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1
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations
VERB TENSES with WISHES:
□ We use would and could to talk about wishes for the future:
Examples:
- I wish I could have an early holiday this year.
- She wishes she could find a better job.
- It’s been raining all week. I wish it would stop.
- I have to get up early tomorrow. I wish I could stay with you until late.
□ We use past tense to talk about wishes for the present:
Examples:
- I wish I had more time for my hobbies.
- My students wish I didn’t ask them for so much homework.
- I wish I wasn’t so busy.
- He wishes it wasn’t so hot.
□ We use the past perfect for wishes in the past:
Examples:
- I wish I had done a master degree.
- He wishes he had taken his parent’s advice and studied IT engineering .
- I wish I hadn’t spent so much money on clothes last month.
1. WISH
As you know,English uses conditional forms to express hypothetical situations,
mainly the 2nd and the 3rd conditionals
● However, there are also a number of other forms to express hypothetical situations in English.
2
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations
1. WISH
Damn! I wish I hadn’t
eaten the apple.
I want my rib back!!
3
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations
“wish” / “if only”
Three types of sentences
1. Expressing a wish: (wanting a change for the present or future) with the simple past.
2. Expressing a regret: with the past perfect.
3. Expressing a complaints: with would + verb.
1. → Form: If only / I wish + simple past
e.g.: If only I knew how to use new technology. (I don’t know how to use new technology and I would like to learn how to use it)
Use: To express a wish in the present or in the future. The simple past here is an unreal past.
When you use the verb to be the form is “were”.
e.g.: I wish I were a millionaire
2. → Form: If only / I wish + past perfect
e.g.: If only I had studied harder I wouldn’t have failed my exam. (I didn't study hard and I failed my exam.)
Use: To express a regret. The action is past
3. → Form: I wish / if only + would + base verb form
e.g.: I wish you wouldn't arrive so late all the time (I'm annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time)
Use: To complain about a behavior that you disapprove.
Expressing impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action
A WISH
A REGRET
A COMPLAINING
4
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
‘If only’ takes the same verb forms as ‘wish’. This form is used as a means of
stressing the importance of the wish or hypothetical situation.
2. IF ONLY
Examples:
- If only there were more job opportunities!
- If only we had more time to prepare my exam.
□ ‘If only’ can also be used with ‘would / wouldn’t’ to
Examples:
- If only the boss would listen to my proposals!
- If only a good friend could help me with all this work.
Why the hell everyone calls me:
mariquita, marieta, coccinelle,
coccinella, ladybird, Marienkäfer
божья коровка ... If only they
could see I'm a tough guy! !
You’d
better go
now, kid.
I think I could stay with you..
If only you could talk like a
normal person.
5
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
3. IT’S TIME
□ ‘it’s time’ is used with the past simple to talk about an action which finally is taking place, or should take
place soon. It always refers to an action or state that should have taken place before the moment of
speaking.
Examples:
- It’s time you began working on your own.
- It's high time we changed to a new internet service provider.
- It's about time the children went to bed.
It’s about
time she
bought a
mobile phone!
I think it's high time my
lady began to take
some kind of
contraceptive!
□ There are some common variations on ‘it’s time’ which have the same meaning:
It’s about time… → It's about time we bought a new computer.
It’s high time… → It’s high time she finished the project.
6
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
4. WOULD RATHER
□ There are three main uses of ‘would rather’ to express hypothetical situations:
(1) Would Rather + Bare infinitive
● We ese ‘would rather’ + the bare infinitive to talk about our preferences in the present or the future:
Examples:
- He’d rather his employees work less overtime.
- I'd rather leave now.
- I would rather take a different approach.
(2) Would Rather + Past simple
● We use ‘would rather’ + past simple to talk about a wish involving someone else:
Examples:
- She’d rather her chidren were with her.
- I’d rather you went now.
→ We saw it in UNIT 7 (check it if you need a revision)
□ WOULD RATHER requires either
(1) " would rather + bare infinitive (no "to" because it's a subjunctive) or
(2) "would rather + pronoun + past tense. (also a subjunctive)
ex. 1: I would rather be with you than (be) here. / I would rather laugh than cry. (Now)
ex. 2: I would rather you were here with me. / I would rather you laughed than cried. (Now)
I’d rather my
emplyees work
less overtime
(3) Would Rather + Past Perfect
● We use ‘would rather’ + past perfect to express a regret or hypothetical situations in the past:
Examples:
- They’d rather they hadn’t spent so much on their last holiday.
- Mary would rather she had chosen a different job.
7
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
It’s time you
gave me my
money back I wish I could
give it to you
today.
I’d rather they
had the same
colour as me.
If only I could
learn all that
without much
effort…
I wish my wife
were here!!
8
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
It's about time you did some pratice!!
Match the correct phrase for the following:
1. I wish I _.
(a) didn’t drink so much last night. (b) hadn’t drunk so much last night.
2. That’s a terrible noise. _
(a) I wish it would stop. (b) I wish it will stop.
3. I would rather _.
(a) you to go now. (b) you went now.
4. If only - .
(a) They give me another opportunity. (b) they could give me another opportunity.
9
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
ANSWER
Wishes and hypothetical situations
1. (b) hadn’t drunk so much last night. = (I wish in the past; I regret)
2. (a) I wish it would stop. = (I wish for the present / future; a complaining)
3. (b) you went now. = ( would rather + pronoun; past tense)
4. (b) they could give me another opportunity. = (a strong wish for the future)
Ready for some more practice?
10
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
1. Decide whether these statements express a "wish" or a "regret":
Wishes and hypothetical situations
(a) I wish I could fly. __________
(b) If only she had seen the doctor earlier. He could have saved her. _______
(c) If only I could travelled to China. ________
(d) I wish I you wouldn't speak so loud. ___________
wish
regret
wish
Complaint
2. Fill in the gaps with the correct verb tense from the one given in brackets:
(a) I wish I _____________ to him yesterday. (talk)
(b) I need help badly. If only you __________ help me. (can)
(c) He didn't pass the exam. If only he __________ harder. (study)
(d) She was absent. I wish she __________ the conference. (attend)
(e) What a beautiful flat! I wish I __________ a flat like this. (have)
(f) They had that bad accident because they were careless. If only they __________ more careful. (be)
11
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
ANSWER
(a) had talked
(a) Could
(a) had studied
(a) had attended
(e) had
(f) had been
12
FCE
by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14
Wishes and hypothetical situations
REMEMBER!!
‘Would rather’ and ‘Prefer’ have the same meaning but they have different structure:
I'd rather stay at home. (bare infinitive)
I'd prefer to stay at home. (to-infinitive)
They both mean that if possible I want to stay at home.
Summary of their construction:
Positive
subject would rather base form
I would rather go the cinema.
I 'd rather listen to the radio.
Negative
subject would rather not base form
I would rather not go.
I 'd rather not invite him.
Rather
Prefer
Positive
subject would prefer infinitive
I would prefer to go the cinema.
I 'd prefer to listen to the radio.
Negative
subject would prefer not infinitive
I would prefer not to go.
I 'd prefer not to invite him.
 EndEnd

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FCE Unit 14 Grammar Contents: Wishes & Hypothetical Situations

  • 1. 1 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations VERB TENSES with WISHES: □ We use would and could to talk about wishes for the future: Examples: - I wish I could have an early holiday this year. - She wishes she could find a better job. - It’s been raining all week. I wish it would stop. - I have to get up early tomorrow. I wish I could stay with you until late. □ We use past tense to talk about wishes for the present: Examples: - I wish I had more time for my hobbies. - My students wish I didn’t ask them for so much homework. - I wish I wasn’t so busy. - He wishes it wasn’t so hot. □ We use the past perfect for wishes in the past: Examples: - I wish I had done a master degree. - He wishes he had taken his parent’s advice and studied IT engineering . - I wish I hadn’t spent so much money on clothes last month. 1. WISH As you know,English uses conditional forms to express hypothetical situations, mainly the 2nd and the 3rd conditionals ● However, there are also a number of other forms to express hypothetical situations in English.
  • 2. 2 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations 1. WISH Damn! I wish I hadn’t eaten the apple. I want my rib back!!
  • 3. 3 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 A.- Wishes and hypothetical situations “wish” / “if only” Three types of sentences 1. Expressing a wish: (wanting a change for the present or future) with the simple past. 2. Expressing a regret: with the past perfect. 3. Expressing a complaints: with would + verb. 1. → Form: If only / I wish + simple past e.g.: If only I knew how to use new technology. (I don’t know how to use new technology and I would like to learn how to use it) Use: To express a wish in the present or in the future. The simple past here is an unreal past. When you use the verb to be the form is “were”. e.g.: I wish I were a millionaire 2. → Form: If only / I wish + past perfect e.g.: If only I had studied harder I wouldn’t have failed my exam. (I didn't study hard and I failed my exam.) Use: To express a regret. The action is past 3. → Form: I wish / if only + would + base verb form e.g.: I wish you wouldn't arrive so late all the time (I'm annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time) Use: To complain about a behavior that you disapprove. Expressing impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action A WISH A REGRET A COMPLAINING
  • 4. 4 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations ‘If only’ takes the same verb forms as ‘wish’. This form is used as a means of stressing the importance of the wish or hypothetical situation. 2. IF ONLY Examples: - If only there were more job opportunities! - If only we had more time to prepare my exam. □ ‘If only’ can also be used with ‘would / wouldn’t’ to Examples: - If only the boss would listen to my proposals! - If only a good friend could help me with all this work. Why the hell everyone calls me: mariquita, marieta, coccinelle, coccinella, ladybird, Marienkäfer божья коровка ... If only they could see I'm a tough guy! ! You’d better go now, kid. I think I could stay with you.. If only you could talk like a normal person.
  • 5. 5 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations 3. IT’S TIME □ ‘it’s time’ is used with the past simple to talk about an action which finally is taking place, or should take place soon. It always refers to an action or state that should have taken place before the moment of speaking. Examples: - It’s time you began working on your own. - It's high time we changed to a new internet service provider. - It's about time the children went to bed. It’s about time she bought a mobile phone! I think it's high time my lady began to take some kind of contraceptive! □ There are some common variations on ‘it’s time’ which have the same meaning: It’s about time… → It's about time we bought a new computer. It’s high time… → It’s high time she finished the project.
  • 6. 6 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations 4. WOULD RATHER □ There are three main uses of ‘would rather’ to express hypothetical situations: (1) Would Rather + Bare infinitive ● We ese ‘would rather’ + the bare infinitive to talk about our preferences in the present or the future: Examples: - He’d rather his employees work less overtime. - I'd rather leave now. - I would rather take a different approach. (2) Would Rather + Past simple ● We use ‘would rather’ + past simple to talk about a wish involving someone else: Examples: - She’d rather her chidren were with her. - I’d rather you went now. → We saw it in UNIT 7 (check it if you need a revision) □ WOULD RATHER requires either (1) " would rather + bare infinitive (no "to" because it's a subjunctive) or (2) "would rather + pronoun + past tense. (also a subjunctive) ex. 1: I would rather be with you than (be) here. / I would rather laugh than cry. (Now) ex. 2: I would rather you were here with me. / I would rather you laughed than cried. (Now) I’d rather my emplyees work less overtime (3) Would Rather + Past Perfect ● We use ‘would rather’ + past perfect to express a regret or hypothetical situations in the past: Examples: - They’d rather they hadn’t spent so much on their last holiday. - Mary would rather she had chosen a different job.
  • 7. 7 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations It’s time you gave me my money back I wish I could give it to you today. I’d rather they had the same colour as me. If only I could learn all that without much effort… I wish my wife were here!!
  • 8. 8 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations It's about time you did some pratice!! Match the correct phrase for the following: 1. I wish I _. (a) didn’t drink so much last night. (b) hadn’t drunk so much last night. 2. That’s a terrible noise. _ (a) I wish it would stop. (b) I wish it will stop. 3. I would rather _. (a) you to go now. (b) you went now. 4. If only - . (a) They give me another opportunity. (b) they could give me another opportunity.
  • 9. 9 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 ANSWER Wishes and hypothetical situations 1. (b) hadn’t drunk so much last night. = (I wish in the past; I regret) 2. (a) I wish it would stop. = (I wish for the present / future; a complaining) 3. (b) you went now. = ( would rather + pronoun; past tense) 4. (b) they could give me another opportunity. = (a strong wish for the future) Ready for some more practice?
  • 10. 10 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 1. Decide whether these statements express a "wish" or a "regret": Wishes and hypothetical situations (a) I wish I could fly. __________ (b) If only she had seen the doctor earlier. He could have saved her. _______ (c) If only I could travelled to China. ________ (d) I wish I you wouldn't speak so loud. ___________ wish regret wish Complaint 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct verb tense from the one given in brackets: (a) I wish I _____________ to him yesterday. (talk) (b) I need help badly. If only you __________ help me. (can) (c) He didn't pass the exam. If only he __________ harder. (study) (d) She was absent. I wish she __________ the conference. (attend) (e) What a beautiful flat! I wish I __________ a flat like this. (have) (f) They had that bad accident because they were careless. If only they __________ more careful. (be)
  • 11. 11 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations ANSWER (a) had talked (a) Could (a) had studied (a) had attended (e) had (f) had been
  • 12. 12 FCE by Matifmarin GRAMMAR – UNIT 14 Wishes and hypothetical situations REMEMBER!! ‘Would rather’ and ‘Prefer’ have the same meaning but they have different structure: I'd rather stay at home. (bare infinitive) I'd prefer to stay at home. (to-infinitive) They both mean that if possible I want to stay at home. Summary of their construction: Positive subject would rather base form I would rather go the cinema. I 'd rather listen to the radio. Negative subject would rather not base form I would rather not go. I 'd rather not invite him. Rather Prefer Positive subject would prefer infinitive I would prefer to go the cinema. I 'd prefer to listen to the radio. Negative subject would prefer not infinitive I would prefer not to go. I 'd prefer not to invite him.  EndEnd