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Joining Forces
Interagency Collaboration and “Smart Power”

  A Candid Survey of Federal Employees


                Sponsored by:
About
        The Research Intelligence Division
        Of Government Executive Media Group


        Dedicated to Advancing the Business of
        Government
        Through analysis, insight and analytical independence


        Extension of GEMG’s 40 Years of Editorial
        Standards & Ethical Values
        GBC studies influential decision-makers to produce
        intelligence-based analysis

                                                  www.govexec.com/gbc   2
Methodology and Scope

•   In October of 2010, the Government Business Council launched a survey to a sample of federal
    managers from the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for
    International Development. The survey tested the behavior and attitudes of these managers on the
    concept of ―smart power‖ and the role of interagency collaboration in their agencies. The result of this
    research was ―Addressing Geopolitical Challenges: The Smart Power Approach‖, a GBC Insight Report.
•   In October of 2011, GBC launched a similar survey to another sample of federal managers, this time also
    incorporating responses from additional agencies and non-profit organizations.
•   Research sought to determine:
       – how federal agencies are currently addressing global challenges, whether they have adopted smart
          power approaches and how agencies might implement cooperative and interagency solutions;
       – the effect of interagency collaboration on the cost and overall success of achieving an agency’s
          mission.
•   GBC distributed the survey in two ways: by email to Government Executive’s subscribers; and through an
    open link on GovernmentExecutive.com and via social media. The outreach targeted federal managers at
    the Departments of Defense, State and U.S. Agency for International Development, but also included
    other qualified federal managers.
•   The following report uses results from the 268 federal and non-profit employees who completed the 2011
    survey. A full 1130 participants began the survey, and 296 completed the survey.
•   The report also incorporates data from both the 2010 and 2011 surveys when interesting trends or
    changes in outcome were apparent.
Respondent Profile




                 www.govexec.com/gbc   4
Respondent                              Areas of Employment

 Profile                                        Federal employee
                                                                                            81%
                                              (Defense, State, AID)

                                           Federal employee (Other
 • In the 2011 survey, more than 80               Agencies)
                                                                            19%
   percent of respondents are from
   the U.S. Department of Defense,
                                       NGO/Non-profits/Independent
   the U.S. Department of State, or                                    2%
                                             Contractors
   the U.S. Agency for International
   Development.
 • The remaining respondents
   include other federal agencies,       Number of People Overseen
   military, independent contractors
   and other non-governmental                              Over 200               7%
   parties. Over half of the
   respondents surveyed oversee at
   least one person.                                       51 to 200               8%

                                                            21 to 50               8%

                                                             6 to 20                                 22%
Percentage of respondents, n=268

                                                              1 to 5                               20%
                                                                                  www.govexec.com/gbc      5
Respondent Profile: Departments and Agencies Represented*




Agencies listed in order of frequency


                                              www.govexec.com/gbc   6
Respondent Profile: Other Departments and Agencies Represented*
 Department of Homeland Security                 United States Government Accountability Office
 Department of Agriculture                       United States Postal Service
 Department of Veterans Affairs                  Department of Commerce
 General Services Administration                 Department of Education
 Department of Energy                            Department of Labor
 Department of Health and Human Services         Executive Office of the President (including OMB)
 Department of the Interior                      National Science Foundation
 Department of Justice                           Nuclear Regulatory Commission
 Environmental Protection Agency                 Office of Personnel Management
 Department of Housing and Urban Development     Small Business Administration
 Department of Transportation
 Department of Treasury
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
 Social Security Administration




Agencies listed in order of frequency


                                                                          www.govexec.com/gbc        7
Survey Findings
Executive Summary
Similar Missions, Separate Approaches
The federal agencies most involved in defense, diplomacy and development have overlapping missions. A full
70 percent of defense managers and 92 percent of Department of State respondents believe ―protecting the
security of the United States abroad‖ to be a mission priority of their agency. Yet, 40 percent of State
Department managers report that collaboration with the Department of Defense has failed to meet their
expectations.

Help Wanted
Diplomacy, defense and development need not be the missions of only the Departments of Defense, State
and the U.S. Agency for International Development; other federal agencies can also contribute. For
example, 50 percent of managers say that the Department of Commerce has the potential to make additional
contributions to U.S. interests abroad.

Political and Cultural Challenges Impede Collaboration
Managers are increasingly skeptical that collaboration will help them to achieve overall mission success.
Sixty-two percent of managers in 2011 believe that interagency collaboration will help overall mission
success, compared to 83 percent in 2010. Agency politics and poor communication are the central
challenges. Managers describe ―turf wars‖ that are detrimental to forming efficient working relationships.

Budget Pressures to Increase Importance of Collaboration
Federal managers are less optimistic about the potential cost-savings of interagency efforts, yet most agree
that budget pressures will increase the importance of interagency collaboration. A full quarter of federal
managers in 2011 expect that collaboration will increase the costs of achieving their mission, while 65 percent
of federal managers say that budget pressures will ―significantly‖ or ―somewhat‖ increase the importance of
interagency collaboration at their agency.

                                                                                    www.govexec.com/gbc       9
Smart Power                                      Smart Power Applicability to Challenges
 Remains Applicable
 to the Same                                                   Humanitarian                             47%
 Challenges                                              assistance/disaster relief                            66%
                                                        Stabilization/reconstructio                    42%
                                                                     n                                   50%
 • While the central smart-power
   worthy challenges have not                                                                          41%
   changed significantly from                                  Conflict prevention
                                                                                                        44%
   2010, a few areas have lost
   support in 2011. While 66 percent                                                          23%
                                                           Counter-illicit networks
   of managers surveyed in 2010                                                               23%
   said that humanitarian assistance
                                                                                          17%
   and disaster relief can be helped                             Maritime security
   by smart power solutions, 47                                                         11%
   percent of managers in 2011 say                                                              31%
   the same.                                                  Security assistance
                                                                                                30%
 • Other areas such as maritime
   security and irregular warfare                                    Asymmetric                 29%
   have gained support.                                           threats/complex…               32%
                                                                                          17%
                                                                 Irregular warfare
                                                                                         14%

Percentage of respondents, n= 263 (2011) n=145 (2010)                                   10%
                                                               None of the above
                                                                                      4%                       2011   2010

                                                                                                www.govexec.com/gbc    10
Smart Power Only                               Ability of Federal Government to
 Somewhat                                       Implement Smart Power Solutions
 Attainable for
 Federal Agencies                                                                 -5%                   2011   2010

 • Similar to 2010, most managers in
   2011 still believe smart power is                                                 51%
   only somewhat able to be
                                                                                  46%
   implemented.
 • Forty-six percent of managers in
   2011 believe that the federal                   +5%
   government is somewhat able to
   implement smart power
   solutions, compared to 51 percent
   in 2010.                                                         17%18%
                                                                                               15%             15%
                                                                                                  11%       12%
                                                    10%
                                                          5%


                                                        Fully         Mostly      Somewhat Not implement I don't know
                                                      implement     implement     implement  smart power
                                                     smart power   smart power   smart power  solutions
Percentage of respondents, 2011: n= 266, 2010: n= 148 solutions      solutions     solutions

                                                                                            www.govexec.com/gbc       11
Federal Agencies                                “My agency has the tools and capabilities it needs to
  Continue to Have the                            adequately address geopolitical challenges”
  Tools to Address
  Geopolitical                                                  68%
  Challenges
                                                                                 51%                     2011    2010
• Agencies are confident that they
  have the tools and capabilities                                          46%
  they need to address global
  challenges. A full 68 percent of
  managers ―strongly‖ or
  ―somewhat‖ agree that their
  agency has the tools and
  capabilities it needs to address
  geopolitical challenges.                                22%                                   22%
• While 15 percent of managers in
                                                                15%                       16%             16%
  2010 fully agreed that they have
  the capabilities to address                                                                                    12%
  geopolitical challenges, 22
  percent say the same in 2011.


                                                        Strongly agree   Somewhat agree   Somewhat     Strongly disagree
                                                                                           disagree
Percentage of respondents, n=265 (2011), n=224 (2010)


                                                                                           www.govexec.com/gbc     12
Agencies                             Effectiveness of Collaboration by Organization
 Collaborate Most
 Effectively with
 Other Agencies                         Interagency
                                                       15%                   59%                      18%     8%
                                          partners
 • Federal agencies work most
   effectively with other
   agencies, compared to their work
   with the private sector and non-
   governmental organizations. More   Private Sector   15%                50%                   22%         14%
   than two-thirds (74 percent) of
   federal managers work at least
   somewhat effectively with
   interagency partners.
 • Almost half of federal managers’           NGOs     12%            42%                22%            25%
   agencies either do not work with
   NGOs (25 percent), or do not
   work with them effectively (22                      Very effectively
   percent).                                           Somewhat effectively
                                                       Not effectively
                                                       We do not work with partners on geopolitical challenges

Percentage of respondents, n= 237


                                                                                   www.govexec.com/gbc        13
Interagency                                     Effectiveness of Interagency
 Collaboration Has                               Collaboration over Past Two Years
 Made Small Strides
                                                                                        52%
                                                                                                           2011     2010
                                                           37%                    45%
 • Federal managers agree that
   interagency collaboration has
   improved since 2009. Thirty-
   seven percent of managers in                                    32%
   2011 say that interagency                                             28%
   collaboration has grown
   ―somewhat‖ or ―significantly‖ more
   effective over the past two
   years, compared to 31 percent
                                                                                                11% 10%
   who said the same in 2010.
                                                                                                                7% 7%
 • A full 45 percent of managers in                   5%
                                                           3%
   2011 believe that interagency
   collaboration remains about as
   effective, compared to 52 percent               Significantly  Somewhat        About as      Somewhat      Significantly
   from 2010.                                     more effective more effective   effective   less effective less effective


Percentage of respondents, (2011)n= 256 (2010)n=145


                                                                                              www.govexec.com/gbc        14
―While increased interagency
―Agencies do not give up               collaboration would seem to have
resources to be more efficient with    benefits in terms of bringing a
other Agencies--DOJ is not DOD         wider set of interests and skill sets
is not State is not Treasury.          to any given issue, it also creates
Agencies do interagency                transaction costs that can be
collaboration when there is a          significant, both in time and
mutual interest in performing the      resources. All of these factors can
mission…[We need to] fashion an        combine to increase costs and
interagency effort that has definite   make government less rather than
goals for definite periods of time.‖   more nimble when dealing with
                                       complex geopolitical issues that
                                       often demand swift and decisive
                                       action.‖




                                                                               15
DoD, State and AID                        Top 5 Mission Priorities by Agency
 Share Mission                                                                                             Overlapping Priorities
 Goals
                                              Department of           Department of
                                                                                                 USAID            Other Agencies
                                                Defense                  State
                                                 n= 170                   n=30                    n= 13                n= 54
                                           Protecting the          Protecting the
 • Federal agencies have shared            security of the         security of the
                                                                                         Provide            Advance
                                                             70%                     92% emergency food 95% counter-          55%
   mission priorities; managers            United states           United states
                                                                                         aid abroad         terrorism efforts
   identify aligning goals, particularly   abroad                  abroad
   between the Departments of                                                            Reduce               Protecting the
                                           Advance                 Form ties with
   Defense and State. DoD and              counter-          59%   foreign           92%
                                                                                         widespread
                                                                                                          90%
                                                                                                              security of the
                                                                                                                                52%
   USAID also have at least one                                                          poverty and          United States
                                           terrorism efforts       governments
                                                                                         disease abroad       abroad
   mission priority in common.
                                                                                         Foster economic     Support
 • Other agencies also have similar        Protect U.S.            Protect U.S.
                                                                                         growth in           international
   objectives to DoD, State and            citizens          54%   citizens          90%                 90%                    49%
                                                                                         developing          activities of
                                           overseas                overseas
   USAID. Advancing counter-                                                             countries           agencies
   terrorism efforts, for example, is
                                                                   Support               Assist newly
   an objective of both DoD and            Form ties with          international         formed
                                                                                                              Form ties with
   managers at the Department of                            52%                      87%                  84% foreign           42%
                                           foreign military        activities of         democracies in
                                                                                                              governments
   Homeland Security.                                              agencies              governance
                                           Support natural
                                                                   Support conflict
                                           disaster                                   Support natural
                                                                   resolution,                              Protect U.S.
                                           recover, relief                            disaster recover,
                                                           47%     prevention and 87%                   84% citizens            38%
                                           and risk                                   relief and risk
Percentage of respondents, n= 267                                  mitigation                               overseas
                                           reduction                                  reduction abroad
                                                                   abroad
                                           abroad
                                                                                                  www.govexec.com/gbc           16
Defense and                                      Quality of Collaboration Between State
 Diplomacy Struggle                               and Defense
 to Work Together
                                                       Defense collaboration with
                                                                                  6%           32%             29%          18%      15%
                                                        the Department of State
 • While slightly more than half (54
   percent) of State Department
   respondents say that their
   collaboration with the Department
   of Defense meets their
   expectations, another 40 percent
   report that it failed to meet their                 State collaboration with the                                                    6%
                                                                                        20%            34%                 40%
   expectations. A significant portion                   Department of Defense
   (39 percent) of DoD respondents
   indicated that collaboration with
   State failed to meet their
   expectations.                                                Exceeded my expectations
 • Eighteen percent of Defense
                                                                Met my expectations
   respondents and six percent of
   State respondents say that                                   Failed to meet my expectations
   collaboration with one another
   would be beneficial.                                         My agency has never collaborated with them, but would find it beneficial

                                                                My agency has never collaborated with them, and would NOT find it
Percentage of respondents, (DoD) n=215, (State) n=35            beneficial


                                                                                                     www.govexec.com/gbc          17
Other Agencies                                     Potential vs. Actual
 Have Potential to                                  Contributions to Geopolitical Challenges
 Address Geopolitical
                                                                60%
 Challenges                                                           53%
                                                                            56%
                                                                                           51%              50%             49%

                                                                                                                 36%
 • Agencies outside of DoD, State
   and USAID have the potential to                                                27%
                                                                                                                                  23%
   contribute to U.S. government                                                                 18%
   efforts to address geopolitical
   challenges. Federal managers
   believe many more agencies have
   the potential to contribute than are                    Intelligence     Agriculture   Commerce Homeland Security
                                                                                                             U.S. Trade Representat
   doing so currently.                                      48%
 • For example, only 18 percent of                                          44%           42%            42%
   managers believe that he                                                                                            37%
   Department of Commerce is                                                      27%
   currently contributing globally, yet                                                         24%
   more than half (51 percent) see a                              17%                                        15%
   greater role for Commerce in                                                                                              9%
   international affairs.

                                                                Energy      Justice       Treasury         FTC         Education
Percentage of respondents, (Potential) n= 257, (Actual) n=259
                                                                                                               Potential    Actual

                                                                                                      www.govexec.com/gbc      18
Less Optimism for                       Collaboration’s Effect on Overall Mission
 Collaboration’s Role                    Success
 toward Mission                                             -21%
 Success
                                                                                             2011    2010

 • Managers are increasingly                                     83%
   skeptical that collaboration will
   help them achieve overall mission
   success. Sixty-two percent of                           62%
   managers in 2011 believe that
   interagency collaboration will help
   overall mission
   success, compared to 83 percent
   in 2010.
 • In addition, more managers are
   wary of collaboration’s potential
   hazards. Fourteen percent of              16%
   managers in 2011 believe                                                  14%
                                                                                                8%    9%
   interagency collaboration would                 5%                               3%
   make their overall mission less
   successful, an increase of eleven
   percent believed since 2010.              No change   More successful   Less successful     I don't know
Percentage of respondents, n= 268


                                                                             www.govexec.com/gbc       19
Interagency Politics                   Challenges to Interagency Collaboration
 and Ineffective
 Communication
                                                              Interagency politics                     53%
 Pose Greatest
                                                 Lack of clear interagency policy                      51%
 Challenges
 • Politics and communication are              Ineffective lines of communication                     50%
   the central challenges to
   interagency collaboration. More            Cultural resistance to collaboration                    47%
   than half of federal managers
   identify interagency politics (53            Lack of dedicated funding/budget                     41%
   percent) and lack of clear
                                            Lack of time to focus on collaboration              32%
   interagency policy (51 percent) as
   challenges to collaborating with                             Security concerns              29%
   colleagues outside their
   department.                                             Not an agency priority              29%
 • Security and technology are not
   the central obstacles to                   Technical elements not compatible                26%
   collaboration. Only 22 percent of
   managers describe the clearance         Unsure who to contact outside agency                25%
   process as a hurtle and 26
   percent identify incompatible              Security clearances not compatible            22%
   technologies.
                                                               None of the above         10%

                                                                            Other      4%
Percentage of respondents, n=262


                                                                                     www.govexec.com/gbc     20
Smart Power Future                        “The departure of smart power advocates such as current
                                           Secretary of State Clinton and Former Chairman of the Joint
 Uncertain after                           Chiefs of Staff Mike Mullen will _____ efforts to implement
 Mullen and Clinton                        smart power solutions.”
 Leave Office
                                                              Prevent          Streamline
                                                                      Other
                                                                4%                 2%
 • When asked to describe how the                                      3%
   departure of smart power                                 Hasten
   advocates Secretary of State                              5%
   Clinton and Former Chairman of                                                            Delay
   the Joint Chiefs Mike Mullen may                Propel                                    21%
   bear on smart power’s                            5%
   implementation, 21 percent of
   managers say it will ―delay‖
   efforts, while 19 percent say it will                    Divert
   ―not change‖ efforts.                                     5%
 • In comments, federal managers
   also suggested Clinton and                               Modify                            Not change
   Mullen’s departures would                                 7%                                  19%
   ―eliminate‖ or ―muddle‖ efforts to
   implement smart power solutions.
   To others, it ―depends on their                             Reinforce
   replacements.‖                                                10%

                                                                              I don't know
Percentage of respondents, n= 268                                                 19%

                                                                                         www.govexec.com/gbc   21
―The cost of achieving the mission
                                       would be reduced if the
―The costs will shift, depending on
                                       collaboration was actually done in
how much agencies' goals are in
                                       an intelligent manner. Sadly, it
sync. But increased collaboration
                                       rarely is. Entities are too focused
will increase effectiveness, even if
                                       on fighting bureaucratic turf wars
it's not less costly.‖
                                       at a detriment to efficiency and
                                       effectiveness.‖




                                                                             22
Agencies Are Less                      Collaboration’s Effect on Cost of Mission
 Optimistic about Cost-
 Saving Benefits of                         -10%
                                                                                        2011     2010
 Interagency
 Collaboration
                                                   52%
 • While more than half of managers
   (52 percent) believed interagency
   collaboration would reduce the          42%
                                                            +10%
   cost of achieving their mission in
   2010, only 42 percent of
   managers say the same in 2011.
 • A full quarter of federal managers
                                                         25%
   in 2011 expect that collaboration                                                             23%
   will increase the costs of                                            21%
   achieving their mission.
                                                                 15%
                                                                                       12%
                                                                               10%




                                           Reduce Cost   Increase Cost   No Change     I don't Know
Percentage of respondents, n=268


                                                                           www.govexec.com/gbc     23
Current Budget                        Budget Pressure’s Impact on
 Pressures Will Make                   Collaboration
 Interagency                                                         Significantly
 Collaboration More                                                   decrease
                                                                     importance       Somewhat
 Important                                                               7%           decrease
                                                                                     importance
 • Despite doubts about costs, the                                                      9%
   budget environment will make
   interagency collaboration more
   important. A full 65 percent of
                                               Significantly
   federal managers say that budget
                                                 increase
   pressures will ―significantly‖ or
                                               importance                    Have no
   ―somewhat‖ increase the
                                                   39%                       effect on
   importance of interagency
                                                                            importance
   collaboration at their agency.
                                                                               19%
 • Sixteen percent of managers
   believe the opposite to be true—
   that budget pressures will
   decrease the importance of
                                                                Somewhat
   collaboration.                       65%                      increase
                                                               importance
                                                                   26%

Percentage of respondents, n= 262


                                                                       www.govexec.com/gbc        24
Contact

Erin Dian Dumbacher
Associate Director of Research
Government Business Council
Tel 202.266.7619
edumbacher@govexec.com

http://www.govexec.com/GBC




                                 www.govexec.com/gbc   25
Smart Power
         December 5, 2011




This document is confidential and is intended solely for the use and information of the client to whom it is addressed..
Booz Allen is concentrating its efforts to support government and
other entities in making Smart Power actionable and to overcome
obstacles to collaboration


         Today’s Environment                                        Moving Forward

 Agencies believe that they possess the tools          Develop agency visibility into how the
  and capabilities needed to adequately address          resources and capabilities of others can
  geopolitical challenges                                supplement or augment their mission
 Smart Power collaboration is perceived as             Help Departments and Agencies do more with
  having a cost in terms of achieving missions           less while leveraging complimentary
 Not viewed as an everyday decision-making              capabilities from other organizations
  model                                                 Establish methods to measure impact of
 Lacks defined strategies or processes                  applying Smart Power solutions
 Reactive implementation                               Illustrate strategic and operational frameworks
 Characterized by ad hoc decision making                and capabilities that can unite actors in a
                                                         common purpose




                                                  27
For those issues that require a Smart Power approach, Mission
Integration provides a means for government agencies to focus on
five critical areas




                                                    Smart Power
                                                       Mega-
                                                     Community
                                                         f

                                                    BUSINESS




                                28
A Deeper Look—Managing and Budget

 Current Landscape                                   Strategies
                            Streamline resource allocation to reduce duplicative efforts
                            Build understanding of how to bring in external-to-
     Limited funding         government actors and develop mechanisms for resource-
                             pooling
                            Revisit budgetary processes within organizations to expand
                             special authorities
Authority mandates hinder
                            Explore creative engagement (public-private partnerships)
    resource sharing
                            Clarify and properly align directives that delineate
                             organizational authorities and permission to collaborate
                            Integrate collaboration as part of upfront planning to build
                             understanding of where resources of others can be used
                            Explore longer term planning cycles to account for both
Collaboration Costs More
                             upfront costs, and longer term savings
                            Increase alignment between budget and impact, developing
                             performance metrics that measure value


                                          29
A Deeper Look—People and Culture

 Current Landscape                                  Strategies
                           Explore mechanisms to expand cross-agency interactions
                            outside of urgent response situations
      Lack of Trust        Develop organization-specific strategies and policies to
                            improve proactive and integrated planning, training,
                            exercises, and coordination
                           Clarify and properly align directives that delineate
 Absence of Clear Policy    organizational authorities and permission to collaborate

                           Coordinate with other actors types for common missions
   Duplicative Action      Develop mechanisms to share mission planning and
                            priorities
                           Incentivize collaboration and coordination as a part of
                            individual performance
   Cultural Resistance     Develop understanding across all levels of the organizations
                            that collaboration and coordination is valued and ―a way of
                            doing business‖

                                         30

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Joining Forces: Interagency Collaboration and "Smart Power"

  • 1. Joining Forces Interagency Collaboration and “Smart Power” A Candid Survey of Federal Employees Sponsored by:
  • 2. About The Research Intelligence Division Of Government Executive Media Group Dedicated to Advancing the Business of Government Through analysis, insight and analytical independence Extension of GEMG’s 40 Years of Editorial Standards & Ethical Values GBC studies influential decision-makers to produce intelligence-based analysis www.govexec.com/gbc 2
  • 3. Methodology and Scope • In October of 2010, the Government Business Council launched a survey to a sample of federal managers from the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development. The survey tested the behavior and attitudes of these managers on the concept of ―smart power‖ and the role of interagency collaboration in their agencies. The result of this research was ―Addressing Geopolitical Challenges: The Smart Power Approach‖, a GBC Insight Report. • In October of 2011, GBC launched a similar survey to another sample of federal managers, this time also incorporating responses from additional agencies and non-profit organizations. • Research sought to determine: – how federal agencies are currently addressing global challenges, whether they have adopted smart power approaches and how agencies might implement cooperative and interagency solutions; – the effect of interagency collaboration on the cost and overall success of achieving an agency’s mission. • GBC distributed the survey in two ways: by email to Government Executive’s subscribers; and through an open link on GovernmentExecutive.com and via social media. The outreach targeted federal managers at the Departments of Defense, State and U.S. Agency for International Development, but also included other qualified federal managers. • The following report uses results from the 268 federal and non-profit employees who completed the 2011 survey. A full 1130 participants began the survey, and 296 completed the survey. • The report also incorporates data from both the 2010 and 2011 surveys when interesting trends or changes in outcome were apparent.
  • 4. Respondent Profile www.govexec.com/gbc 4
  • 5. Respondent Areas of Employment Profile Federal employee 81% (Defense, State, AID) Federal employee (Other • In the 2011 survey, more than 80 Agencies) 19% percent of respondents are from the U.S. Department of Defense, NGO/Non-profits/Independent the U.S. Department of State, or 2% Contractors the U.S. Agency for International Development. • The remaining respondents include other federal agencies, Number of People Overseen military, independent contractors and other non-governmental Over 200 7% parties. Over half of the respondents surveyed oversee at least one person. 51 to 200 8% 21 to 50 8% 6 to 20 22% Percentage of respondents, n=268 1 to 5 20% www.govexec.com/gbc 5
  • 6. Respondent Profile: Departments and Agencies Represented* Agencies listed in order of frequency www.govexec.com/gbc 6
  • 7. Respondent Profile: Other Departments and Agencies Represented* Department of Homeland Security United States Government Accountability Office Department of Agriculture United States Postal Service Department of Veterans Affairs Department of Commerce General Services Administration Department of Education Department of Energy Department of Labor Department of Health and Human Services Executive Office of the President (including OMB) Department of the Interior National Science Foundation Department of Justice Nuclear Regulatory Commission Environmental Protection Agency Office of Personnel Management Department of Housing and Urban Development Small Business Administration Department of Transportation Department of Treasury National Aeronautics and Space Administration Social Security Administration Agencies listed in order of frequency www.govexec.com/gbc 7
  • 9. Executive Summary Similar Missions, Separate Approaches The federal agencies most involved in defense, diplomacy and development have overlapping missions. A full 70 percent of defense managers and 92 percent of Department of State respondents believe ―protecting the security of the United States abroad‖ to be a mission priority of their agency. Yet, 40 percent of State Department managers report that collaboration with the Department of Defense has failed to meet their expectations. Help Wanted Diplomacy, defense and development need not be the missions of only the Departments of Defense, State and the U.S. Agency for International Development; other federal agencies can also contribute. For example, 50 percent of managers say that the Department of Commerce has the potential to make additional contributions to U.S. interests abroad. Political and Cultural Challenges Impede Collaboration Managers are increasingly skeptical that collaboration will help them to achieve overall mission success. Sixty-two percent of managers in 2011 believe that interagency collaboration will help overall mission success, compared to 83 percent in 2010. Agency politics and poor communication are the central challenges. Managers describe ―turf wars‖ that are detrimental to forming efficient working relationships. Budget Pressures to Increase Importance of Collaboration Federal managers are less optimistic about the potential cost-savings of interagency efforts, yet most agree that budget pressures will increase the importance of interagency collaboration. A full quarter of federal managers in 2011 expect that collaboration will increase the costs of achieving their mission, while 65 percent of federal managers say that budget pressures will ―significantly‖ or ―somewhat‖ increase the importance of interagency collaboration at their agency. www.govexec.com/gbc 9
  • 10. Smart Power Smart Power Applicability to Challenges Remains Applicable to the Same Humanitarian 47% Challenges assistance/disaster relief 66% Stabilization/reconstructio 42% n 50% • While the central smart-power worthy challenges have not 41% changed significantly from Conflict prevention 44% 2010, a few areas have lost support in 2011. While 66 percent 23% Counter-illicit networks of managers surveyed in 2010 23% said that humanitarian assistance 17% and disaster relief can be helped Maritime security by smart power solutions, 47 11% percent of managers in 2011 say 31% the same. Security assistance 30% • Other areas such as maritime security and irregular warfare Asymmetric 29% have gained support. threats/complex… 32% 17% Irregular warfare 14% Percentage of respondents, n= 263 (2011) n=145 (2010) 10% None of the above 4% 2011 2010 www.govexec.com/gbc 10
  • 11. Smart Power Only Ability of Federal Government to Somewhat Implement Smart Power Solutions Attainable for Federal Agencies -5% 2011 2010 • Similar to 2010, most managers in 2011 still believe smart power is 51% only somewhat able to be 46% implemented. • Forty-six percent of managers in 2011 believe that the federal +5% government is somewhat able to implement smart power solutions, compared to 51 percent in 2010. 17%18% 15% 15% 11% 12% 10% 5% Fully Mostly Somewhat Not implement I don't know implement implement implement smart power smart power smart power smart power solutions Percentage of respondents, 2011: n= 266, 2010: n= 148 solutions solutions solutions www.govexec.com/gbc 11
  • 12. Federal Agencies “My agency has the tools and capabilities it needs to Continue to Have the adequately address geopolitical challenges” Tools to Address Geopolitical 68% Challenges 51% 2011 2010 • Agencies are confident that they have the tools and capabilities 46% they need to address global challenges. A full 68 percent of managers ―strongly‖ or ―somewhat‖ agree that their agency has the tools and capabilities it needs to address geopolitical challenges. 22% 22% • While 15 percent of managers in 15% 16% 16% 2010 fully agreed that they have the capabilities to address 12% geopolitical challenges, 22 percent say the same in 2011. Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat Strongly disagree disagree Percentage of respondents, n=265 (2011), n=224 (2010) www.govexec.com/gbc 12
  • 13. Agencies Effectiveness of Collaboration by Organization Collaborate Most Effectively with Other Agencies Interagency 15% 59% 18% 8% partners • Federal agencies work most effectively with other agencies, compared to their work with the private sector and non- governmental organizations. More Private Sector 15% 50% 22% 14% than two-thirds (74 percent) of federal managers work at least somewhat effectively with interagency partners. • Almost half of federal managers’ NGOs 12% 42% 22% 25% agencies either do not work with NGOs (25 percent), or do not work with them effectively (22 Very effectively percent). Somewhat effectively Not effectively We do not work with partners on geopolitical challenges Percentage of respondents, n= 237 www.govexec.com/gbc 13
  • 14. Interagency Effectiveness of Interagency Collaboration Has Collaboration over Past Two Years Made Small Strides 52% 2011 2010 37% 45% • Federal managers agree that interagency collaboration has improved since 2009. Thirty- seven percent of managers in 32% 2011 say that interagency 28% collaboration has grown ―somewhat‖ or ―significantly‖ more effective over the past two years, compared to 31 percent 11% 10% who said the same in 2010. 7% 7% • A full 45 percent of managers in 5% 3% 2011 believe that interagency collaboration remains about as effective, compared to 52 percent Significantly Somewhat About as Somewhat Significantly from 2010. more effective more effective effective less effective less effective Percentage of respondents, (2011)n= 256 (2010)n=145 www.govexec.com/gbc 14
  • 15. ―While increased interagency ―Agencies do not give up collaboration would seem to have resources to be more efficient with benefits in terms of bringing a other Agencies--DOJ is not DOD wider set of interests and skill sets is not State is not Treasury. to any given issue, it also creates Agencies do interagency transaction costs that can be collaboration when there is a significant, both in time and mutual interest in performing the resources. All of these factors can mission…[We need to] fashion an combine to increase costs and interagency effort that has definite make government less rather than goals for definite periods of time.‖ more nimble when dealing with complex geopolitical issues that often demand swift and decisive action.‖ 15
  • 16. DoD, State and AID Top 5 Mission Priorities by Agency Share Mission Overlapping Priorities Goals Department of Department of USAID Other Agencies Defense State n= 170 n=30 n= 13 n= 54 Protecting the Protecting the • Federal agencies have shared security of the security of the Provide Advance 70% 92% emergency food 95% counter- 55% mission priorities; managers United states United states aid abroad terrorism efforts identify aligning goals, particularly abroad abroad between the Departments of Reduce Protecting the Advance Form ties with Defense and State. DoD and counter- 59% foreign 92% widespread 90% security of the 52% USAID also have at least one poverty and United States terrorism efforts governments disease abroad abroad mission priority in common. Foster economic Support • Other agencies also have similar Protect U.S. Protect U.S. growth in international objectives to DoD, State and citizens 54% citizens 90% 90% 49% developing activities of overseas overseas USAID. Advancing counter- countries agencies terrorism efforts, for example, is Support Assist newly an objective of both DoD and Form ties with international formed Form ties with managers at the Department of 52% 87% 84% foreign 42% foreign military activities of democracies in governments Homeland Security. agencies governance Support natural Support conflict disaster Support natural resolution, Protect U.S. recover, relief disaster recover, 47% prevention and 87% 84% citizens 38% and risk relief and risk Percentage of respondents, n= 267 mitigation overseas reduction reduction abroad abroad abroad www.govexec.com/gbc 16
  • 17. Defense and Quality of Collaboration Between State Diplomacy Struggle and Defense to Work Together Defense collaboration with 6% 32% 29% 18% 15% the Department of State • While slightly more than half (54 percent) of State Department respondents say that their collaboration with the Department of Defense meets their expectations, another 40 percent report that it failed to meet their State collaboration with the 6% 20% 34% 40% expectations. A significant portion Department of Defense (39 percent) of DoD respondents indicated that collaboration with State failed to meet their expectations. Exceeded my expectations • Eighteen percent of Defense Met my expectations respondents and six percent of State respondents say that Failed to meet my expectations collaboration with one another would be beneficial. My agency has never collaborated with them, but would find it beneficial My agency has never collaborated with them, and would NOT find it Percentage of respondents, (DoD) n=215, (State) n=35 beneficial www.govexec.com/gbc 17
  • 18. Other Agencies Potential vs. Actual Have Potential to Contributions to Geopolitical Challenges Address Geopolitical 60% Challenges 53% 56% 51% 50% 49% 36% • Agencies outside of DoD, State and USAID have the potential to 27% 23% contribute to U.S. government 18% efforts to address geopolitical challenges. Federal managers believe many more agencies have the potential to contribute than are Intelligence Agriculture Commerce Homeland Security U.S. Trade Representat doing so currently. 48% • For example, only 18 percent of 44% 42% 42% managers believe that he 37% Department of Commerce is 27% currently contributing globally, yet 24% more than half (51 percent) see a 17% 15% greater role for Commerce in 9% international affairs. Energy Justice Treasury FTC Education Percentage of respondents, (Potential) n= 257, (Actual) n=259 Potential Actual www.govexec.com/gbc 18
  • 19. Less Optimism for Collaboration’s Effect on Overall Mission Collaboration’s Role Success toward Mission -21% Success 2011 2010 • Managers are increasingly 83% skeptical that collaboration will help them achieve overall mission success. Sixty-two percent of 62% managers in 2011 believe that interagency collaboration will help overall mission success, compared to 83 percent in 2010. • In addition, more managers are wary of collaboration’s potential hazards. Fourteen percent of 16% managers in 2011 believe 14% 8% 9% interagency collaboration would 5% 3% make their overall mission less successful, an increase of eleven percent believed since 2010. No change More successful Less successful I don't know Percentage of respondents, n= 268 www.govexec.com/gbc 19
  • 20. Interagency Politics Challenges to Interagency Collaboration and Ineffective Communication Interagency politics 53% Pose Greatest Lack of clear interagency policy 51% Challenges • Politics and communication are Ineffective lines of communication 50% the central challenges to interagency collaboration. More Cultural resistance to collaboration 47% than half of federal managers identify interagency politics (53 Lack of dedicated funding/budget 41% percent) and lack of clear Lack of time to focus on collaboration 32% interagency policy (51 percent) as challenges to collaborating with Security concerns 29% colleagues outside their department. Not an agency priority 29% • Security and technology are not the central obstacles to Technical elements not compatible 26% collaboration. Only 22 percent of managers describe the clearance Unsure who to contact outside agency 25% process as a hurtle and 26 percent identify incompatible Security clearances not compatible 22% technologies. None of the above 10% Other 4% Percentage of respondents, n=262 www.govexec.com/gbc 20
  • 21. Smart Power Future “The departure of smart power advocates such as current Secretary of State Clinton and Former Chairman of the Joint Uncertain after Chiefs of Staff Mike Mullen will _____ efforts to implement Mullen and Clinton smart power solutions.” Leave Office Prevent Streamline Other 4% 2% • When asked to describe how the 3% departure of smart power Hasten advocates Secretary of State 5% Clinton and Former Chairman of Delay the Joint Chiefs Mike Mullen may Propel 21% bear on smart power’s 5% implementation, 21 percent of managers say it will ―delay‖ efforts, while 19 percent say it will Divert ―not change‖ efforts. 5% • In comments, federal managers also suggested Clinton and Modify Not change Mullen’s departures would 7% 19% ―eliminate‖ or ―muddle‖ efforts to implement smart power solutions. To others, it ―depends on their Reinforce replacements.‖ 10% I don't know Percentage of respondents, n= 268 19% www.govexec.com/gbc 21
  • 22. ―The cost of achieving the mission would be reduced if the ―The costs will shift, depending on collaboration was actually done in how much agencies' goals are in an intelligent manner. Sadly, it sync. But increased collaboration rarely is. Entities are too focused will increase effectiveness, even if on fighting bureaucratic turf wars it's not less costly.‖ at a detriment to efficiency and effectiveness.‖ 22
  • 23. Agencies Are Less Collaboration’s Effect on Cost of Mission Optimistic about Cost- Saving Benefits of -10% 2011 2010 Interagency Collaboration 52% • While more than half of managers (52 percent) believed interagency collaboration would reduce the 42% +10% cost of achieving their mission in 2010, only 42 percent of managers say the same in 2011. • A full quarter of federal managers 25% in 2011 expect that collaboration 23% will increase the costs of 21% achieving their mission. 15% 12% 10% Reduce Cost Increase Cost No Change I don't Know Percentage of respondents, n=268 www.govexec.com/gbc 23
  • 24. Current Budget Budget Pressure’s Impact on Pressures Will Make Collaboration Interagency Significantly Collaboration More decrease importance Somewhat Important 7% decrease importance • Despite doubts about costs, the 9% budget environment will make interagency collaboration more important. A full 65 percent of Significantly federal managers say that budget increase pressures will ―significantly‖ or importance Have no ―somewhat‖ increase the 39% effect on importance of interagency importance collaboration at their agency. 19% • Sixteen percent of managers believe the opposite to be true— that budget pressures will decrease the importance of Somewhat collaboration. 65% increase importance 26% Percentage of respondents, n= 262 www.govexec.com/gbc 24
  • 25. Contact Erin Dian Dumbacher Associate Director of Research Government Business Council Tel 202.266.7619 edumbacher@govexec.com http://www.govexec.com/GBC www.govexec.com/gbc 25
  • 26. Smart Power December 5, 2011 This document is confidential and is intended solely for the use and information of the client to whom it is addressed..
  • 27. Booz Allen is concentrating its efforts to support government and other entities in making Smart Power actionable and to overcome obstacles to collaboration Today’s Environment Moving Forward  Agencies believe that they possess the tools  Develop agency visibility into how the and capabilities needed to adequately address resources and capabilities of others can geopolitical challenges supplement or augment their mission  Smart Power collaboration is perceived as  Help Departments and Agencies do more with having a cost in terms of achieving missions less while leveraging complimentary  Not viewed as an everyday decision-making capabilities from other organizations model  Establish methods to measure impact of  Lacks defined strategies or processes applying Smart Power solutions  Reactive implementation  Illustrate strategic and operational frameworks  Characterized by ad hoc decision making and capabilities that can unite actors in a common purpose 27
  • 28. For those issues that require a Smart Power approach, Mission Integration provides a means for government agencies to focus on five critical areas Smart Power Mega- Community f BUSINESS 28
  • 29. A Deeper Look—Managing and Budget Current Landscape Strategies Streamline resource allocation to reduce duplicative efforts Build understanding of how to bring in external-to- Limited funding government actors and develop mechanisms for resource- pooling Revisit budgetary processes within organizations to expand special authorities Authority mandates hinder Explore creative engagement (public-private partnerships) resource sharing Clarify and properly align directives that delineate organizational authorities and permission to collaborate Integrate collaboration as part of upfront planning to build understanding of where resources of others can be used Explore longer term planning cycles to account for both Collaboration Costs More upfront costs, and longer term savings Increase alignment between budget and impact, developing performance metrics that measure value 29
  • 30. A Deeper Look—People and Culture Current Landscape Strategies Explore mechanisms to expand cross-agency interactions outside of urgent response situations Lack of Trust Develop organization-specific strategies and policies to improve proactive and integrated planning, training, exercises, and coordination Clarify and properly align directives that delineate Absence of Clear Policy organizational authorities and permission to collaborate Coordinate with other actors types for common missions Duplicative Action Develop mechanisms to share mission planning and priorities Incentivize collaboration and coordination as a part of individual performance Cultural Resistance Develop understanding across all levels of the organizations that collaboration and coordination is valued and ―a way of doing business‖ 30

Editor's Notes

  1. Title Slide
  2. About GBC – Same on all Decks
  3. Section Start
  4. Section Start
  5. Not change 19%Divert 5%Reinforce 10%Streamline 2%Modify 7%Delay 21%Propel 5%Hasten 7%Prevent 4%
  6. Thanks to our audience for joining us today. Be sure to look for a link to this webinar, soon to arrive in your inboxes, to share today’s event with your peers. We at GBC hold webinars like this frequently—visit our schedule and published reports at GovernmentExecutive.com/gbc
  7. Assumption of implementing smart power as being complicated and expensiveAlmost 62% of respondents felt own agency had “tools and capabilities it needs to adequately address geopolitical challenges”-We realize the necessity in applying Smart Power across the board on a daily basis—not just in a disaster relief or humanitarian assistance capacity, but as a way of doing business-Committed to utilizing our unique problem-solving skills with a deep technical knowledge and strong execution to help clients achieve success in their most critical missions-Takes theory of Smart Power and applies a tangible holistic strategy at any stage
  8. How do you align skill sets, capabilities and other resources across multiple organizations?Tough when agencies use metrics that look at how well there individual department or agencies fulfill their missions as standalone entities – not by how well they collaborate on a shared mission.Similarly, in times of budget contractions, agencies may be reluctant to either make the upfront investment required to make collaboration work – or be concerned that an acknowledgement of “shared mission” may result in decreases in agency-specific funding levels- As discussed earlier, between last year and this year there has been a loss of faith in whether or not collaboration brings cost-saving benefits to agencies (a 10% decline from last year to 42%), with a corresponding increase of 10% in those who think it will increase mission cost (from 15% to 25%)
  9. 53% of respondents indicated “interagency politics” as a challenge to collaboration51% of respondents indicated lack of clear policy as a challengeOverlap of agency mission priorities may equate to duplicative actions47% of respondents indicated cultural resistance to collaborationObstacles to interagency collaboration: - 45% said cultural resistance to collaboration - 51% said ineffective lines of communication - 48% said interagency politics Resources needed for improved collaboration - 37% cited better/additional IT tools for information exchange