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1
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
if ...Zero
First
Second
Third
General truth
If you freeze water, it becomes ice.
Possibilities in the present or in the future
If it's sunny, we'll go for a walk.
Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future
If we won the lottery, we would travel around the world.
Imaginary Past
If I had known your phone, I would have called.
2
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
All conditional sentences consist of two clauses, an "if-clause” and a “main clause”
if clause
present
main clause
present
If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
0 - The structure of a zero conditional sentence (General truth)
□ If the "if-clause” comes first, a comma is usually placed. If the "if-clause” comes second, there is no comma:
main clause if clause
Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees.
□ We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present
tense:
if clause if + subject + simple present verb
main clause subject + simple present verb
→ Note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"):
When you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
3
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
Using the zero conditional
The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths, and so on:
Examples Explanations
● If you cross an international date line, the time changes. □ This always happens, every time you cross a dateline.
●If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases
to two atmospheres.
□ This is basically always true - the pressure of 10 meters of water
equals one atmosphere.
● Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. □ This is a scientific fact - you can test it in a laboratory.
Are you ready for a little test on zero conditional?
ORDER AND WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
1. you / cut/ your finger / it / bleed
2. cork / float / you / drop / it / in water
3. you / not / eat / you die
4. it / not / rain / the grass / not / grow
5. iron / rust / it / get / wet
6. you / heat / butter / it / melt
4
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
1. If you cut your finger, it bleeds.
2. Cork floats if you drop it in water.
3. If you don’t eat, you die.
4. If it doesn’t rain, the grass doesn’t grow.
5. Iron rusts if it gets wet.
6. If you heat butter, it melts.
ANSWERS:
5
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
1st
- The structure of a first conditional sentence (possibility in present or future)
if clause main clause
If you study hard, you will pass the test.
main clause if clause
You will pass the test if you study hard.
We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional:
if clause if + subject + simple present verb
main clause subject + will + verb (future simple)
6
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future - things which may happen:
Example Explanation
If it's sunny, we'll go jogging. Maybe it will be sunny - that's possible.
You won’t pass your exam if don’t study hard. Maybe you won’t pass - that's possible.
If the baby is hungry, it'll cry. Maybe it will be hungry - that's possible.
USE of the first conditional:
I think you are ready for a little test on first conditional!
7
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
1 If you ________ an apple every day, _________ very healthy. (eat – be)
2 If you _______ so much sugar in your coffee, you ________ a lot of weight! (put – put
on)
3 You ________ higher insurance if you ________ a sports car. (pay – buy)
4 He ________ nicer if he ________ this awful fringe. (look – cut)
5 You ________ better if you _______ the lamp. (able / see - turn on)
ACTIVITY with the FIRST CONDITIONAL:
8
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ANSWERSANSWERS
1. eat / you’ll be
2. put / will put on
3. will pay / buy
4. will look / cut
5. will be able / turn on
9
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
2nd
- The structure of a second conditional sentence (Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future)
if clause main clause
• The Second Conditional expresses a hypothesis in present and can be used to talk about imaginary present situations,
where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that are
unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met. We use the past simple in the condition part and would /could or might
+ bare infinitive for the result.
If I had money, I would buy a better car
if clause if + subject + past simple verb
main clause subject + would + base verb (bare infinitive)
We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional:
→ but I don’t have money, so won’t buy it.
present future
If I had
the
money …
10
FCE
by Matifmarin
GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
IF Condition Time Result Possibility
  past simple present WOULD + base verb impossible
If I had the time, I would learn Chinese. I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Chinese.
  past simple future WOULD + base verb unlikely
If I won the lottery I would travel around the world. There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so the trip is unlikely
If I had the
time …
If I won the
lottery …
…
Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future
11
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
□ Poor Peter!
Complete the sentences with the correct verb. In the sentences where both was/were are possible, use were:
ACTIVITY with the SECOND CONDITIONAL:
(a) If Peter ____ (not/watch) so many horror films, he ____ (not/be) scared of the dark.
(b) If Peter ____ (be) braver, he ____ (not/feel) frightened of thunder and lightning.
(c) If Peter ____ (not/spend) so much time playing video games, he ____ (get) better grades at
school.
(d) If Peter ____ (eat) healthier food, he ____ (not/be) ill so often.
(e) If he ____ (not/be) ill so often, he ____ (not/miss) so many classes.
(f) If his parents ____ (not/allow) him to drink so much coke, he ____ (sleep) much better.
(g) If Peter ____ (sleep) better at night, he ____ (start) his day with more energy.
(h) If he ____ (start) his day with more energy, he ____ (do) many more things.
(i) If Peter ____ (practise) a sport, he ____ (keep) fit and healthy.
(j) If he ____ (keep) fit and healthy, he ____ (feel) more confident.
(k) If he ____ (feel) more confident, his self-esteem ____ (increase).
(l) If his self-esteem ____ (increase), he ____ (not/have) so many problems to sleep at night.
12
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ANSWERS
Poor Peter!
(a) didn't watch / wouldn't be
(b) were / wouldn't feel
(c) didn't spend / would get
(d) ate / wouldn't be
(e) weren't / wouldn't miss
(f) didn't allow / would sleep
(g) slept / would start
(h) started / would do
(i) practised / would keep
(j) kept / would feel
(k) felt / would increase
(l) increased / would have
13
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
3rd
- The structure of a third conditional sentence (Imaginary Past)
• The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened:
if clause main clause
If had known his telephone number, I would have phoned him.
→ but I didn’t know it, so I didn’t phone him.
past past
If I had known
his number…
We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional:
if clause if + subject + past perfect verb
main clause subject + would + present perfect verb (would + have + participle)
14
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
Third Conditional: Imaginary Past
IF Condition Result Certainty
  past perfect  WOULD HAVE + past participle   
If  I had known,  I would have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the speaker is sure about the result.
If  I had known,  I could have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility.
If  I had known,  I might have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility.
If  you had known, You should have helped.
Although this didn't happen, it is only a good suggestion or piece of 
advice.
I would have
helped if I had
known.
You
shouldn’t
have done …
I wouldn't have touched
you if I had known.
15
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ACTIVITY with the THIRD CONDITIONAL:
1. Complete the following sentences with the THIRD CONDITIONAL. Use contractions for the negative verbs:
(a) If Roberto _____ (not/lose) his job as a salesman in Madrid, he ____ (not/move) to Barcelona.
(b) If he _____ (not/move) to Barcelona, he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company.
(c) If he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company, he ____ (not/meet) Sara.
(d) If he ____ (not/meet) Sara, they ____ (not/fall) in love.
(e) If they ____ (not/fall) in love, they ____ (not/marry).
(1) If the weather had been better yesterday, …
2. Choose the correct ending for the following sentences:
(a) we had gone to the lake (b) we'd have gone to the lake (c) we'd had gone to the lake.
(2) If Julia had arrived on time last night, …
(a) we would have watched a film together. (b) we had watched a film together (c) we could watch a film together.
(3) If I had studied more for my exams, …
(b) my grades would be better. (b) my grades would have been better (c) my grades had been better.
(4) We would have had a wonderful weekend …
(a) if it hadn't begun to rain (b) if it hadn't began to rain (c) if it would have begun to rain.
5. The party would have been more fun …
(a) if my parents hadn't decided to stay (b) wouldn't have decided to stay (c) would have decided to stay.
16
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ANSWERS
(a) hadn’t lost / wouldn’t have moved
(b) hadn’t moved / wouldn’t have found
(c) hadn’t found / wouldn’t have met
(d) hadn’t met / wouldn’t have fallen
(e) hadn’t fallen / wouldn’t have married
1. Complete the following sentences…
2. Choose the correct ending
1 (b)
2 (a)
3 (b)
4 (a)
5 (a)
17
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
1. If they ______ (find) your bag, they _____ (give) it back to you at once I am sure of that.
2. Probably, you left your bag somewhere else. If they ____ (find) it, they ____ (give) it back to you at once when you asked for it.
3. If they _____ (find) your bag, they _____ (give) it back to you at once but I am not sure that you left it there.
4. If Mary ____ (find) anything on the street, she always _____ (take) it to the lost and found office.
5. I bought an expensive toaster yesterday. If I ____ (not/buy) it I ____ (not/spend) so much money.
6. Although, I can make very tasty breakfast now. If ____ (not/buy) it yesterday, I ____ (not/be) able to cook tasty breakfast tomorrow.
7. I ____ (try) out some new recipes from the book that came along with the toaster, unless I ____ (forget) to buy all the ingredients at the store today.
8. When people ____ (buy) something new, no matter if it is a jumper, a car, or a toaster, they ____ (use) it continually for a while,
and then sometimes forget about it.
9. If I ____ (have) some free time, but I am extremely busy, I ____ (go) to the shopping center.
10. When John ____ (arrive) home, his dog always ____ (run) to greet him.
0,1,2,3 conditionals, mixed
Fill in the gaps with the suitable conditionals:
□ If he had known it was your birthday, you would now have a nice bunch of flowers.
3rd Cond. 2nd Cond.
□ If he comes to the party tomorrow, he would bring a nice bunch of flowers.
1st Cond. 2nd Cond.
□ If he loved you, he would have given you a nice bunch of flowers already.
2nd Cond. 3rd Cond.
18
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ANSWERS
1. find / will give (= 1st Cond.)
2. had found / would have given (3rd Cond.)
3. found / would give (2nd Cond.)
4. finds / takes (0 Cond.)
5. hadn't bought / wouldn't have spent (3rd Cond.)
6. hadn't bought / wouldn't be (3rd and 2nd Cond.)
7. will try / forget ( = 1st Cond.)
8. buy / use (0 Cond.)
9. had / would go (2nd Cond)
10. arrives / runs (0 Cond.)
19
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
Alternative words for if.
Practice Rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction:
I understand. I can
go out if I come
back by midnight.
Am I Cinderella?
Ok. You can go out
as long as you’re
back by midnight
20
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
ANSWERS
2. unless
3. if only
4. Supposing
5. Assuming
6. What if
21
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
AGREEMENT – DISAGREEMENT
A. AGREEMENT
1.- Positive:
SO + AUXILIARY + SUJECT
e.g.: I like music - So do I.
2.- Negative:
NEITHER + AUXILIARY (positive) + SUJECT
SUJECT + AUXILIARY (negative) + EITHER
Nor + AUXILIARY (positive) + SUJECT
Examples:
□ He hasn’t made this cake. - Neither have we.
□ I can't play tennis. - I can't either.
□ They don't like coffee. - Nor do I.
B. DISAGREEMENT
SUJECTO + AUXILIARY (positive / negative)
Examples:
I like studying English. - I don't.
I didn't studied for the exam. - I did.
22
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
Expression Example
both … and … I like both cats and dogs.
so Jane likes cats. So do I.
not … either Jane doesn't like cats. I don't like cats either.
either … or … Jane either has a cat or a dog.
neither/nor Jane doesn't like cats. Neither do I./Nor do I.
neither … nor
…
I like neither cats nor dogs.
Agreement:
□ So + auxiliary verb + subject (with positive sentences)
e.g. I am a student. So, am I.
□ Neither + auxiliary verb + subject (with negative sentences)
e.g. I am not a doctor. Neither, am I.
□ Neither ... nor (conjunction to join two phrases):
e.g.: The coat was neither cheap nor nice.
REMEMBER!! As “neither” and “none” are already negative, we don’t use any auxiliary + not in a negative sentence.
EXAMPLES:
Neither of them didn’t see the movie. → Neither of them saw the film.
None of us doesn’t speak Chinese. → None of us speaks Chinese. [None = not one]
● Notice that both of these sentences could be considered correct: None of us speaks Chinese. (= Not one); None of us speak Chinese. (Not any = neither you nor me
speak)
subject subject
23
FCE
by Matifmarin
GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
I am afraid of
spiders!!
I must hurry,
it’s late
already.
Oh God!!
So must I.
You look
good!!
So do
you!
(you too)
I neither like
Christmas
nor Thanks giving!!
Neither can
I.
(Nor can I)
(I can’t
either)
Help, I can’t
swim!!
So am I.
(me too)
24
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
1. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement:
1. like milk. ___________
2. I can't drive a bus. _________
3. I am a good student. _________
4. I ate pizza yesterday. __________
5. I have got a lot of friends. _________
6. I didn't go to the cinema last month. __________
7. I don't like oranges. _________
2. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement using the words given:
e.g. I like pizza. (Julia) —> So, does Julia.
1. I can play tennis. (Jerry)
2. I love chocolate. (my brother)
3. I am tall. (my friends)
4. I haven't done my homework. (Sue)
5. I don't like loud music. (my neighbour)
6. We can't speak Italian. (our friends)
3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of disagreement using the word given:
e.g. They went on holiday to Spain. (We) —> We, didn’t.
1. I like coffee with lots of sugar. (my sister)
2. They have finished their work. (we)
3. I don't understand German. (my friends)
4. I went to the cinema yesterday. (Peter)
5. She'll wake up very early on Sunday. (her mother)
6. He won't go to Peter's party. (his girlfriend and I)
7. They can't speak English. (my students)
25
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11
 EndEnd
1. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement.
1. So do I.
2. Neither can I.
3. So am I.
4. So did I.
5. So have I.
6. Neither did I.
7. Neither do I.
2. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement using the words given.
e.g. I like pizza. (Julia) —> So, does Julia.
1. So does Jerry.
2. So does my brother.
3. So are my friends.
4. Neither has Sue.
5. Neither do my neighbour.
6. Neither can our friends. / Our friends either. / Nor our friends.
ANSWER
3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of disagreement using the word given:
e.g. They went on holiday to Spain. (We) —> We, didn’t.
1. My sister doesn't.
2. We haven't.
3. My friends do.
4. Peter didn't.
5. Her parents won't.
6. His girlfriend and I will.
7. My students can.

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FCE Grammar Contents Unit 11: Conditionals and AGREEMENT – DISAGREEMENT

  • 1. 1 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 if ...Zero First Second Third General truth If you freeze water, it becomes ice. Possibilities in the present or in the future If it's sunny, we'll go for a walk. Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future If we won the lottery, we would travel around the world. Imaginary Past If I had known your phone, I would have called.
  • 2. 2 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 All conditional sentences consist of two clauses, an "if-clause” and a “main clause” if clause present main clause present If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. 0 - The structure of a zero conditional sentence (General truth) □ If the "if-clause” comes first, a comma is usually placed. If the "if-clause” comes second, there is no comma: main clause if clause Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees. □ We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present tense: if clause if + subject + simple present verb main clause subject + simple present verb → Note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"): When you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
  • 3. 3 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 Using the zero conditional The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths, and so on: Examples Explanations ● If you cross an international date line, the time changes. □ This always happens, every time you cross a dateline. ●If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases to two atmospheres. □ This is basically always true - the pressure of 10 meters of water equals one atmosphere. ● Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. □ This is a scientific fact - you can test it in a laboratory. Are you ready for a little test on zero conditional? ORDER AND WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1. you / cut/ your finger / it / bleed 2. cork / float / you / drop / it / in water 3. you / not / eat / you die 4. it / not / rain / the grass / not / grow 5. iron / rust / it / get / wet 6. you / heat / butter / it / melt
  • 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 1. If you cut your finger, it bleeds. 2. Cork floats if you drop it in water. 3. If you don’t eat, you die. 4. If it doesn’t rain, the grass doesn’t grow. 5. Iron rusts if it gets wet. 6. If you heat butter, it melts. ANSWERS:
  • 5. 5 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 1st - The structure of a first conditional sentence (possibility in present or future) if clause main clause If you study hard, you will pass the test. main clause if clause You will pass the test if you study hard. We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: if clause if + subject + simple present verb main clause subject + will + verb (future simple)
  • 6. 6 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future - things which may happen: Example Explanation If it's sunny, we'll go jogging. Maybe it will be sunny - that's possible. You won’t pass your exam if don’t study hard. Maybe you won’t pass - that's possible. If the baby is hungry, it'll cry. Maybe it will be hungry - that's possible. USE of the first conditional: I think you are ready for a little test on first conditional!
  • 7. 7 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 1 If you ________ an apple every day, _________ very healthy. (eat – be) 2 If you _______ so much sugar in your coffee, you ________ a lot of weight! (put – put on) 3 You ________ higher insurance if you ________ a sports car. (pay – buy) 4 He ________ nicer if he ________ this awful fringe. (look – cut) 5 You ________ better if you _______ the lamp. (able / see - turn on) ACTIVITY with the FIRST CONDITIONAL:
  • 8. 8 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ANSWERSANSWERS 1. eat / you’ll be 2. put / will put on 3. will pay / buy 4. will look / cut 5. will be able / turn on
  • 9. 9 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 2nd - The structure of a second conditional sentence (Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future) if clause main clause • The Second Conditional expresses a hypothesis in present and can be used to talk about imaginary present situations, where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that are unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met. We use the past simple in the condition part and would /could or might + bare infinitive for the result. If I had money, I would buy a better car if clause if + subject + past simple verb main clause subject + would + base verb (bare infinitive) We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional: → but I don’t have money, so won’t buy it. present future If I had the money …
  • 10. 10 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 IF Condition Time Result Possibility   past simple present WOULD + base verb impossible If I had the time, I would learn Chinese. I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Chinese.   past simple future WOULD + base verb unlikely If I won the lottery I would travel around the world. There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so the trip is unlikely If I had the time … If I won the lottery … … Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future
  • 11. 11 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 □ Poor Peter! Complete the sentences with the correct verb. In the sentences where both was/were are possible, use were: ACTIVITY with the SECOND CONDITIONAL: (a) If Peter ____ (not/watch) so many horror films, he ____ (not/be) scared of the dark. (b) If Peter ____ (be) braver, he ____ (not/feel) frightened of thunder and lightning. (c) If Peter ____ (not/spend) so much time playing video games, he ____ (get) better grades at school. (d) If Peter ____ (eat) healthier food, he ____ (not/be) ill so often. (e) If he ____ (not/be) ill so often, he ____ (not/miss) so many classes. (f) If his parents ____ (not/allow) him to drink so much coke, he ____ (sleep) much better. (g) If Peter ____ (sleep) better at night, he ____ (start) his day with more energy. (h) If he ____ (start) his day with more energy, he ____ (do) many more things. (i) If Peter ____ (practise) a sport, he ____ (keep) fit and healthy. (j) If he ____ (keep) fit and healthy, he ____ (feel) more confident. (k) If he ____ (feel) more confident, his self-esteem ____ (increase). (l) If his self-esteem ____ (increase), he ____ (not/have) so many problems to sleep at night.
  • 12. 12 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ANSWERS Poor Peter! (a) didn't watch / wouldn't be (b) were / wouldn't feel (c) didn't spend / would get (d) ate / wouldn't be (e) weren't / wouldn't miss (f) didn't allow / would sleep (g) slept / would start (h) started / would do (i) practised / would keep (j) kept / would feel (k) felt / would increase (l) increased / would have
  • 13. 13 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 3rd - The structure of a third conditional sentence (Imaginary Past) • The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened: if clause main clause If had known his telephone number, I would have phoned him. → but I didn’t know it, so I didn’t phone him. past past If I had known his number… We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional: if clause if + subject + past perfect verb main clause subject + would + present perfect verb (would + have + participle)
  • 14. 14 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 Third Conditional: Imaginary Past IF Condition Result Certainty   past perfect  WOULD HAVE + past participle    If  I had known,  I would have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the speaker is sure about the result. If  I had known,  I could have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility. If  I had known,  I might have helped.  Although this didn't happen, the result is only a possibility. If  you had known, You should have helped. Although this didn't happen, it is only a good suggestion or piece of  advice. I would have helped if I had known. You shouldn’t have done … I wouldn't have touched you if I had known.
  • 15. 15 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ACTIVITY with the THIRD CONDITIONAL: 1. Complete the following sentences with the THIRD CONDITIONAL. Use contractions for the negative verbs: (a) If Roberto _____ (not/lose) his job as a salesman in Madrid, he ____ (not/move) to Barcelona. (b) If he _____ (not/move) to Barcelona, he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company. (c) If he ____ (not/find) a job in Sara’s company, he ____ (not/meet) Sara. (d) If he ____ (not/meet) Sara, they ____ (not/fall) in love. (e) If they ____ (not/fall) in love, they ____ (not/marry). (1) If the weather had been better yesterday, … 2. Choose the correct ending for the following sentences: (a) we had gone to the lake (b) we'd have gone to the lake (c) we'd had gone to the lake. (2) If Julia had arrived on time last night, … (a) we would have watched a film together. (b) we had watched a film together (c) we could watch a film together. (3) If I had studied more for my exams, … (b) my grades would be better. (b) my grades would have been better (c) my grades had been better. (4) We would have had a wonderful weekend … (a) if it hadn't begun to rain (b) if it hadn't began to rain (c) if it would have begun to rain. 5. The party would have been more fun … (a) if my parents hadn't decided to stay (b) wouldn't have decided to stay (c) would have decided to stay.
  • 16. 16 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ANSWERS (a) hadn’t lost / wouldn’t have moved (b) hadn’t moved / wouldn’t have found (c) hadn’t found / wouldn’t have met (d) hadn’t met / wouldn’t have fallen (e) hadn’t fallen / wouldn’t have married 1. Complete the following sentences… 2. Choose the correct ending 1 (b) 2 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 5 (a)
  • 17. 17 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 1. If they ______ (find) your bag, they _____ (give) it back to you at once I am sure of that. 2. Probably, you left your bag somewhere else. If they ____ (find) it, they ____ (give) it back to you at once when you asked for it. 3. If they _____ (find) your bag, they _____ (give) it back to you at once but I am not sure that you left it there. 4. If Mary ____ (find) anything on the street, she always _____ (take) it to the lost and found office. 5. I bought an expensive toaster yesterday. If I ____ (not/buy) it I ____ (not/spend) so much money. 6. Although, I can make very tasty breakfast now. If ____ (not/buy) it yesterday, I ____ (not/be) able to cook tasty breakfast tomorrow. 7. I ____ (try) out some new recipes from the book that came along with the toaster, unless I ____ (forget) to buy all the ingredients at the store today. 8. When people ____ (buy) something new, no matter if it is a jumper, a car, or a toaster, they ____ (use) it continually for a while, and then sometimes forget about it. 9. If I ____ (have) some free time, but I am extremely busy, I ____ (go) to the shopping center. 10. When John ____ (arrive) home, his dog always ____ (run) to greet him. 0,1,2,3 conditionals, mixed Fill in the gaps with the suitable conditionals: □ If he had known it was your birthday, you would now have a nice bunch of flowers. 3rd Cond. 2nd Cond. □ If he comes to the party tomorrow, he would bring a nice bunch of flowers. 1st Cond. 2nd Cond. □ If he loved you, he would have given you a nice bunch of flowers already. 2nd Cond. 3rd Cond.
  • 18. 18 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ANSWERS 1. find / will give (= 1st Cond.) 2. had found / would have given (3rd Cond.) 3. found / would give (2nd Cond.) 4. finds / takes (0 Cond.) 5. hadn't bought / wouldn't have spent (3rd Cond.) 6. hadn't bought / wouldn't be (3rd and 2nd Cond.) 7. will try / forget ( = 1st Cond.) 8. buy / use (0 Cond.) 9. had / would go (2nd Cond) 10. arrives / runs (0 Cond.)
  • 19. 19 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 Alternative words for if. Practice Rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction: I understand. I can go out if I come back by midnight. Am I Cinderella? Ok. You can go out as long as you’re back by midnight
  • 20. 20 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 ANSWERS 2. unless 3. if only 4. Supposing 5. Assuming 6. What if
  • 21. 21 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 AGREEMENT – DISAGREEMENT A. AGREEMENT 1.- Positive: SO + AUXILIARY + SUJECT e.g.: I like music - So do I. 2.- Negative: NEITHER + AUXILIARY (positive) + SUJECT SUJECT + AUXILIARY (negative) + EITHER Nor + AUXILIARY (positive) + SUJECT Examples: □ He hasn’t made this cake. - Neither have we. □ I can't play tennis. - I can't either. □ They don't like coffee. - Nor do I. B. DISAGREEMENT SUJECTO + AUXILIARY (positive / negative) Examples: I like studying English. - I don't. I didn't studied for the exam. - I did.
  • 22. 22 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 Expression Example both … and … I like both cats and dogs. so Jane likes cats. So do I. not … either Jane doesn't like cats. I don't like cats either. either … or … Jane either has a cat or a dog. neither/nor Jane doesn't like cats. Neither do I./Nor do I. neither … nor … I like neither cats nor dogs. Agreement: □ So + auxiliary verb + subject (with positive sentences) e.g. I am a student. So, am I. □ Neither + auxiliary verb + subject (with negative sentences) e.g. I am not a doctor. Neither, am I. □ Neither ... nor (conjunction to join two phrases): e.g.: The coat was neither cheap nor nice. REMEMBER!! As “neither” and “none” are already negative, we don’t use any auxiliary + not in a negative sentence. EXAMPLES: Neither of them didn’t see the movie. → Neither of them saw the film. None of us doesn’t speak Chinese. → None of us speaks Chinese. [None = not one] ● Notice that both of these sentences could be considered correct: None of us speaks Chinese. (= Not one); None of us speak Chinese. (Not any = neither you nor me speak) subject subject
  • 23. 23 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 I am afraid of spiders!! I must hurry, it’s late already. Oh God!! So must I. You look good!! So do you! (you too) I neither like Christmas nor Thanks giving!! Neither can I. (Nor can I) (I can’t either) Help, I can’t swim!! So am I. (me too)
  • 24. 24 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11 1. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement: 1. like milk. ___________ 2. I can't drive a bus. _________ 3. I am a good student. _________ 4. I ate pizza yesterday. __________ 5. I have got a lot of friends. _________ 6. I didn't go to the cinema last month. __________ 7. I don't like oranges. _________ 2. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement using the words given: e.g. I like pizza. (Julia) —> So, does Julia. 1. I can play tennis. (Jerry) 2. I love chocolate. (my brother) 3. I am tall. (my friends) 4. I haven't done my homework. (Sue) 5. I don't like loud music. (my neighbour) 6. We can't speak Italian. (our friends) 3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of disagreement using the word given: e.g. They went on holiday to Spain. (We) —> We, didn’t. 1. I like coffee with lots of sugar. (my sister) 2. They have finished their work. (we) 3. I don't understand German. (my friends) 4. I went to the cinema yesterday. (Peter) 5. She'll wake up very early on Sunday. (her mother) 6. He won't go to Peter's party. (his girlfriend and I) 7. They can't speak English. (my students)
  • 25. 25 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 11  EndEnd 1. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement. 1. So do I. 2. Neither can I. 3. So am I. 4. So did I. 5. So have I. 6. Neither did I. 7. Neither do I. 2. Complete the following with the correct form of agreement using the words given. e.g. I like pizza. (Julia) —> So, does Julia. 1. So does Jerry. 2. So does my brother. 3. So are my friends. 4. Neither has Sue. 5. Neither do my neighbour. 6. Neither can our friends. / Our friends either. / Nor our friends. ANSWER 3. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of disagreement using the word given: e.g. They went on holiday to Spain. (We) —> We, didn’t. 1. My sister doesn't. 2. We haven't. 3. My friends do. 4. Peter didn't. 5. Her parents won't. 6. His girlfriend and I will. 7. My students can.