SlideShare a Scribd company logo
AECT 2012 – Louisville, Kentucky

      Do hierarchical positions influence participant’s network behaviour within
                              Communities of Learning?
                                Martin Rehm, Wim Gijselaers, Mien Segers

Description
1) Completed Study that includes analyzed results and discussions
We investigate whether hierarchical positions have an impact on collaborative learning processes within
Communities of Learning (CoL). More specifically, we provide empirical evidence from a training program
of a global organization. Using social network analysis, our findings indicate that hierarchical positions
significantly influence participants’ network behaviour. Moreover, our results show that individuals tend to
gather information from outside of their own hierarchical position.

Keywords
Distance Education, Management, Performance Support

Extended Abstract
In today’s turbulent economic environment, employers and employees constantly need to update their
knowledge and skills in order to face new challenges (Chalmers & Keown, 2006). Moreover, it has been
suggested that facilitating an interpersonal knowledge transfer among employees should constitute a key
building block in setting up organizational training initiatives (Argote, 2000). However, in practice,
organizations continue to mainly implement traditional teaching methods, such as face-to-face workshops,
to train their staff (Armstrong & Sadler-Smith, 2008). With increasing pressures to provide more cost-
effective training, this has led practitioners and researchers alike to look for more innovative training
methods (Yamnill & MacLean, 2001). In this context, online Communities of Learning (CoL) have been
suggested to foster the effective exchange of knowledge and experience between members of an
organization’s workforce (Rehm, 2009). However, past research on collaborative online communities has
either provided only limited empirical evidence from real organizations (Edmondson, 2002), or neglected
participants’ hierarchical positions, which can be a major obstacle to collaborative learning processes
(Romme, 1996).
          It has generally been established that, depending on their hierarchical position, participants will
display varying communication behaviours within collaborative learning processes (Bird, 1994). Some
researchers provide evidence that online communication, e.g. via electronic mail, can initiate a “status
equalization” process (Sproul & Kiesler, 1986). In contrast, authors like Yates and Orlikowski (1992)
suggested that the prevailing status quo will be reinforced, irrespective of the chosen communication tool.
Similarly, based on qualitative data from on-going workgroups and learning teams, Sutton and colleagues
(2000) found a positive relationship between the hierarchical position of participants and their level of
activity. More specifically, higher level management tended to replicate their accustomed behaviour of
leading teams in real-life, translating into them also leading their assigned online groups. In view of these
ambiguous findings, HRD practitioners are in need for a better understanding of how existing structures
and social relationships influence peoples’ behaviour within online collaborative learning environments.
          The present study provides empirical evidence from 25 CoL of an online training program that
was provided for 249 staff members of a global organization. Each CoL consisted of 7 – 13 participants and
was centred around asynchronous discussion forums, where participants from different hierarchical
positions collaboratively enhanced their knowledge. Using social network analysis, we analysed whether
participants’ hierarchical positions influenced their communication behaviour within CoL. Based on the
resulting findings, it is not only possible to locate (groups of) individuals that hold crucial positions, but
also to suggest actions targeted at participants who are situated more towards the fringe of the network.
          Based on the user statistics from the asynchronous discussion forums, we computed two
commonly used network statistics to assess an individual’s general network behaviour, namely participants’
in- and out-degree ties. The in-degree measure indicates how often and by how many colleagues a
particular individual has been contacted from within a CoL. Out-degree network connections refer to links
between colleagues that originate from a particular CoL member. Additionally, we were also interested in
whether CoL exhibited signs of homophily. In the context of this study, this concept suggests that
participants from the same hierarchical position would tend to communicate more frequently within their
own subgroup. In order to approximate this effect, we used the external-internal (E-I) index. Moreover, we
subdivided the data according to “Read-“ and “Reply- networks”, capturing passive and active learning
behaviours, respectively. The attained data was then used to test the following research hypotheses:
     · H1: Participants' hierarchical positions will have a positive influence on their amount of out-
         degree network ties.
     · H2: Participants' hierarchical position will have a positive influence on their amount of in-degree
         network ties.
     · Hypothesis 3: Participants will tend to interact more with colleagues from the same hierarchical
         position.
         While we do not find evidence to support the first two hypotheses for the “Read-networks”, we are
able to show significant differences in participants’ network behaviour for the “Reply-networks”. More
specifically, participants from higher up the hierarchical ladder tended to be more active in connecting with
other colleagues, as well as attracting more attention within the CoL. We are also able to show that the CoL
are not subject to homophily. Quite on the contrary, our results indicate a general tendency of hierarchical
positions to gather information from outside their own subgroup.
         Taken together, our study provides valuable insights for HRD practitioners that consider the
implementation of similar training initiatives. The empirical results clearly indicate that hierarchical
positions are transferred into the virtual realm and that higher level management plays an important role in
CoL. By incorporating these insights into the implementation of future CoL, it is not only possible to
anticipate participants’ behaviour. Our findings also allow to draw conclusions about how collaborative
learning activities within CoL should be designed and facilitated, in order to provide employees with a
valuable learning experience. Moreover, we are able to show that CoL foster interpersonal knowledge
transfer across hierarchical positions, which allows organizations to create a fruitful learning environment
where thoughts are exchanged and new ideas can be created.

More Related Content

What's hot

Network organisations and cross organisational learning
Network organisations and cross organisational learningNetwork organisations and cross organisational learning
Network organisations and cross organisational learning
Maria Kapsali
 
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
IAEME Publication
 
Research proposal
Research proposalResearch proposal
Research proposal
SohailTariq16
 
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People SearchBenchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
Daqing He
 
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
UPMC - Sorbonne Universities
 
Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol
Cook invited talk Uni of BristolCook invited talk Uni of Bristol
Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol
University of the West of England
 
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
ijtsrd
 
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
UPMC - Sorbonne Universities
 
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chainLiterature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
Sujoy Bag
 
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
BAINIDA
 
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and EvaluationCollaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
UPMC - Sorbonne Universities
 
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
Martin Rehm
 
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
Mike Kujawski
 
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
Martin Rehm
 
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
Danube University Krems, Centre for E-Governance
 
CFMC NWLC 20100818
CFMC NWLC 20100818CFMC NWLC 20100818
CFMC NWLC 20100818
Janet Shing
 
Kehrwald Ascilite2007
Kehrwald Ascilite2007Kehrwald Ascilite2007
Kehrwald Ascilite2007
Benjamin Kehrwald
 
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
Tarry Asoka
 
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
Alexander Decker
 
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
paperpublications3
 

What's hot (20)

Network organisations and cross organisational learning
Network organisations and cross organisational learningNetwork organisations and cross organisational learning
Network organisations and cross organisational learning
 
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
MEDIATING EFFECT OF OCB ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE S...
 
Research proposal
Research proposalResearch proposal
Research proposal
 
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People SearchBenchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
Benchmarking the Privacy-­Preserving People Search
 
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Frameworks, Theoretical Models and Emerg...
 
Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol
Cook invited talk Uni of BristolCook invited talk Uni of Bristol
Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol
 
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
An Investigation into Gaps in the Flow of Communication at Institutional Leve...
 
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
Answering Twitter Questions: a Model for Recommending Answerers through Socia...
 
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chainLiterature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
Literature Review on Social Networking in Supply chain
 
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
Subscriber Churn Prediction Model using Social Network Analysis In Telecommun...
 
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and EvaluationCollaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
Collaborative Information Retrieval: Concepts, Models and Evaluation
 
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
Unified Yet Separated - Empirical Study on the Impact of Hierarchical Positio...
 
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
Practical Applications for Social Network Analysis in Public Sector Marketing...
 
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
Birds of a Feather? - Do Participants’ Hierarchical Positions activate Homoph...
 
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
Kostas Zafiropoulos - Discussion of eParticipation topics in Greek political ...
 
CFMC NWLC 20100818
CFMC NWLC 20100818CFMC NWLC 20100818
CFMC NWLC 20100818
 
Kehrwald Ascilite2007
Kehrwald Ascilite2007Kehrwald Ascilite2007
Kehrwald Ascilite2007
 
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
Researching Networks and Collaboration – reflections of a novice
 
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
Moderating effect of organizational factors on the relationship between diver...
 
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
Least Cost Influence by Mapping Online Social Networks
 

Similar to Do hierarchical positions influence participant’s network behaviour within Communities of Learning?

Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
Mumbai Academisc
 
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
COINs2010
 
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
Queensland University of Technology
 
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
gerardkortney
 
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
Alana James
 
Ece conf2011 ireid
Ece conf2011 ireidEce conf2011 ireid
Ece conf2011 ireid
University of Liverpool
 
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docxComputers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
donnajames55
 
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysisIdentifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
Gabriela Grosseck
 
Scalable
ScalableScalable
Scalable
Aswathy Rajan
 
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıonLearnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
Yıldız UZUN
 
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLSFinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
Warren Wessling
 
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelli
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelliPaper11_PenuelRielSabelli
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelli
webuploader
 
organization behaviour disertati.docx
organization behaviour disertati.docxorganization behaviour disertati.docx
organization behaviour disertati.docx
ZhaolinWang3
 
APJCE_17_2_163_174
APJCE_17_2_163_174APJCE_17_2_163_174
APJCE_17_2_163_174
Dr Nanditha Hettitantri
 
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdfSynthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
sdfghj21
 
organization behaviour disertation.pdf
organization behaviour disertation.pdforganization behaviour disertation.pdf
organization behaviour disertation.pdf
ZhaolinWang3
 
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
SohailTariq16
 
Article review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandarArticle review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandar
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
 
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docxAnnoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
justine1simpson78276
 
Research proposal
Research proposal Research proposal
Research proposal
Sarah Richer
 

Similar to Do hierarchical positions influence participant’s network behaviour within Communities of Learning? (20)

Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
Clustering and sequential pattern mining of online collaborative learning dat...
 
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
Collaborative Innovation Networks, Virtual Communities, and Geographical Clus...
 
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
2015 ascilite howtomakea-communityforteachers-revised
 
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
· Assignment 3 Creating a Compelling VisionLeaders today must be .docx
 
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
Do Doctoral Students Use an Online Network for Mentoring?
 
Ece conf2011 ireid
Ece conf2011 ireidEce conf2011 ireid
Ece conf2011 ireid
 
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docxComputers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
Computers & Education 55 (2010) 1721–1731Contents lists avai.docx
 
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysisIdentifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
Identifying students’ profiles for MOOCs – a social media analysis
 
Scalable
ScalableScalable
Scalable
 
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıonLearnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
Learnıng analytıcs ın educatıon
 
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLSFinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
FinalReportMentorshipinFPLS
 
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelli
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelliPaper11_PenuelRielSabelli
Paper11_PenuelRielSabelli
 
organization behaviour disertati.docx
organization behaviour disertati.docxorganization behaviour disertati.docx
organization behaviour disertati.docx
 
APJCE_17_2_163_174
APJCE_17_2_163_174APJCE_17_2_163_174
APJCE_17_2_163_174
 
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdfSynthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
Synthesis of questions and analysis and create grid.pdf
 
organization behaviour disertation.pdf
organization behaviour disertation.pdforganization behaviour disertation.pdf
organization behaviour disertation.pdf
 
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
Effects of internal_social_media_and_ocb____research_proposal[1]
 
Article review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandarArticle review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandar
 
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docxAnnoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
Annoted bibliography· Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. .docx
 
Research proposal
Research proposal Research proposal
Research proposal
 

More from Martin Rehm

Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among TeachersSocial Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
Martin Rehm
 
Lerninhalte & -ziele
Lerninhalte &  -zieleLerninhalte &  -ziele
Lerninhalte & -ziele
Martin Rehm
 
Akteure
AkteureAkteure
Akteure
Martin Rehm
 
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
Martin Rehm
 
Preparing in Isolation?!
Preparing in Isolation?!Preparing in Isolation?!
Preparing in Isolation?!
Martin Rehm
 
#WhatsTheDifference?
#WhatsTheDifference?#WhatsTheDifference?
#WhatsTheDifference?
Martin Rehm
 
Planung von Lernangeboten
Planung von LernangebotenPlanung von Lernangeboten
Planung von Lernangeboten
Martin Rehm
 
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
Martin Rehm
 
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
Martin Rehm
 
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
Martin Rehm
 
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
Martin Rehm
 
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s Network Behaviour within C...
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s  Network Behaviour within C...Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s  Network Behaviour within C...
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s Network Behaviour within C...
Martin Rehm
 
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information Technology (SHA...
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information  Technology (SHA...Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information  Technology (SHA...
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information Technology (SHA...
Martin Rehm
 
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
Martin Rehm
 
Building Bridges between Academic Tribes
Building Bridges between Academic TribesBuilding Bridges between Academic Tribes
Building Bridges between Academic Tribes
Martin Rehm
 
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
Martin Rehm
 
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
Martin Rehm
 
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of FacilitatorsManaging Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
Martin Rehm
 
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
Martin Rehm
 
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD FellowsLearning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
Martin Rehm
 

More from Martin Rehm (20)

Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among TeachersSocial Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
Social Capital in Twitter Conversations among Teachers
 
Lerninhalte & -ziele
Lerninhalte &  -zieleLerninhalte &  -ziele
Lerninhalte & -ziele
 
Akteure
AkteureAkteure
Akteure
 
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
Soziales Kapital als Möglichkeit zur Analyse von Twitter-Konversationen und „...
 
Preparing in Isolation?!
Preparing in Isolation?!Preparing in Isolation?!
Preparing in Isolation?!
 
#WhatsTheDifference?
#WhatsTheDifference?#WhatsTheDifference?
#WhatsTheDifference?
 
Planung von Lernangeboten
Planung von LernangebotenPlanung von Lernangeboten
Planung von Lernangeboten
 
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
Medienprojekt: Plenum (Einführung) WiSe 2014/15
 
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
Konzeption mediengestützter Lernangebote (Einführung - WiSe 2014/2015)
 
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
Pebble-in-the-Pond?!
 
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
Virtuous Spiral or Vicious Circle?
 
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s Network Behaviour within C...
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s  Network Behaviour within C...Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s  Network Behaviour within C...
Do Hierarchical Positions Influence Participant’s Network Behaviour within C...
 
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information Technology (SHA...
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information  Technology (SHA...Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information  Technology (SHA...
Support & Help for Academic Researchers by using Information Technology (SHA...
 
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
Building bridges between academic tribes: Group Blogging for young researcher...
 
Building Bridges between Academic Tribes
Building Bridges between Academic TribesBuilding Bridges between Academic Tribes
Building Bridges between Academic Tribes
 
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
SHARE-IT - A Blog “from Researchers for Researchers”
 
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
Communities of Learning in Organizational Training: The influence of particip...
 
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of FacilitatorsManaging Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
Managing Communities of Learning: The Impact and Role of Facilitators
 
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
Einmal Chef - Immer Chef?
 
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD FellowsLearning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
Learning While Working - Facilitating Part-Time PhD Fellows
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cátedra Banco Santander
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
OlivierLumeau1
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
thanhluan21
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Celine George
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
NurFitriah45
 
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
monicaaringo1
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
 
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 

Do hierarchical positions influence participant’s network behaviour within Communities of Learning?

  • 1. AECT 2012 – Louisville, Kentucky Do hierarchical positions influence participant’s network behaviour within Communities of Learning? Martin Rehm, Wim Gijselaers, Mien Segers Description 1) Completed Study that includes analyzed results and discussions We investigate whether hierarchical positions have an impact on collaborative learning processes within Communities of Learning (CoL). More specifically, we provide empirical evidence from a training program of a global organization. Using social network analysis, our findings indicate that hierarchical positions significantly influence participants’ network behaviour. Moreover, our results show that individuals tend to gather information from outside of their own hierarchical position. Keywords Distance Education, Management, Performance Support Extended Abstract In today’s turbulent economic environment, employers and employees constantly need to update their knowledge and skills in order to face new challenges (Chalmers & Keown, 2006). Moreover, it has been suggested that facilitating an interpersonal knowledge transfer among employees should constitute a key building block in setting up organizational training initiatives (Argote, 2000). However, in practice, organizations continue to mainly implement traditional teaching methods, such as face-to-face workshops, to train their staff (Armstrong & Sadler-Smith, 2008). With increasing pressures to provide more cost- effective training, this has led practitioners and researchers alike to look for more innovative training methods (Yamnill & MacLean, 2001). In this context, online Communities of Learning (CoL) have been suggested to foster the effective exchange of knowledge and experience between members of an organization’s workforce (Rehm, 2009). However, past research on collaborative online communities has either provided only limited empirical evidence from real organizations (Edmondson, 2002), or neglected participants’ hierarchical positions, which can be a major obstacle to collaborative learning processes (Romme, 1996). It has generally been established that, depending on their hierarchical position, participants will display varying communication behaviours within collaborative learning processes (Bird, 1994). Some researchers provide evidence that online communication, e.g. via electronic mail, can initiate a “status equalization” process (Sproul & Kiesler, 1986). In contrast, authors like Yates and Orlikowski (1992) suggested that the prevailing status quo will be reinforced, irrespective of the chosen communication tool. Similarly, based on qualitative data from on-going workgroups and learning teams, Sutton and colleagues (2000) found a positive relationship between the hierarchical position of participants and their level of activity. More specifically, higher level management tended to replicate their accustomed behaviour of leading teams in real-life, translating into them also leading their assigned online groups. In view of these ambiguous findings, HRD practitioners are in need for a better understanding of how existing structures and social relationships influence peoples’ behaviour within online collaborative learning environments. The present study provides empirical evidence from 25 CoL of an online training program that was provided for 249 staff members of a global organization. Each CoL consisted of 7 – 13 participants and was centred around asynchronous discussion forums, where participants from different hierarchical positions collaboratively enhanced their knowledge. Using social network analysis, we analysed whether participants’ hierarchical positions influenced their communication behaviour within CoL. Based on the resulting findings, it is not only possible to locate (groups of) individuals that hold crucial positions, but also to suggest actions targeted at participants who are situated more towards the fringe of the network. Based on the user statistics from the asynchronous discussion forums, we computed two commonly used network statistics to assess an individual’s general network behaviour, namely participants’ in- and out-degree ties. The in-degree measure indicates how often and by how many colleagues a particular individual has been contacted from within a CoL. Out-degree network connections refer to links between colleagues that originate from a particular CoL member. Additionally, we were also interested in whether CoL exhibited signs of homophily. In the context of this study, this concept suggests that
  • 2. participants from the same hierarchical position would tend to communicate more frequently within their own subgroup. In order to approximate this effect, we used the external-internal (E-I) index. Moreover, we subdivided the data according to “Read-“ and “Reply- networks”, capturing passive and active learning behaviours, respectively. The attained data was then used to test the following research hypotheses: · H1: Participants' hierarchical positions will have a positive influence on their amount of out- degree network ties. · H2: Participants' hierarchical position will have a positive influence on their amount of in-degree network ties. · Hypothesis 3: Participants will tend to interact more with colleagues from the same hierarchical position. While we do not find evidence to support the first two hypotheses for the “Read-networks”, we are able to show significant differences in participants’ network behaviour for the “Reply-networks”. More specifically, participants from higher up the hierarchical ladder tended to be more active in connecting with other colleagues, as well as attracting more attention within the CoL. We are also able to show that the CoL are not subject to homophily. Quite on the contrary, our results indicate a general tendency of hierarchical positions to gather information from outside their own subgroup. Taken together, our study provides valuable insights for HRD practitioners that consider the implementation of similar training initiatives. The empirical results clearly indicate that hierarchical positions are transferred into the virtual realm and that higher level management plays an important role in CoL. By incorporating these insights into the implementation of future CoL, it is not only possible to anticipate participants’ behaviour. Our findings also allow to draw conclusions about how collaborative learning activities within CoL should be designed and facilitated, in order to provide employees with a valuable learning experience. Moreover, we are able to show that CoL foster interpersonal knowledge transfer across hierarchical positions, which allows organizations to create a fruitful learning environment where thoughts are exchanged and new ideas can be created.