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Diversity in Communities of Learning
The Influence of an Individual’s Hierarchical Position on
their Activity and Performance
                                                                    Martin Rehm
                                                            JURE 2010, Frankfurt
                                                               21st of July, 2010
http://www.neurosoftware.ro/programming-blog/wp-content/plugins/wp-o-matic/cache/3e874_Toy-Story-2-pixar-116966_1024_768.jpg
http://disney.go.com/toystory/
Organizational Training

• contributing to the competitive advantage of
  organizations (e.g. Nonaka, 1994)


• traditional methodologies are neutral to
  circumstances (e.g. Eraut, 2000)


• superiority of collaborative learning methods
    “hothouse for new ideas and thoughts”
    (Schlager, Fusco & Schank, 2002)
Community of Learning (CoL)

• “engaging in collaborative learning and reflective
  practice involved in transformative learning”
 (Paloff & Pratt, 2003, p. 17)


                          “ins-and-outs”

          “Expert”                         “Novice”

                          “up-to-date”
Diversity
+ sharing of experiences & effectively processing
 new information
 (Jehn & Bezrukova, 2004)

- create varying degrees of anxiety    inhibiting
  cognitive functioning
 (Jehn, 1995)
Hierarchial Position
• “major obstacle to collaborative learning
  processes” (Romme, 1996)

• ambiguous findings
   • replicate behaviour (e.g. Thomas-Hunt, et al., 2003)
   • “break free” (e.g. Edmondson, Bohmer & Pisano, 2001)
Hierarchical
  Position




               Community of Learning (CoL)




                                               Activity


                                             Performance
Setting

• Global organizational training program
  (“Economics”)
• 14 weeks of e-Learning
• 27 CoLs
• 235 participants
  – 80 “Low” position
  – 89 “Middle” position
  – 66 “High” position
• asynchronous discussions forums:
  – Café-Talk
  – Content-Related (real-life tasks)
Multimethod Approach

1. Hypotheses Test
  • Nonparametric

2. Regression
  • forced entry

3.    Cluster Analysis
     • two-step
Controlling for …

• Value diversity
  – Questionnaire


• Informational diversity
  – Educational background
  – Pre-knowledge test


• Social category diversity
  – Age, Gender, Ethnicity
                    (e.g. Jehn, et al, 1999; Pelled, Eisenhardt & Xin, 1999; van den Bossche, et al., 2006)
Research Hypotheses

• H1 - Activity:
  – Low < Middle < High
  “fear of speaking up and making mistakes in the
    group” (Edmondson, 2002, p. 139)


• H2 - Performance:
  – Low < Middle < High
  “more senior managers are used to integrating
    new and diverse information” (Bunderson, 2003)
Hypotheses Tests & Regression
Level of Activity / Performance




                                                                  “High”

                                                 “Middle”

                                  “Low”

                                          Hierarchical Position
Cluster Analyses




     “Follower”    “Leader”
Results

• “Stars”
  – Leading CoLs irrespective of hierarchical
    position


• Duality of “Low”
  – A small subset is not confining itself to
    merely following discussions
Implications & Next Steps

• Anticipate behaviour
  – device collaborative learning activities
  – target specific groups
     social interaction and cognitive discourse


• SNA      dynamics / “one-way” vs. “reciprocal”
• CA     degree of knowledge creation & diffusion
Diversity in Communities of Learning
The Influence of an Individual’s Hierarchical Position on
their Activity and Performance
                                                                    Martin Rehm
                                                            JURE 2010, Frankfurt
                                                               21st of July, 2010

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JURE 2010

  • 1. Diversity in Communities of Learning The Influence of an Individual’s Hierarchical Position on their Activity and Performance Martin Rehm JURE 2010, Frankfurt 21st of July, 2010
  • 4. Organizational Training • contributing to the competitive advantage of organizations (e.g. Nonaka, 1994) • traditional methodologies are neutral to circumstances (e.g. Eraut, 2000) • superiority of collaborative learning methods “hothouse for new ideas and thoughts” (Schlager, Fusco & Schank, 2002)
  • 5. Community of Learning (CoL) • “engaging in collaborative learning and reflective practice involved in transformative learning” (Paloff & Pratt, 2003, p. 17) “ins-and-outs” “Expert” “Novice” “up-to-date”
  • 6. Diversity + sharing of experiences & effectively processing new information (Jehn & Bezrukova, 2004) - create varying degrees of anxiety inhibiting cognitive functioning (Jehn, 1995)
  • 7. Hierarchial Position • “major obstacle to collaborative learning processes” (Romme, 1996) • ambiguous findings • replicate behaviour (e.g. Thomas-Hunt, et al., 2003) • “break free” (e.g. Edmondson, Bohmer & Pisano, 2001)
  • 8. Hierarchical Position Community of Learning (CoL) Activity Performance
  • 9. Setting • Global organizational training program (“Economics”) • 14 weeks of e-Learning • 27 CoLs • 235 participants – 80 “Low” position – 89 “Middle” position – 66 “High” position • asynchronous discussions forums: – Café-Talk – Content-Related (real-life tasks)
  • 10. Multimethod Approach 1. Hypotheses Test • Nonparametric 2. Regression • forced entry 3. Cluster Analysis • two-step
  • 11. Controlling for … • Value diversity – Questionnaire • Informational diversity – Educational background – Pre-knowledge test • Social category diversity – Age, Gender, Ethnicity (e.g. Jehn, et al, 1999; Pelled, Eisenhardt & Xin, 1999; van den Bossche, et al., 2006)
  • 12. Research Hypotheses • H1 - Activity: – Low < Middle < High “fear of speaking up and making mistakes in the group” (Edmondson, 2002, p. 139) • H2 - Performance: – Low < Middle < High “more senior managers are used to integrating new and diverse information” (Bunderson, 2003)
  • 13. Hypotheses Tests & Regression Level of Activity / Performance “High” “Middle” “Low” Hierarchical Position
  • 14. Cluster Analyses “Follower” “Leader”
  • 15. Results • “Stars” – Leading CoLs irrespective of hierarchical position • Duality of “Low” – A small subset is not confining itself to merely following discussions
  • 16. Implications & Next Steps • Anticipate behaviour – device collaborative learning activities – target specific groups social interaction and cognitive discourse • SNA dynamics / “one-way” vs. “reciprocal” • CA degree of knowledge creation & diffusion
  • 17. Diversity in Communities of Learning The Influence of an Individual’s Hierarchical Position on their Activity and Performance Martin Rehm JURE 2010, Frankfurt 21st of July, 2010