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Conditional Sentences
Conditional SentencesStructure :A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :If-clause  +Main ClauseExample :If it rains tomorrow, we will not come.If-clauseMain Clause
Conditional SentencesTypes :The order of the two clauses is flexible, it’s not        important.        But if the if-clause comes first, it must be followed by       a comma.If it rains, I’ll stay at homeThere are 4 types of conditional sentences.       They are classified according to the degree of        probability that they express.Each type of conditional sentences uses different         tenses to show the difference in   the degree of          probability.
Conditional SentencesZero Conditional: If /when + present tense ….. / modalWater boils if it reaches 100ºFirst Conditional: If/unless + present,….. FutureIf I study, I’ll passSecond Conditional: If + past, ……would +inf.If I studied, I would passThird Conditional: If + past perfect ….. would have + ppIf I had studied, I would have passed
Zero ConditionalsTense :Present tense in both clausesExample :Present TensePresent TenseIf you heat water to 100°C, it boils.   If you pour oil into water, it floats.
Zero ConditionalsUse : Talk about universal truth.If you heat ice, it turns to waterTo talk about habitsIfIseea spider, I get very scared!
First ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Present TenseMain Clause ~ Future TensePresent TenseFuture TenseIf I feel sick tomorrow, I will not go to school.     If it rains, the match will be cancelled.
First ConditionalsUse : To speak about possible or probable future events.If the weather is as sunny tomorrow as it was today, we will go surfing.To make promises or warningsIf you forget my birthday, I’ll never speak to you again.To give commandsIf you aretired, go to bed!In this case the verb in the main clause  is an Imperative
Exercise One. First Conditionalsdo not comeIf you ___________________ (not come),     You ________________ (miss ) the show.will misswill buyJohn __________________ (buy)a car if he      _____________ (get) a job.getswill getMary ________________(get) a toothache if      she_________________ (eat) too many sweets.eats
Second ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past TenseMain Clause ~ would + an infinitiveExample :Past TenseWould + infinitive   If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour.If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.
Second ConditionalsMINDWere is often used instead of was in the 1st and 3rd person singularUse : To speak about present and future   situations which are unlikely to happen.If I had any money I would lend it to you.If I were you I wouldn't do this.
Third ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past Perfect TenseMain Clause ~ Would Have + Past  			     Participle                         Past Perfect TenseWould have+ Past ParticipleIf I had had enough money, I would have bought the camera yesterday.If I had come home earlier, I would not havemissed the programme.
Third ConditionalsUse : To speak about impossible past eventsIf they’d gone by bus, they would have 	arrived much later.(They didn’t go by bus)He would have travelled around the world if he 	had  hadmore money.(Impossible to change, because he didn’t have the money)
Exercise TwowereIf I ________________ (be) four years old,  I      ________________ (learn) to play the piano.  would learnhad not failedIf I ________________ (not fail) in the       examination,  my mother_______________   (buy)      me a new computer.would have boughtwould have finished3.  We ________________________ (finish) if we       ________________ (have) better preparation.had had
Conditional SentencesOther connectors:Type 1 : UNLESSIf you don’t phone John, he’ll get very angry.Unless you phone John, he’ll get very angry.Unless can replace If in negative conditionals
Conditional SentencesOther connectors:PROVIDED / PROVIDING (THAT)/ WITH THE CONDITION THAT/ AS LONG ASYou can stay with the condition that you sleep on the couch.I will go to the party as long as you go there tooIMAGINE / SUPPOSE /SUPPOSING THATImagine that you won a million pounds, what would you do?
Conditional SentencesOther connectors:EVEN IFI won’t go to the party even if they beg meIN CASETake an umbrella in case it rains
Conditional SentencesModal verbs in conditional sentencesVariations:Type 1, 2 and 3 :If we are not careful, many species may become extinct.If I were an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.If she hadn’t worn her helmet, she might have been seriously injured.
ExercisesIdentifying conditionalsI. Choose the correct answer.1 - If I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional
Exercises2 - I'll tell her if she comes. Zero Conditional
 First Conditional
 Second Conditional
 Third Conditional       3 - If I were you, I'd buy it as soon as possible.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional
Exercises4 - If I had the time, I’d help you  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional5 – I would have done things differently if I had been the manager.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional
Exercises6 - If you work hard enough, you may well pass.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional7 – Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional
Exercises8 -  I would be surprised if it rained.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional9 – If she'd tried harder, she might have succeeded.  Zero Conditional
   First Conditional
  Second Conditional
  Third Conditional
ExercisesII. Choose the correct answer.1 - If I ...... you, I would tell him straightaway   were

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Conditional sentences

  • 2. Conditional SentencesStructure :A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :If-clause +Main ClauseExample :If it rains tomorrow, we will not come.If-clauseMain Clause
  • 3. Conditional SentencesTypes :The order of the two clauses is flexible, it’s not important. But if the if-clause comes first, it must be followed by a comma.If it rains, I’ll stay at homeThere are 4 types of conditional sentences. They are classified according to the degree of probability that they express.Each type of conditional sentences uses different tenses to show the difference in the degree of probability.
  • 4. Conditional SentencesZero Conditional: If /when + present tense ….. / modalWater boils if it reaches 100ºFirst Conditional: If/unless + present,….. FutureIf I study, I’ll passSecond Conditional: If + past, ……would +inf.If I studied, I would passThird Conditional: If + past perfect ….. would have + ppIf I had studied, I would have passed
  • 5. Zero ConditionalsTense :Present tense in both clausesExample :Present TensePresent TenseIf you heat water to 100°C, it boils. If you pour oil into water, it floats.
  • 6. Zero ConditionalsUse : Talk about universal truth.If you heat ice, it turns to waterTo talk about habitsIfIseea spider, I get very scared!
  • 7. First ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Present TenseMain Clause ~ Future TensePresent TenseFuture TenseIf I feel sick tomorrow, I will not go to school. If it rains, the match will be cancelled.
  • 8. First ConditionalsUse : To speak about possible or probable future events.If the weather is as sunny tomorrow as it was today, we will go surfing.To make promises or warningsIf you forget my birthday, I’ll never speak to you again.To give commandsIf you aretired, go to bed!In this case the verb in the main clause is an Imperative
  • 9. Exercise One. First Conditionalsdo not comeIf you ___________________ (not come), You ________________ (miss ) the show.will misswill buyJohn __________________ (buy)a car if he _____________ (get) a job.getswill getMary ________________(get) a toothache if she_________________ (eat) too many sweets.eats
  • 10. Second ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past TenseMain Clause ~ would + an infinitiveExample :Past TenseWould + infinitive If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour.If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.
  • 11. Second ConditionalsMINDWere is often used instead of was in the 1st and 3rd person singularUse : To speak about present and future situations which are unlikely to happen.If I had any money I would lend it to you.If I were you I wouldn't do this.
  • 12. Third ConditionalsTense :If-clause ~ Past Perfect TenseMain Clause ~ Would Have + Past Participle Past Perfect TenseWould have+ Past ParticipleIf I had had enough money, I would have bought the camera yesterday.If I had come home earlier, I would not havemissed the programme.
  • 13. Third ConditionalsUse : To speak about impossible past eventsIf they’d gone by bus, they would have arrived much later.(They didn’t go by bus)He would have travelled around the world if he had hadmore money.(Impossible to change, because he didn’t have the money)
  • 14. Exercise TwowereIf I ________________ (be) four years old, I ________________ (learn) to play the piano. would learnhad not failedIf I ________________ (not fail) in the examination, my mother_______________ (buy) me a new computer.would have boughtwould have finished3. We ________________________ (finish) if we ________________ (have) better preparation.had had
  • 15. Conditional SentencesOther connectors:Type 1 : UNLESSIf you don’t phone John, he’ll get very angry.Unless you phone John, he’ll get very angry.Unless can replace If in negative conditionals
  • 16. Conditional SentencesOther connectors:PROVIDED / PROVIDING (THAT)/ WITH THE CONDITION THAT/ AS LONG ASYou can stay with the condition that you sleep on the couch.I will go to the party as long as you go there tooIMAGINE / SUPPOSE /SUPPOSING THATImagine that you won a million pounds, what would you do?
  • 17. Conditional SentencesOther connectors:EVEN IFI won’t go to the party even if they beg meIN CASETake an umbrella in case it rains
  • 18. Conditional SentencesModal verbs in conditional sentencesVariations:Type 1, 2 and 3 :If we are not careful, many species may become extinct.If I were an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.If she hadn’t worn her helmet, she might have been seriously injured.
  • 19. ExercisesIdentifying conditionalsI. Choose the correct answer.1 - If I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick. Zero Conditional
  • 20. First Conditional
  • 21. Second Conditional
  • 22. Third Conditional
  • 23. Exercises2 - I'll tell her if she comes. Zero Conditional
  • 26. Third Conditional 3 - If I were you, I'd buy it as soon as possible. Zero Conditional
  • 27. First Conditional
  • 28. Second Conditional
  • 29. Third Conditional
  • 30. Exercises4 - If I had the time, I’d help you Zero Conditional
  • 31. First Conditional
  • 32. Second Conditional
  • 33. Third Conditional5 – I would have done things differently if I had been the manager. Zero Conditional
  • 34. First Conditional
  • 35. Second Conditional
  • 36. Third Conditional
  • 37. Exercises6 - If you work hard enough, you may well pass. Zero Conditional
  • 38. First Conditional
  • 39. Second Conditional
  • 40. Third Conditional7 – Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius. Zero Conditional
  • 41. First Conditional
  • 42. Second Conditional
  • 43. Third Conditional
  • 44. Exercises8 - I would be surprised if it rained. Zero Conditional
  • 45. First Conditional
  • 46. Second Conditional
  • 47. Third Conditional9 – If she'd tried harder, she might have succeeded. Zero Conditional
  • 48. First Conditional
  • 49. Second Conditional
  • 50. Third Conditional
  • 51. ExercisesII. Choose the correct answer.1 - If I ...... you, I would tell him straightaway were
  • 52. am2 - If you ...... yellow and blue, you get green will mix
  • 53. mix3 - If I .........., I would never have done it knew
  • 54. had known4 - Unless you ....... drinking, you'll have serious health problems. stop
  • 56. Exercises5 - I ......... there if I'd known about it would never have gone
  • 57. would never go6 - If you see him, ......... him to call me? will you ask
  • 58. would you have asked7 - If I ........., I'd have done it myself were there
  • 59. had been there8 - What would you do if the police ......... you? arrested
  • 61. ExercisesFinish these sentences using the correct verbal tense. If they had listened, they.............................. (understand) If he hadn’t worn the helmet, he.......................... (Be) injured. If he........................... (Speak) clearly, people would understand him. If we miss this train, we.................................. (Be) late for the interview. The bank............................................. (not / call) if we pay the bill. If you................................... (meet ) Tom, you wouldn’t like him. If I found 100 in the street, I …………………….......... (Keep) it. If I ……………... (Know) her number, I would phone her. If he gets late, I ………….. (be) angry. I …………………….. (Not/buy) that coat if I were you..If I ……………….. (Know) that you were ill last week, I'd have gone to see you. If it stops raining, we …………………. (Go) on a trip. would have understoodWould have beenspokeWill beWon’t callmetWould keepknewWill bewon’t buyhad knownwill go
  • 62. ExercisesChoose the correct answer1 If Teresa………more sensible, she wouldn’t get into trouble so often. a) will be b) were c) had been2 ……… me some ice cream if you go to the supermarket. a) Got b) Get c) Have got 3 If I……...late, will you wait for me? a) be b) am c) will be4 If Vanessa had……..me the truth, I would not have been so angry. a) told b) tells c) tell5 If you listen to her, you’ll………in trouble. a) been b) being c) be6 If you had listen to her, you……….have been in trouble. a) shouldn’t b) wouldn’t c) couldn’t7 Nobody would……the secret if Danny hadn’t revealed it. a) have known b) knew c) known8 Will you be all right by yourself if I………. out tonight? a) go b) will go c) would go9 If I knew how to run my own business, I………..a rich man. a) am b) will be c) would be10 If anyone………., say I’ll be back about 7.30. a) will phone b) phone c) phonesBBBACBAACC
  • 63. I wish / If onlyWe use wishand if only +past simple/continuous or could when we want a situation or thing in the present to be different or to change.The time of the action referred to in the subordinate clause is the same as the time of making the wish.He wishes that he were rich. I wish I didn’t have to leave. I wish he was waiting for me. I wish I could help you.
  • 64. I wish / If onlyWe use wish + wouldto complain about a thing or a situation.She wishes that you would come to the meeting tomorrow. I wish you wouldn’t be so rude.I wish my mother would let me go out till late.Shewishes her child would sleep all night long.
  • 65. I wish / If onlyWe use wish / if only + past perfect / continuous or could have + p.p.to express a wish about the pastThey wish that they had studied harder when they were young.(they didn’t study)I wish I hadn’t failed the exam (I failed the exam)
  • 66. ExercisesPay attention to the underlined adverbs indicating time. Complete each of the following sentences with the correct form of the verb shown in brackets.1. I wish he here now. (to be)2. I wish that you here yesterday. (to be)3. We wish you tomorrow. (to come)4. You will wish you earlier. (to leave)5. They wished he with them the next day. (to come)6. We wish you yesterday. (to arrive)wereHad beenWould come Would come Would comeHad arrived
  • 67. Exercises7. I wish that he us next year. (to visit)8. She wishes that she at home now. (to be)9. You wish that he you last week. (to help)Would visitwerehad helpedwere10. He will always wish he ____________ rich. (to be)11. The boy wished that he ____________ the competition the next day. (to win)12. She will wish she _____________ the arrangements earlier. (to make)13. I wish the weather ____________ warmer now. (to be)14. We always wished we ____________ fluent in other languages. (to be)15. They wish he ________________ them next week. (to telephone)Would winHad madewerewereWould telephone
  • 68. Mixed exercisesChoose the correct option1.-Meg would do better at French if she worked harder. a. Meg will never succeed at French. b. Meg is very good at French. c. Meg usually works well at French. d. Meg doesn't work hard enough.D2.-If the plane hadn't been delayed by bad weather, we wouldn't have been latea. Although the plane was late, we were on time b. The weather made us late. c. The bad weather did not interfere with the plane's arrival. d. We were not late although the weather was bad.B
  • 69. Mixed exercises3. If you ask someone the way, you'll find the Modern Museum of Art easily. a. Most people can tell you where the Modern Museum of Art is. b. It is very difficult to find the Modern Museum of Art, even if you ask how to get there. c. Did you find the Modern Museum of Art when you wanted to go there? d. Did you ask someone the way to the Modern Museum of Art?A4. If I were you, I’d get a job. a. I think you should get a job. b. I need a job. c. I had a good job, but I left it. d. You are going to get a job soon.A
  • 70. Mixed exercises5. The doctor said that if Mrs Allen went on a diet, she would lose weight. a. Mrs Allen does not need to be careful with what she eats. b. Mrs Allen has always been careful with what she eats. . c. Mrs Allen should eat more. d. Mrs Allen should eat less.D6. Jessica would have passed the exam even if I hadn't helped her. a. Jessica passed the exam without help. b. Jessica failed because no one helped her. c. Without my help, Jessica would not have passed. d. Jessica didn't really need any help at all.Note:For more practice click:if clauses, Conditional sentences - Grammar Exercises - Learning EnglishD
  • 71. You are alone in the forest at night without a phone.Mixed exercisesWhat would you do in these situationsYou met the genie.If I met the genie, I would ask him for my three wishes.If I were alone in the forest I would try to use the stars.
  • 72. One day you read in a newspaper an article about you. The article was telling about your private life.Mixed exercisesWhat would you do in these situationsYour favourite singer wrote a song for you.If I read an article about my private life, I’d look for a lawyer.If my fauvorite singer wrote a song for me, I’d be excited.
  • 73. You are going to a date. But suddenly a bird made your jacket dirty.Mixed exercisesWhat would you do in these situationsYou enter the classroom and suddenly realize that you’ve forgotten to dress your trousers.If a bird made my jacket dirty, I’d run to buy other.If I forgot to dress my trousers, I’d try to invent some explanation.
  • 74. Third Conditional storyLook at this photo story.
  • 75. Third Conditional story Write what happened in each picture.He overslept.He went to a partyHe arrived home very late.
  • 76. Third Conditional story Write what happened in each picture.He was late for work and his boss was very angry.He missed the bus
  • 77. Third Conditional story Write what happened in each picture.His boss was angry and he was dismissedHe went for a walk.
  • 78. Third Conditional story Write what happened in each picture.He met a girl and they fell in love.Now they have three children.They got married.
  • 79. Third Conditional story Write what would have happened if….If he hadn’t gone to a party….. he wouldn’t have arrived home late.If he hadn’t arrived home very late….. he wouldn’t have overslept.
  • 80. Third Conditional story Write what would have happened if….If he hadn’t overslept….. he wouldn’t have missed the bus.If he hadn’t missed the bus….. he wouldn’t have been late for work.
  • 81. Third Conditional story Write what would have happened if….his boss wouldn’t have got angry.If he hadn’t been late for work,……he wouldn’t have gone to the park.If he hadn’t been dismissed…..
  • 82. Third Conditional story Write what would have happened if….If he hadn’t gone to the park,….. he wouldn’t have met a girl.he wouldn’t have got married and wouldn’t have had three children.If he hadn’t met the girl…..
  • 83. Third Conditional story Therefore ….If he hadn’t gone to the party,….. he wouldn’t have got married.
  • 84. Web pagesNote:For more practice use youyoucan click:http://www.isabelperez.com/conditionals1.htmhttp://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/grammar/conditionals8.htmhttp://www.better-english.com/grammar/condit23.htmhttp://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/grammar/conditionals7.htmhttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-1/exercises?02http://www.geocities.com/athens/olympus/7583/condprac1.htmlhttp://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/if-clauses.html
  • 86. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONHAVE A WONDERFUL DAY!