don’t forget to do the activities in your course books
Both Student Book &
W
orkbook!!
Type 1 / Real Conditions (Present / Future meaning):
If + simple present tense + will / can / may / must + verb
Remember!Remember!
For your PET exam you are only supposed to know the ConditionalsFor your PET exam you are only supposed to know the Conditionals 11 andand 22 (you have them in UNITS 26 and 28 respectively):(you have them in UNITS 26 and 28 respectively):
Type 2 Condition - Present Unreal:
If + Simple Past Tense + Would / Could / Should / Might + Verb
 EndEnd

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PET Unit 26 + 28 the Conditionals

  • 1. 1 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET There are 4 kinds 1.- Zero conditional (if + present simple, ... present simple) e.g.: If you cut your finger, it bleeds. 2.- First conditional (if + present simple, ... will + infinitive) e.g.: If it is sunny tomorrow, we'll go for a picnic. 3.- Second conditional (if + past simple, ... would + infinitive) e.g.: If we had a lot of money, we would travel around the world. 4.- Third conditional (if + past perfect, ... would + have + past participle) e.g.: If I had studied harder, I would have passed my exam. UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals
  • 2. 2 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 if ...Zero First Second Third General truth If you freeze water, it becomes ice. Possibilities in the present or in the future If it's sunny, we'll go for a walk. Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future If we won the lottery, we would travel around the world. Imaginary Past If I had known your phone, I would have called. PET by Matifmarin.
  • 3. 3 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 +28 All conditional sentences consist of two clauses, an "if-clause” and a “main clause” if clause present main clause present If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. 0 - The structure of a zero conditional sentence (General truth) □ If the "if-clause” comes first, a comma is usually placed. If the "if-clause” comes second, there is no comma: main clause if clause Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees. □ We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present tense: if clause if + subject + simple present verb main clause subject + simple present verb → Note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"): When you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. PET by Matifmarin.
  • 4. 4 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 Using the zero conditional The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths, and so on: Examples Explanations ● If you cross an international dateline, the time changes. □ This always happens, every time you cross a dateline. ●If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases to two atmospheres. □ This is basically always true - the pressure of 10 meters of water equals one atmosphere. ● Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. □ This is a scientific fact - you can test it in a laboratory. Are you ready for a little test on zero conditional? ORDER AND WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1. you / cut/ your finger / it / bleed 2. cork / float / you / drop / it / in water 3. you / not / eat / you die 4. it / not / rain / the grass / not / grow 5. iron / rust / it / get / wet 6. you / heat / butter / it / melt PET by Matifmarin.
  • 5. 5 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 1. If you cut your finger, it bleeds. 2. Cork floats if you drop it in water. / If you drop corn in water, it floats. 3. If you don’t eat, you die. 4. If it doesn’t rain, the grass doesn’t grow. 5. Iron rusts if it gets wet. / If iron gets wet, it rusts. 6. If you heat butter, it melts. ANSWERS PET by Matifmarin.
  • 6. 6 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 1st - The structure of a first conditional sentence (possibility in present or future) if clause main clause If you study hard, you will pass the test. main clause if clause You will pass the test if you study hard. We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: if clause if + subject + simple present verb main clause subject + will + verb (future simple) PET by Matifmarin.
  • 7. 7 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future - things which may happen: Example Explanation If it's sunny, we'll go jogging. Maybe it will be sunny – there is a possibility. You won’t pass your exam if don’t study hard. Maybe you won’t pass - there is a possibility. If the baby is hungry, it'll cry. Maybe it will be hungry - that's possible. USE of the first conditional: I think you are ready for a little test on first conditional! PET by Matifmarin.
  • 8. 8 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26-28 1 If you ________ an apple every day, _________ very healthy. (eat – be) 2 If you _______ so much sugar in your coffee, you ________ a lot of weight! (put – put on) 3 You ________ higher insurance if you ________ a sports car. (pay – buy) 4 He ________ nicer if he ________ this awful fringe. (look – cut) 5 You ________ better if you _______ the lamp. (able / see - turn on) ACTIVITY with the FIRST CONDITIONAL: PET by Matifmarin.
  • 9. 9 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals 1. eat / you’ll be 2. put / will put on 3. will pay / buy 4. will look / cuts 5. will be able / turn on ANSWERS
  • 10. 10 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 2nd - The structure of a second conditional sentence (Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future) if clause main clause • The Second Conditional expresses a hypothesis in present and can be used to talk about imaginary present situations, where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that are unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met. We use the past simple in the condition part and would /could or might + bare infinitive for the result. If I had money, I would buy a better car if clause if + subject + past simple verb main clause subject + would + base verb (bare infinitive) We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional: → but I don’t have money, so won’t buy it. present future If I had the money … PET by Matifmarin.
  • 11. 11 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 IF Condition Time Result Possibility   past simple present WOULD + base verb impossible If I had the time, I would learn Chinese. I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Chinese.   past simple future WOULD + base verb unlikely If I won the lottery I would travel around the world. There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so the trip is unlikely If I had the time … If I won the lottery … … Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future PET by Matifmarin.
  • 12. 12 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26-28 □ Poor Peter! Complete the sentences with the correct verb. In the sentences where both was/were are possible, use were: ACTIVITY with the SECOND CONDITIONAL: (a) If Peter ____ (not/watch) so many horror films, he ____ (not/be) scared of the dark. (b) If Peter ____ (be) braver, he ____ (not/feel) frightened of thunder and lightning. (c) If Peter ____ (not/spend) so much time playing video games, he ____ (get) better grades at school. (d) If Peter ____ (eat) healthier food, he ____ (not/be) ill so often. (e) If he ____ (not/be) ill so often, he ____ (not/miss) so many classes. (f) If his parents ____ (not/allow) him to drink so much coke, he ____ (sleep) much better. (g) If Peter ____ (sleep) better at night, he ____ (start) his day with more energy. (h) If he ____ (start) his day with more energy, he ____ (do) many more things. (i) If Peter ____ (practise) a sport, he ____ (keep) fit and healthy. (j) If he ____ (keep) fit and healthy, he ____ (feel) more confident. (k) If he ____ (feel) more confident, his self-esteem ____ (increase). (l) If his self-esteem ____ (increase), he ____ (not/have) so many problems to sleep at night. PET by Matifmarin.
  • 13. 13 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals ANSWERS Poor Peter! (a) didn't watch / wouldn't be (b) were / wouldn't feel (c) didn't spend / would get (d) ate / wouldn't be (e) weren't / wouldn't miss (f) didn't allow / would sleep (g) slept / would start (h) started / would do (i) practised / would keep (j) kept / would feel (k) felt / would increase (l) increased / would have
  • 14. 14 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 3rd - The structure of a third conditional sentence (Imaginary Past) • The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened: if clause main clause If had known his telephone number, I would have phoned him. → but I didn’t know it, so I didn’t phone him. past past If I had known his number… We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional: if clause if + subject + past perfect verb main clause subject + would + present perfect verb (would + have + participle) PET by Matifmarin.
  • 15. 15 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 Third Conditional: Imaginary Past IF Condition Result Certainty   past perfect  WOULD HAVE + past participle    If  I had known,  I would have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the speaker is sure about the result. If  I had known,  I could have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility. If  I had known,  I might have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility. If  you had known, You should have helped. Although this didn't happen, it is only a good suggestion or piece of  advice. I would have helped if I had known. You shouldn’t have done … I wouldn't have touched you if I had known. PET by Matifmarin.
  • 16. 16 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 ACTIVITY with the THIRD CONDITIONAL: 1. Complete the following sentences with the THIRD CONDITIONAL. Use contractions for the negative verbs: (a) If Roberto _____ (not/lose) his job as a salesman in Madrid, he ____ (not/move) to Barcelona. (b) If he _____ (not/move) to Barcelona, he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company. (c) If he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company, he ____ (not/meet) Sara. (d) If he ____ (not/meet) Sara, they ____ (not/fall) in love. (e) If they ____ (not/fall) in love, they ____ (not/marry). (1) If the weather had been better yesterday, … 2. Choose the correct ending for the following sentences: (a) we had gone to the lake (b) we'd have gone to the lake (c) we'd had gone to the lake. (2) If Julia had arrived on time last night, … (a) we would have watched a film together. (b) we had watched a film together (c) we could watch a film together. (3) If I had studied more for my exams, … (b) my grades would be better. (b) my grades would have been better (c) my grades had been better. (4) We would have had a wonderful weekend … (a) if it hadn't begun to rain (b) if it hadn't began to rain (c) if it would have begun to rain. 5. The party would have been more fun … (a) if my parents hadn't decided to stay (b) wouldn't have decided to stay (c) would have decided to stay. PET by Matifmarin.
  • 17. 17 GRAMMAR – UNIT 26 + 28 ANSWERS (a) hadn’t lost / wouldn’t have moved (b) hadn’t moved / wouldn’t have found (c) hadn’t found / wouldn’t have met (d) hadn’t met / wouldn’t have fallen (e) hadn’t fallen / wouldn’t have married 1. Complete the following sentences… 2. Choose the correct ending 1 (b) 2 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 5 (a) PET by Matifmarin.
  • 18. 18 PET by Matifmarin. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS PETSUMMARY OF CONTENTS PET UNIT 26 + 28 – The Conditionals Don’t forget to do the activities in your course books Both Student Book & W orkbook!! Type 1 / Real Conditions (Present / Future meaning): If + simple present tense + will / can / may / must + verb Remember!Remember! For your PET exam you are only supposed to know the ConditionalsFor your PET exam you are only supposed to know the Conditionals 11 andand 22 (you have them in UNITS 26 and 28 respectively):(you have them in UNITS 26 and 28 respectively): Type 2 Condition - Present Unreal: If + Simple Past Tense + Would / Could / Should / Might + Verb  EndEnd