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Effectiveness of an Online Summer course Programme




13th Edineb Congress
Thursday 15th of June 2005, Lisbon, 9.00-10.30

http://www.web-spijkeren.nl

Bart Rienties (University Maastricht)
b.rienties@algec.unimaas.nl
Dirk Tempelaar
d.tempelaar@ke.unimaas.nl
Joost Dijkstra
Joost.dijkstra@educ.unimaas.nl
Martin Rehm
m.rehm@algec.unimaas.nl
Geke Blok
g.blok@educ.unimaas.nl




                                                 22/05/2008
Prior Knowledge (UCM)
      54%           32%      Proportions and percents




              23%




 Signed numbers and variables : difficult items
43%                 27%                  27%




                                          22/05/2008
Agenda

1. Introduction
2. Online remedial teaching model
3. Methodology and research design
4. Evaluation of courses
5. Study success
6. Didactical scenarios
7. Discussion




                                22/05/2008
Introduction - Assumptions

•   Increasing internationalization of enrollment
    (60% of students is foreign)

•   Introduction of Bachelor-Master structure
•   New accreditation procedures (Treaty of Bolognia)
•   Differences in prior knowledge
•   Completion rates 1st year differ
    –   12% “
            other”foreign students
    –   50 % Dutch/German students

•   Incentive problems physical summer course
•   Problems at Master level even higher
                                          22/05/2008
2. Online Remedial Teaching Model

1. Online Availability 24/7
   (Vrasides & Zembylas, 2003)

2. Adaptive
   (Falmange et al., 2004)

3. Rapid feedback
   (Draaijer, 2004, Vrasides & Zembylas, 2003)

4. Interactive
   (Bryant et al. 2005, Ronteltap & Van der Veen, 2002)

5. Flexible Learning Methods & Assessment
   (Marshall, 2003, Segers, 2004)

                                              22/05/2008
Online Remedial Teaching Model

         Electronic Learning Environment



                                     Interaction
     Student                         feedback                          Student

                          fee                          ck
                                 db                 ba e
                       ad          ac             ed tiv
                                     k          fe
                          a   pti                     ap
                                 ve                 ad
                                Technology




                                                                tion
               Inte
                 Fee




                                                               ck
                                  24/7 online




                                                            rac
                    rac




                                                           dba
                      dba




                                                      Inte
                        tion




                                                        Fee
                           ck




                                  Teacher



                                                                                 22/05/2008
3. Methodology




                 22/05/2008
Prior knowledge test
Mathematics
• # attempts 524
• # completed tests 230
• # above threshold 39 (17%)
• # below threshold 191 (83%)
• # of students starting at Maastricht 101
    – 55 joined (55%), mainly German “
                                     Grundkurs”students

Economics
• # attempts 379
• # completed tests 211
• # above threshold 60 (25%)
• # below threshold 151 (75%)
• # of students starting at Maastricht ??
    – 50 joined

From 01-04-2005 till 01-09-2005
                                               22/05/2008
Start of Online Summercourse


Intro in Economics              Mathematics
• weeks of online &
 4                              •4 weeks of individual learning
collaborative Problem Based     •200 items
Learning                        •Entry assessment of true
• PBL-tasks
 6                              mastery
•Online chapters, video’ and
                       s        •Learning path individual and
animated graphs from Parkin &   unique!
Bade (2004)                     •Use of ALEKS
•Use of Discussion forum        •Final Assessment
(Polaris)
                                •15-20 hours per week.
•Use of Weekly Assessment
(Blackboard)
•Final Assessment
•15-20 hours week
                                                 22/05/2008
Economics (Link)




                   22/05/2008
22/05/2008
22/05/2008
Mathematics




              22/05/2008
“Ideal”individual learning-path


              Based on outcomes of entry-
              assessment, a student could be
              evaluated at any point on the knowledge
              space of topic X.


              Student A can have a different learning
              path than Student D to reach point f
              Ideally, the learning materials and
              teachings methods should adapt to the
              knowledge/skills of each individual
              student.




                                       22/05/2008
ALEKS: learning pie




                      22/05/2008
Evaluation Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                                     n=38
           Table 1 End evaluation online summer course mathematics

 This Summer course offered me a lot                                                                                                                                                 4,6 (0,6)

 The contents of the Summer course were inspiring                                                                                                                                    4,2 (0,5)

 The format of the Summer course was good                                                                                                                                            4,4 (0,7)

 The Summer course was well organized                                                                                                                                                4,5 (0,6)

 The quality of the material in ALEKS is good                                                                                                                                        4,3 (0,6)

 The material in ALEKS motivated me to keep up with the subject matter                                                                                                               3,9 (0,7)

 Learning in an e-learning environment as ALEKS is not different from learning from a hard-copy book                                                                                 2,4 (0,9)

 It was fun that I could attend this Summer course via the internet                                                                                                                  4,2 (0,8)

 I gained enough knowledge and skills in mathematics to start with my study in Maastricht                                                                                            3,5 (0,8)

 It was easy to motivate myself to finish this Summer course                                                                                                                         3,5 (1,1)

 It was good that I could work on the subject matter at my own pace                                                                                                                  4,5 (0,6)

 I think that I have learned more by individually attending this course than I would have learned if I had to collaborate                                                            3,9 (1,0) (P)
                                                                                                                                                                                     3,0 (0,9) (NP)
                                                                                                                                                                                     T-value= 1,53**

 Questions via e-mail were answered well by the teacher                                                                                                                              3,8 (0,8)

 Give an overall grade for the quality of support you were given by ALEKS in this Summer course (1 = very bad - 10 = very good)                                                      8,4 (1,0)

 Give an overall grade for the quality of this Summer course (1 = very bad - 10 = very good)                                                                                         8,7 (0,9)

 Hours worked per week                                                                                                                                                               17,5 (5,1) (P)
                                                                                                                                                                                     6,7 (4,0) (NP)
                                                                                                                                                                                     T-value= 14,10**


Source: Rienties, Dijkstra, Rehm, Tempelaar, Blok (2005), p. 249.
Note:All questions on Likert scale of 1 (=totally disagee) to 5 (totally agree) with exception to last three questions. Standard deviation between brackets. If no distinction is made
between the groups (P=Passed, NP= Not Passed), then Independent T-sample test is not significant and average of entire group is depicted.
* p < .05; ** p < .01 of Independent T-sample test.

                                                                                                                                                                  22/05/2008
Evaluation Economics
                                                                                                                                               Passed                         Failed                        T-value

Table 2 End evaluation online summer course Economics



                                                                                                                                               n=25                           n=10




                          This Summer course offered me a lot                                                                                  4,3 (0,5)                      3,5 (1,0)                     2,394*

                          The contents of the Summer course were inspiring                                                                     4,2 (0,6)                      3,9 (0,6)                     1,246

                          The format of the Summer course was good                                                                             4,2 (0,8)                      3,6 (0,7)                     1,764

                          The Summer course was well organized                                                                                 4,2 (0,8)                      3,4 (0,7)                     2,817**

                          The quality of the digital material was good                                                                         4,5 (0,6)                      3,9 (0,7)                     2,626*

                          The digital material motivated me to keep up with the subject matter                                                 3,8 (1,0)                      2,9 (0,6)                     2,520*

                          Learning with an E-book is not different from learning from a hard-copy book                                         2,3 (1,1)                      2,2 (1,0)                     0,303

                          It was fun that I could attend this Summer course via the internet                                                   4,0 (0,8)                      3,2 (0,6)                     2,994**

                          I am satisfied with what I learned in terms of knowledge, skills and insight                                         4,0 (0,7)                      2,8 (0,6)                     4,989**

                          I gained enough knowledge and skills in economics to start with my study in Maastricht                               3,8 (0,6)                      3,2 (0,4)                     2,968**

                          The group in which I participated functioned well                                                                    4,0 (0,9)                      3,1 (0,9)                     2,664*

                          It was fun to collaborate with others in this Summer course                                                          4,2 (0,7)                      3,1 (1,1)                     3,529**

                          Collaborating with others facilitated my understanding of the subject matter                                         3,9 (0,6)                     3,2 (0,8)                      3,015**

                          I think I was motivated to finish this Summer course because I could work in my own pace                             3,8 (1,0)                     2,4 (0,5)                      5,231**

                          Give an overall grade for the functioning of the Online Summer course team (1 = very bad - 10 = very good)           8,3 (1,0)                     7,4 (1,9)                      1,857

                          Give an overall grade for the quality of the Online Summer course team (1 = very bad - 10 = very good)               8,4 (1,0)                     8,1 (1,6)                      0,659

                          Hours worked per week                                                                                                14,6 (5,7)                    6,0 (4,9)                      13,406**
                                                                                    Source: Rienties, Dijkstra, Rehm, Tempelaar, Blok (2005), p. 248.
                                                                                    Note:All questions on Likert scale of 1 (=totally disagee) to 5 (totally agree) with exception to last three22/05/2008 deviation between brackets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                questions. Standard
                                                                                    * p < .05; ** p < .01 of Independent T-sample test.
5.1 Study success QM

 100%

  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%




                                                              aj


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                                          K


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                  B1




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      A1




                        B1




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                                        rm




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                                              In


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                                       G




                                                     tM
   W




                       W
              V




                                                      S
                                                   In


                                                   In
  V




                   V




Figure 2: Passing rates QM1 (in %)
                                                              22/05/2008
Figure 3: Passing rates & exam participation QM1 (in %)



 100%

 90%

 80%

 70%

 60%
                                                              SC Pass
 50%                                                          SC Fail
                                                              No SC
 40%

 30%

 20%

 10%

  0%
        Going for exam   Passing Exam   Going & Passing
                             QM1          Exam QM1




                                                     22/05/2008
Figure 4: Partial scores in QM1 final exam (1-20)



16


14

12


10
                                                      SC Pass
 8                                                    SC Fail
                                                      NO SC
 6

 4


 2

 0
         MathExam            StatsExam




                                         22/05/2008
Selection bias?

    35


    30

    25

    20

    15


    10

     5


     0




                                                                        aj




                                                                                   il
                                                                        in
                                                 K
                                      LK




                                                           ac




                                                                       ss
                             ,2
        ,2


               B1




                                                                                 Fa
                                                G




                                                                    hM


                                                                    hM
                          B1
     A1




                                                         tB




                                                                    Pa
                                   rm
               O




                                             rm




                                                                             C
                                                       In


                                                                  at


                                                                  at
             VW



                       O
 O




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                                  G


                                            G




                                                                tM


                                                               tM
                      W
W




                                                                S
                                                             In


                                                             In
V




                     V




                   Figure 5: Hours studying with ALEKS during QM1


                                                                         22/05/2008
5.2 Study success Economics

  100
     95
     90
     85
     80
     75
     70
     65
     60
     55
     50
                  EconPrior         NoEconPrior   SC-pas s   SC-f ail


Figure 6: Passing rates EcBus (%)


                                                             22/05/2008
Figure 7: Average grades final exam EcBus
(0-10)

7,4
7,2
  7
6,8
6,6
6,4
6,2
  6
5,8
5,6
5,4
      EconPrior   NoEconPrior   SC-pass   SC-fail



                                          22/05/2008
6. Didactical scenario

• Mathematics (individual) vs. Economics (collaborative/PBL)
• “ think that I have learned more by individually attending
   I
  this course than I would have learned if I had to
  collaborate” 3.6 for the math summer course
               :
• “ think I learned more in this Summercourse through
   I
  collaboration with others than I would have learned if I had
  to work” 3.2 score for the economics summer course.
           :
• Individual learning is regarded more suitable for the math
  summer course
• Collaborative learning most suitable for the economics
  summer course.
• Students’   opinion on the appropriateness of the didactical
  scenario is dependent upon success in the summer course



                                               22/05/2008
6. Discussion

1. Are summer courses necessary if one
   wants to become a truly international
   university?
2. Is online assessment/collaboration a
   good tool to monitor progress of
   students?
3. What is the role of Virtual Learning
   Environments in providing summer
   courses?


                                 22/05/2008
22/05/2008
Effectiveness of an Online Summer course Programme



13th Edineb Congress
Thursday 15th of June 2005, Lisbon, 9.00-10.30

http://www.web-spijkeren.nl

Bart Rienties (University Maastricht)
b.rienties@algec.unimaas.nl
Dirk Tempelaar
d.tempelaar@ke.unimaas.nl
Joost Dijkstra
Joost.dijkstra@educ.unimaas.nl
Martin Rehm
m.rehm@algec.unimaas.nl
Geke Blok
g.blok@educ.unimaas.nl




                                                 22/05/2008

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Effectiveness of an Online Summer course Programme

  • 1. Effectiveness of an Online Summer course Programme 13th Edineb Congress Thursday 15th of June 2005, Lisbon, 9.00-10.30 http://www.web-spijkeren.nl Bart Rienties (University Maastricht) b.rienties@algec.unimaas.nl Dirk Tempelaar d.tempelaar@ke.unimaas.nl Joost Dijkstra Joost.dijkstra@educ.unimaas.nl Martin Rehm m.rehm@algec.unimaas.nl Geke Blok g.blok@educ.unimaas.nl 22/05/2008
  • 2. Prior Knowledge (UCM) 54% 32% Proportions and percents 23% Signed numbers and variables : difficult items 43% 27% 27% 22/05/2008
  • 3. Agenda 1. Introduction 2. Online remedial teaching model 3. Methodology and research design 4. Evaluation of courses 5. Study success 6. Didactical scenarios 7. Discussion 22/05/2008
  • 4. Introduction - Assumptions • Increasing internationalization of enrollment (60% of students is foreign) • Introduction of Bachelor-Master structure • New accreditation procedures (Treaty of Bolognia) • Differences in prior knowledge • Completion rates 1st year differ – 12% “ other”foreign students – 50 % Dutch/German students • Incentive problems physical summer course • Problems at Master level even higher 22/05/2008
  • 5. 2. Online Remedial Teaching Model 1. Online Availability 24/7 (Vrasides & Zembylas, 2003) 2. Adaptive (Falmange et al., 2004) 3. Rapid feedback (Draaijer, 2004, Vrasides & Zembylas, 2003) 4. Interactive (Bryant et al. 2005, Ronteltap & Van der Veen, 2002) 5. Flexible Learning Methods & Assessment (Marshall, 2003, Segers, 2004) 22/05/2008
  • 6. Online Remedial Teaching Model Electronic Learning Environment Interaction Student feedback Student fee ck db ba e ad ac ed tiv k fe a pti ap ve ad Technology tion Inte Fee ck 24/7 online rac rac dba dba Inte tion Fee ck Teacher 22/05/2008
  • 7. 3. Methodology 22/05/2008
  • 8. Prior knowledge test Mathematics • # attempts 524 • # completed tests 230 • # above threshold 39 (17%) • # below threshold 191 (83%) • # of students starting at Maastricht 101 – 55 joined (55%), mainly German “ Grundkurs”students Economics • # attempts 379 • # completed tests 211 • # above threshold 60 (25%) • # below threshold 151 (75%) • # of students starting at Maastricht ?? – 50 joined From 01-04-2005 till 01-09-2005 22/05/2008
  • 9. Start of Online Summercourse Intro in Economics Mathematics • weeks of online & 4 •4 weeks of individual learning collaborative Problem Based •200 items Learning •Entry assessment of true • PBL-tasks 6 mastery •Online chapters, video’ and s •Learning path individual and animated graphs from Parkin & unique! Bade (2004) •Use of ALEKS •Use of Discussion forum •Final Assessment (Polaris) •15-20 hours per week. •Use of Weekly Assessment (Blackboard) •Final Assessment •15-20 hours week 22/05/2008
  • 10. Economics (Link) 22/05/2008
  • 13. Mathematics 22/05/2008
  • 14. “Ideal”individual learning-path Based on outcomes of entry- assessment, a student could be evaluated at any point on the knowledge space of topic X. Student A can have a different learning path than Student D to reach point f Ideally, the learning materials and teachings methods should adapt to the knowledge/skills of each individual student. 22/05/2008
  • 15. ALEKS: learning pie 22/05/2008
  • 16. Evaluation Mathematics n=38 Table 1 End evaluation online summer course mathematics This Summer course offered me a lot 4,6 (0,6) The contents of the Summer course were inspiring 4,2 (0,5) The format of the Summer course was good 4,4 (0,7) The Summer course was well organized 4,5 (0,6) The quality of the material in ALEKS is good 4,3 (0,6) The material in ALEKS motivated me to keep up with the subject matter 3,9 (0,7) Learning in an e-learning environment as ALEKS is not different from learning from a hard-copy book 2,4 (0,9) It was fun that I could attend this Summer course via the internet 4,2 (0,8) I gained enough knowledge and skills in mathematics to start with my study in Maastricht 3,5 (0,8) It was easy to motivate myself to finish this Summer course 3,5 (1,1) It was good that I could work on the subject matter at my own pace 4,5 (0,6) I think that I have learned more by individually attending this course than I would have learned if I had to collaborate 3,9 (1,0) (P) 3,0 (0,9) (NP) T-value= 1,53** Questions via e-mail were answered well by the teacher 3,8 (0,8) Give an overall grade for the quality of support you were given by ALEKS in this Summer course (1 = very bad - 10 = very good) 8,4 (1,0) Give an overall grade for the quality of this Summer course (1 = very bad - 10 = very good) 8,7 (0,9) Hours worked per week 17,5 (5,1) (P) 6,7 (4,0) (NP) T-value= 14,10** Source: Rienties, Dijkstra, Rehm, Tempelaar, Blok (2005), p. 249. Note:All questions on Likert scale of 1 (=totally disagee) to 5 (totally agree) with exception to last three questions. Standard deviation between brackets. If no distinction is made between the groups (P=Passed, NP= Not Passed), then Independent T-sample test is not significant and average of entire group is depicted. * p < .05; ** p < .01 of Independent T-sample test. 22/05/2008
  • 17. Evaluation Economics Passed Failed T-value Table 2 End evaluation online summer course Economics n=25 n=10 This Summer course offered me a lot 4,3 (0,5) 3,5 (1,0) 2,394* The contents of the Summer course were inspiring 4,2 (0,6) 3,9 (0,6) 1,246 The format of the Summer course was good 4,2 (0,8) 3,6 (0,7) 1,764 The Summer course was well organized 4,2 (0,8) 3,4 (0,7) 2,817** The quality of the digital material was good 4,5 (0,6) 3,9 (0,7) 2,626* The digital material motivated me to keep up with the subject matter 3,8 (1,0) 2,9 (0,6) 2,520* Learning with an E-book is not different from learning from a hard-copy book 2,3 (1,1) 2,2 (1,0) 0,303 It was fun that I could attend this Summer course via the internet 4,0 (0,8) 3,2 (0,6) 2,994** I am satisfied with what I learned in terms of knowledge, skills and insight 4,0 (0,7) 2,8 (0,6) 4,989** I gained enough knowledge and skills in economics to start with my study in Maastricht 3,8 (0,6) 3,2 (0,4) 2,968** The group in which I participated functioned well 4,0 (0,9) 3,1 (0,9) 2,664* It was fun to collaborate with others in this Summer course 4,2 (0,7) 3,1 (1,1) 3,529** Collaborating with others facilitated my understanding of the subject matter 3,9 (0,6) 3,2 (0,8) 3,015** I think I was motivated to finish this Summer course because I could work in my own pace 3,8 (1,0) 2,4 (0,5) 5,231** Give an overall grade for the functioning of the Online Summer course team (1 = very bad - 10 = very good) 8,3 (1,0) 7,4 (1,9) 1,857 Give an overall grade for the quality of the Online Summer course team (1 = very bad - 10 = very good) 8,4 (1,0) 8,1 (1,6) 0,659 Hours worked per week 14,6 (5,7) 6,0 (4,9) 13,406** Source: Rienties, Dijkstra, Rehm, Tempelaar, Blok (2005), p. 248. Note:All questions on Likert scale of 1 (=totally disagee) to 5 (totally agree) with exception to last three22/05/2008 deviation between brackets. questions. Standard * p < .05; ** p < .01 of Independent T-sample test.
  • 18. 5.1 Study success QM 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% aj in il K ac LK ,2 ,2 ss B1 Fa G hM hM A1 B1 tB Pa rm O rm C In at at W O O C S G tM G tM W W V S In In V V Figure 2: Passing rates QM1 (in %) 22/05/2008
  • 19. Figure 3: Passing rates & exam participation QM1 (in %) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% SC Pass 50% SC Fail No SC 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Going for exam Passing Exam Going & Passing QM1 Exam QM1 22/05/2008
  • 20. Figure 4: Partial scores in QM1 final exam (1-20) 16 14 12 10 SC Pass 8 SC Fail NO SC 6 4 2 0 MathExam StatsExam 22/05/2008
  • 21. Selection bias? 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 aj il in K LK ac ss ,2 ,2 B1 Fa G hM hM B1 A1 tB Pa rm O rm C In at at VW O O C S G G tM tM W W S In In V V Figure 5: Hours studying with ALEKS during QM1 22/05/2008
  • 22. 5.2 Study success Economics 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 EconPrior NoEconPrior SC-pas s SC-f ail Figure 6: Passing rates EcBus (%) 22/05/2008
  • 23. Figure 7: Average grades final exam EcBus (0-10) 7,4 7,2 7 6,8 6,6 6,4 6,2 6 5,8 5,6 5,4 EconPrior NoEconPrior SC-pass SC-fail 22/05/2008
  • 24. 6. Didactical scenario • Mathematics (individual) vs. Economics (collaborative/PBL) • “ think that I have learned more by individually attending I this course than I would have learned if I had to collaborate” 3.6 for the math summer course : • “ think I learned more in this Summercourse through I collaboration with others than I would have learned if I had to work” 3.2 score for the economics summer course. : • Individual learning is regarded more suitable for the math summer course • Collaborative learning most suitable for the economics summer course. • Students’ opinion on the appropriateness of the didactical scenario is dependent upon success in the summer course 22/05/2008
  • 25. 6. Discussion 1. Are summer courses necessary if one wants to become a truly international university? 2. Is online assessment/collaboration a good tool to monitor progress of students? 3. What is the role of Virtual Learning Environments in providing summer courses? 22/05/2008
  • 27. Effectiveness of an Online Summer course Programme 13th Edineb Congress Thursday 15th of June 2005, Lisbon, 9.00-10.30 http://www.web-spijkeren.nl Bart Rienties (University Maastricht) b.rienties@algec.unimaas.nl Dirk Tempelaar d.tempelaar@ke.unimaas.nl Joost Dijkstra Joost.dijkstra@educ.unimaas.nl Martin Rehm m.rehm@algec.unimaas.nl Geke Blok g.blok@educ.unimaas.nl 22/05/2008