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MySQL Consulting
Team
Galera Cluster for High Availability
About MyDBOPS
		
• 		MySQL	Consulting	
• 			MySQL	Support	
• 			Remote	DBA	support.	
• 			Expert	MySQL	solutions.	
• 			24/7	MySQL	Monitoring	and	Support	
• 			MariaDB,	Percona,	Galera,	TokuDB	were	supported	too.
Agenda
•  Need for HA
•  Principle of Distributed computing.
•  MySQL HA Solutions Available.
•  Introduction to Galera.
•  Percona Cluster.
•  Node Recovery.
•  Backup and Recovery.
•  Load Balancers.
•  Things to be considered.
Need For HA
•  Site Reliability.
•  Ensure Uptime
•  Failover.
•  Disaster Recovery.
•  Scheduled / Unscheduled downtime.
•  Avoid Single Point Failure
Principle of Distributed Computing
CAP Theorem
Consistency , Availability and Partitioning
Only Two out of three is possible in any distributed computing
system.
AP – MySQL Replication
CA – Galera Cluster
Principle of Distributed Computing
CAP Theorem
MySQL HA Solutions Available
•  Master – Slave
•  Master – Master
•  Single Writer
•  NDB Cluster ( Oracle MySQL )
•  Galera Cluster
•  Tungsten Replicator
•  Storage Level Replication ( DRDB)
Introduction to Galera
•  Founded By Codership
•  Synchronous Replication
•  Parallel Replication
•  Multi-Threaded
•  Automated node recovery
•  Zero slave lag
•  Read/ Write Scalable
•  WAN Based Optimization ( Galera 3.0)
•  A True Open Source.
•  Support InnoDB and TokuDB ( MyISAM Experimental )
Introduction to Galera
What is Galera ?
Galera is a replication plugin for the synchronous and multi-
master replication to achieve HA.
“Wsrep_provider_options” controls library.
Available Distributions
•  Percona XtraDB Cluster
•  MariaDB Cluster
•  As a plugin over MySQL
• 
Introduction to Galera
•  Shared nothing Architecture.
•  Network is the heart.
What is wsrep ? (Write Set REPlication )
It is an API to connect the Galera library and control
characteristics. It helps to implement synchronous replication
and certification based multi-master-replication.
Introduction to Galera
Simple Architecture
•  Use Galera Library
•  XtraDB
•  Xtrabackup
=
+ +
Percona Cluster
Percona Cluster
Why Percona Server ?
•  Enhanced InnoDB (XtraDB )
•  Performance Improvement
•  Xtrabackup-v2 ( Makes SST better )
•  Better Bug fixes.
•  A better MySQL for scalability.
•  Aligned with Oracle MySQL with better instrumentation and
performance patches.
Transaction in Galera
•  Transaction is handled by Galera Plugin.
•  Uses traditional dual phase commit.
•  It also handles locking.
•  Uses the optimistic locking method.
•  The commits are based on certifications (keys).
•  Smaller transaction are always better.
•  Increase in network latency increases query time.
•  Support InnoDB and TokuDB. MyISAM is still experimental.
Transaction in Galera
Transaction in Galera
•  Synchronous ( Virtual ) Replication.
•  Wsrep_causal_reads=ON ( true synchronous).
•  Auto_increment_* is handled by cluster.
•  Uses GTID for Transaction. ( Not the GTID in MySQL 5.6 )
•  Transaction latency increases with increase in nodes.
Galera Ports
As Galera is complex beyond standard MySQL .It needs multiple
ports too for its successful operation
•  3306: Standard MySQL port
•  4567: Group Communication
•  4568: IST
•  4444: SST
The firewall rule can be designed based these ports.
Node Recovery
•  Node recovery is automated.
•  Validates the gcache for state files.
•  Chooses the State Transfer method
1) IST (Incremental State Transfer)
2) SST (State Snapshot Transfer )
Node Recovery
IST :
• Recover from write sets in gcache ( memory ).
• Faster recovery method.
• Have good gcache size.
• Does affect the node state.
Node Recovery
SST :
State Snapshot Transfer the complete transfer ( Cloning ) of
data to recreate a node.
u  When not in Gcache ( wsrep_local_cached_downto)
u  Adding a new node
Different Methods of SST
Xtrabackup-v2 (best ) , rsync , mysqldump .
Node Recovery
SST :
u  SST will cause a node in cluster to Donor state.
u  Donor selection is automatic.
u  Donor selection can be forced by wsrep_sst_donor
Hack:
SST can be avoided by Full and Incremental hot backups in
node recovery. ( It forces the IST ).
Blog by Jay Janssen on bypassing SST.
Node Recovery
Validate Node after recovery
Wsrep_local_state=4
Wsrep_local_state_Comment
1) Joining
2) Donor/desynced
3) Joined
4) Synced
Wsrep_local_state_Comment
1) Joining : Initial state of node
2) Donor/desynced : Huge delay in replication write set
3) Joined : Delay less than 1000 write sets
4) Synced : Sync with all nodes
Node Recovery
Load Balancers
•  HAProxy
•  Pen Proxy
•  Galera Load Balancer ( based on Pen )
•  Max Scale
•  ProxySQL
Note :
Make sure Load Balancer aware of the Galera State.
Use the appropriate Load balancer Algorithm.
Things should be considered
•  Support only Transactional engines.
•  Row Based replication.
•  Read committed Isolation.
•  Innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2.
•  Avoid huge transactions.
•  Wsrep_max_ws_rows (128K)
•  Wsrep_max_ws_size. (1G)
•  Network is the heart.
•  Keep the DB design simple
Things should be considered
•  Foreign Keys can cause error ( Bug )
•  Maintain Quorum
•  Check for application error after commit
•  Keep odd number of nodes
IMAGE Courtesy
• Galera and Percona cluster documentation
• http://opentodo.net/2012/12/mysql-multi-master-replication-with-
galera/
Thanks!!!
Email : mysqlsupport@mydbops.com

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Galera cluster for high availability

  • 1. MySQL Consulting Team Galera Cluster for High Availability
  • 3. Agenda •  Need for HA •  Principle of Distributed computing. •  MySQL HA Solutions Available. •  Introduction to Galera. •  Percona Cluster. •  Node Recovery. •  Backup and Recovery. •  Load Balancers. •  Things to be considered.
  • 4. Need For HA •  Site Reliability. •  Ensure Uptime •  Failover. •  Disaster Recovery. •  Scheduled / Unscheduled downtime. •  Avoid Single Point Failure
  • 5. Principle of Distributed Computing CAP Theorem Consistency , Availability and Partitioning Only Two out of three is possible in any distributed computing system. AP – MySQL Replication CA – Galera Cluster
  • 6. Principle of Distributed Computing CAP Theorem
  • 7. MySQL HA Solutions Available •  Master – Slave •  Master – Master •  Single Writer •  NDB Cluster ( Oracle MySQL ) •  Galera Cluster •  Tungsten Replicator •  Storage Level Replication ( DRDB)
  • 8. Introduction to Galera •  Founded By Codership •  Synchronous Replication •  Parallel Replication •  Multi-Threaded •  Automated node recovery •  Zero slave lag •  Read/ Write Scalable •  WAN Based Optimization ( Galera 3.0) •  A True Open Source. •  Support InnoDB and TokuDB ( MyISAM Experimental )
  • 9. Introduction to Galera What is Galera ? Galera is a replication plugin for the synchronous and multi- master replication to achieve HA. “Wsrep_provider_options” controls library. Available Distributions •  Percona XtraDB Cluster •  MariaDB Cluster •  As a plugin over MySQL • 
  • 10. Introduction to Galera •  Shared nothing Architecture. •  Network is the heart. What is wsrep ? (Write Set REPlication ) It is an API to connect the Galera library and control characteristics. It helps to implement synchronous replication and certification based multi-master-replication.
  • 12. •  Use Galera Library •  XtraDB •  Xtrabackup = + + Percona Cluster
  • 13. Percona Cluster Why Percona Server ? •  Enhanced InnoDB (XtraDB ) •  Performance Improvement •  Xtrabackup-v2 ( Makes SST better ) •  Better Bug fixes. •  A better MySQL for scalability. •  Aligned with Oracle MySQL with better instrumentation and performance patches.
  • 14. Transaction in Galera •  Transaction is handled by Galera Plugin. •  Uses traditional dual phase commit. •  It also handles locking. •  Uses the optimistic locking method. •  The commits are based on certifications (keys). •  Smaller transaction are always better. •  Increase in network latency increases query time. •  Support InnoDB and TokuDB. MyISAM is still experimental.
  • 16. Transaction in Galera •  Synchronous ( Virtual ) Replication. •  Wsrep_causal_reads=ON ( true synchronous). •  Auto_increment_* is handled by cluster. •  Uses GTID for Transaction. ( Not the GTID in MySQL 5.6 ) •  Transaction latency increases with increase in nodes.
  • 17. Galera Ports As Galera is complex beyond standard MySQL .It needs multiple ports too for its successful operation •  3306: Standard MySQL port •  4567: Group Communication •  4568: IST •  4444: SST The firewall rule can be designed based these ports.
  • 18. Node Recovery •  Node recovery is automated. •  Validates the gcache for state files. •  Chooses the State Transfer method 1) IST (Incremental State Transfer) 2) SST (State Snapshot Transfer )
  • 19. Node Recovery IST : • Recover from write sets in gcache ( memory ). • Faster recovery method. • Have good gcache size. • Does affect the node state.
  • 20. Node Recovery SST : State Snapshot Transfer the complete transfer ( Cloning ) of data to recreate a node. u  When not in Gcache ( wsrep_local_cached_downto) u  Adding a new node Different Methods of SST Xtrabackup-v2 (best ) , rsync , mysqldump .
  • 21. Node Recovery SST : u  SST will cause a node in cluster to Donor state. u  Donor selection is automatic. u  Donor selection can be forced by wsrep_sst_donor Hack: SST can be avoided by Full and Incremental hot backups in node recovery. ( It forces the IST ). Blog by Jay Janssen on bypassing SST.
  • 22. Node Recovery Validate Node after recovery Wsrep_local_state=4 Wsrep_local_state_Comment 1) Joining 2) Donor/desynced 3) Joined 4) Synced
  • 23. Wsrep_local_state_Comment 1) Joining : Initial state of node 2) Donor/desynced : Huge delay in replication write set 3) Joined : Delay less than 1000 write sets 4) Synced : Sync with all nodes Node Recovery
  • 24. Load Balancers •  HAProxy •  Pen Proxy •  Galera Load Balancer ( based on Pen ) •  Max Scale •  ProxySQL Note : Make sure Load Balancer aware of the Galera State. Use the appropriate Load balancer Algorithm.
  • 25. Things should be considered •  Support only Transactional engines. •  Row Based replication. •  Read committed Isolation. •  Innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2. •  Avoid huge transactions. •  Wsrep_max_ws_rows (128K) •  Wsrep_max_ws_size. (1G) •  Network is the heart. •  Keep the DB design simple
  • 26. Things should be considered •  Foreign Keys can cause error ( Bug ) •  Maintain Quorum •  Check for application error after commit •  Keep odd number of nodes
  • 27. IMAGE Courtesy • Galera and Percona cluster documentation • http://opentodo.net/2012/12/mysql-multi-master-replication-with- galera/