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COLLEGE OF HORTICLUTURE
An
Assignment Presentation
On
BREEDING OF CARROT & RADISH
Course – VSC:503 BREEDING OF VEGETABLE CROPS (2+1)
Submitted To,...
CARROT
Botanical name:-Daucus
carota L.
Family:-Umbelliferae
Chromosome no.:- 2n=18
Mode of pollination: cross
pollinated ...
INTRODUCTION:
Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable
belonging to the family Umbelliferae.
 The cultivated f...
ORIGIN:-
Afghanistan is believed to be the primary centre of genetic
diversity.
There is evidences that purple carrot to...
BOTANY:-
The cultivated types were evolved as the selection from inter specifc
cross between above 2 species. The plant i...
PLANT CHARACTERS
PLANT CHARACTERS
Habit :
carrot is an annual or biennial herb, with an erect to much
branded stem, 30-120 cm height arisin...
FLORAL BIOLOGY AND POLLINATION:-
Flower structure of carrot Flower of carrot
INFLORESCENCE
The inflorescence of carrot is a compound umbel. The primary
umbel can have over 1000 flowers at maturity, w...
Flowers:
Flowers are perfect with small petals, usually white or
yellowish in colour, Calyx is entire.
Stamens:
Stamens ar...
TAXONOMY:-
Kingdom : Plantae
Order : Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus : Daucus
Species: D. carota
• All cultivated carrots ,...
CYTOGENETICS:
•Basic and haploid chromosome numbers of carrot: X=n=9.
•The 9 pairs of chromosome, 4 choromosome pairs are
...
GENETICS:
Root shape: Governed by three genes D,N,P.
•Long or Desi: Long and tapay, D-N-P. Eg. Pusa Desi.
•Cylindrical typ...
GENETIC RESOURCES:-
As for most vegetables, carrot genetic resources are in the form
of open-pollinated cultivars. The U.S...
BREEDING OBJECTIVES:-
• To develop varieties with high carotene content by crossing
Asiatic and European types.
• High roo...
BREEDING METHODS:-
Introduction:-
• Zeno is very popular variety for the Nilgiris hills (Tamil Nadu) and
has been introdu...
Mutation Breeding
Chemical mutagens NEU (N-mitroso-N-ethyl urea) @ 0.025-0.6
per cent was successfully used to develop ste...
 Heterosis breeding:
• Heterosis has been reported for earliness, tuber length, tuber
yield, carotene content, top weight...
Variety and Varietal character:
A. Tropical or Asiatic Types:
1)Pusa Kesar:
This is selection from a cross of Local Red an...
4)No.29:
Released by selection from local material by PAU. A desi
variety with long tapering red and thin roots.
B. Europe...
3)Chatenay:
An excellent cultivar for canning and storage. roots are 11.5-15 cm
long and 3-5 cm in diameter, thick, attrac...
Resistance Breeding For Biotic Stress
• Nantes, Imperator: Res. To pythium spp.
• Vilmorium 66: Res. To Nematode.
• Virgin...
MOLECULAR MARKER:
Plunkett used DNA sequence analysis of the chloroplast
matK gene to examine relationship within the Apia...
APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY:
Genome size is relatively small.
Variation in molecular genetics markers is quite extensi...
RADISH
BOTANICAL NAME: Raphanus sativus L
FAMILY: Brassicaceae
ORIGIN: Egypt
CH. NO.: 2n=18
Introduction:
 Radish {Mooli) is a quick growing and short duration vegetable crop.
It has high nutritive value.
 It is...
BOTANY
 The edible portion of radish develops from the primary
root and hypocotyl the inflorescence is a typical terminal...
Taxonomy:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angioserms
Order: Brassicacales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Raphanus
Species: R.sativ...
CYTOGENETICS:
•Basic and haploid chromosome numbers of radish: X=n=9.
•Chromosome size range: 1.5-3.5 m.
•Basic genome of ...
Character No. of genes Type of gene action
Leaf
lobbing
Monogenic Lobbed leaf dominant to
simple
Leaf
hairiness
Monogenic ...
Breeding objective:
•Early rooting
•High yield
•White, long/stump roots with thin tap root and non-branching
habit
•Nonpit...
BREEDING METHODS:
Mass selection:
• This is practiced in cultivars collected from the farmer’s fields.
• Arka Nishant from...
Variety and Varietal character:
A. European or Temperate Types:
1)White Icicle:
The roots are thin and tender and icicle s...
B.Tropical or Asiatic Types:
1) Japanese White:
It in an introduction ' from Japan, c.v. "Shiroaguri-kiyO"
recommended by ...
4)Pusa Reshmi: it was developed through recombination breeding,
released by IARI, New Delhi. The roots are white, long (30...
7)Arka Nishant: This variety was developed from the seed
collected from Singapore; and released by Indian Institute of
Hor...
Resistance Breeding For Biotic Stress
• Asmer Tip Top: Res. To insect Erioischia brassicae
• Punjab Safed: Res. To Leaf sp...
MOLECULAR MARKER:
The evolutionary pathway in cruciferae or the genetic
relationship between some relatives was analyzed b...
REFERENCES:
1. A Textbook of Glastus Olericulture By R.
Selvakumar.
2. Vegetable Breeding Principles and Practices By
Hari...
Carrot and radish
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Carrot and radish

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Carrot and radish

  1. 1. COLLEGE OF HORTICLUTURE
  2. 2. An Assignment Presentation On BREEDING OF CARROT & RADISH Course – VSC:503 BREEDING OF VEGETABLE CROPS (2+1) Submitted To, Dr.Yogesh Pawar College of Horticulture, S. D. A. U., S. K. Nagar Submitted By, Chaudhari Ramila N. M.Sc.(Hort.) 1st sem.
  3. 3. CARROT Botanical name:-Daucus carota L. Family:-Umbelliferae Chromosome no.:- 2n=18 Mode of pollination: cross pollinated crop.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION: Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable belonging to the family Umbelliferae.  The cultivated forms are derived from south western Asia probably in the hills of Punjab and Kashmir. It is a rich source of alfa and ß carotene and a vital precursor of vitamin A. Uttar Pradesh having maximum production, Bihar having highest area of carrot in india. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is cool season root vegetable grown round the world in temperate climates during spring, summer and autumn season and in subtropical climates during winter. Carrot is an important source of carotene content (pro-vitamin A).
  5. 5. ORIGIN:- Afghanistan is believed to be the primary centre of genetic diversity. There is evidences that purple carrot together with yellow variant spread from Afghanistan to the Mediterranean region as early as the tenth or eleventh century. The white and orange carrots are probably mutations of the yellow form. The domestic carrot readily crosses with widely adapted wild carrot known as Queen Anne’s lace. The genus Daucus has many wild forms that grow mostly in Mediterranean region and south-west Asia.
  6. 6. BOTANY:- The cultivated types were evolved as the selection from inter specifc cross between above 2 species. The plant is consisting of hermaphrodite flowers in the peripheral and central zones in the umbel inflorescence and male flowers in the intermediate zone. Male sterility controlled by a cytoplasmic factor and one or more recessive genes has been reported. Closed anther mutants and types with unrolled stamen filaments have been observed. This type of functional male sterility is useful in hybrid seed production. This phenomenon of protandry is also responsible for cross- pollination. The stigma becomes receptive on the fifth day after flower Opening and remains active for 8 days, but the better fruit sets are from pollination on 6 to 11 days after flower opening. Over 95% of cross pollination has been observed in carrot.
  7. 7. PLANT CHARACTERS
  8. 8. PLANT CHARACTERS Habit : carrot is an annual or biennial herb, with an erect to much branded stem, 30-120 cm height arising from a thick, fleshy tap root,5-30 cm long. Stem : Usually the stem elongates and produces rough, hispid branches during the second year. Leaves: Leaves are pinnately compound with long petioles expanded into a stalk at the base. Root: The edible portion of carrot root is actually an enlarged fleshy taproot. It consist primarily of phylom or cortex and core or xylem. Good quality carrots have a maximum of cortex and minimum of core in the so-called ‘Coreless’ cultivars, the core is small and deeply pigmented so that the cortex and core are evenly coloured.
  9. 9. FLORAL BIOLOGY AND POLLINATION:- Flower structure of carrot Flower of carrot
  10. 10. INFLORESCENCE The inflorescence of carrot is a compound umbel. The primary umbel can have over 1000 flowers at maturity, whereas secondary, tertiary umbels bear fewer flowers. Floral development is centripetal i.e. the flower to dehisce first are on the outer edges of the outer umbellate. Carrot is protandrous. After straightening of filament, the pollen is shed and stamens quickly fall. After this, the petals open fully and the style elongates. Emasculation is laborious and time consuming. As soon as first bud in an umbel opens, the whole umbel of the female parent is bagged in a muslin bag. The flower are removed daily until peak flowering has reached. anther are removed from the early opening outer flower in the outer whole of umbellate until sufficient flowers are emasculation. Thus, only the emasculation flower are left on the female inflorescence inside the bag.
  11. 11. Flowers: Flowers are perfect with small petals, usually white or yellowish in colour, Calyx is entire. Stamens: Stamens are five in number. Ovary: Inferior consists of two locules, each with a single ovule. On the Upper surface of the ovary, there is swollen nectar which supports the style and stigma. Seed: Seed is indehiscent mericarp, containing a single seed. In fact , 2 mericarps pair to form the schizocarps ,the true carrot fruit which develops from a two loculed ovary .the mericarpor the seed is some what flatted on one side and the opposite side has longitudinal ribs with bristly hairs .
  12. 12. TAXONOMY:- Kingdom : Plantae Order : Apiales Family: Apiaceae Genus : Daucus Species: D. carota • All cultivated carrots , together with the wild ones which are known in Europe, belong to the species Daucus carota L. Most wild Daucus forms are found in the south- Asia and the Mediterranean, a few in Africa , Australia and America. • All wild forms found in Asia, Asia Minor, Japan and U.S.A have the same chromosome number as their European relatives. • Daucus carota spp. Carota is the commonest wild from in Europe and south west Asia. The present days cultivated carrot most probably originated from this subspecies.
  13. 13. CYTOGENETICS: •Basic and haploid chromosome numbers of carrot: X=n=9. •The 9 pairs of chromosome, 4 choromosome pairs are metacentric, 4 sub-metacentric and 1 satellite. •Most of the 22 Daucus species 11 or 10 chromosome pairs and only 2 others with nine pairs of chromosome.
  14. 14. GENETICS: Root shape: Governed by three genes D,N,P. •Long or Desi: Long and tapay, D-N-P. Eg. Pusa Desi. •Cylindrical type: Cylindrical, dd, nn, p. Eg. Nantes. •Chanteny type: Obvate root,dd,N-,Pp. Eg. Red variety Tuber colour: 1.Red: iiPPyyee 2.Light red: iippyyee Root tip: Monogenic Root cracking: Monogenic, susceptible dominant to resistance.
  15. 15. GENETIC RESOURCES:- As for most vegetables, carrot genetic resources are in the form of open-pollinated cultivars. The U.S. and European databases are on carrot germplasm accessions are as follow: •USDA – ARS •European cooperative programme for crop Genetic Resources- ECP/GR. •National centre for vegetable crops research- Carrot Breeding Collection(CNPH), Eurpresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecularia- Brazil=200 accessions. •BAZ- Inst. Of Horticultural Crops, Germany= 5 species, 25 subspecies, 30 wild relatives. •National Gene Bank - Rural development Administration, Korea.
  16. 16. BREEDING OBJECTIVES:- • To develop varieties with high carotene content by crossing Asiatic and European types. • High root yield • Orange colour root • Earling rooting. • Uniformity in root shape and size • High sugar and dry matter in root • Slow bolting habit • Smooth root surface • Cracking free roots • Resistance to alternaria blight. • To develop F1 hybrids using cytoplasmic male sterile lines and with good colour, size, earliness, top root ratio and resistance to cracking and diseases.
  17. 17. BREEDING METHODS:- Introduction:- • Zeno is very popular variety for the Nilgiris hills (Tamil Nadu) and has been introduction from German Democratic Republic. • Nantes half long is an introduction recommended by IARI Regional Station, Katrain. • Imperator, Danvers were introduce to India. Mass selection: For improvement of root length and high yield. Bulk population : This method has been successfully used to evolve Pusa kesar as selection from a cross between Nantes and Local Asiatic.
  18. 18. Mutation Breeding Chemical mutagens NEU (N-mitroso-N-ethyl urea) @ 0.025-0.6 per cent was successfully used to develop sterile line in carrot. Polyploidy breeding: Tetraploid (2n=36) and Octaploid (2n=72)have been developed in carrot, The polyploidy have only limited utility in carrot. Heterosis breeding: 1. Chanteny × Genanda = 25-33% yield increase 2. Virginea Savoy × Old Domain = Res. To CMV.
  19. 19.  Heterosis breeding: • Heterosis has been reported for earliness, tuber length, tuber yield, carotene content, top weight ,core diameter and root diameter . • In F2, considerable loss in vigour has also been observed. Male sterility and self compatibility are the two plant phenomena which are being frequently used in Heterosis breeding programme. • Although over 95 per cent crossing occurred under field condition, the commercial production of F1 hybrid seed by natural cross-pollination is considered impracticable because of the large proportion of pollinator varieties that would have to be used.
  20. 20. Variety and Varietal character: A. Tropical or Asiatic Types: 1)Pusa Kesar: This is selection from a cross of Local Red and Nantes. The most desirable feature of this variety is that roots stay for about a month longer in the field than local red without bolting. The forking percentage is also less. 2)Pusa Meghali: This is also selection from a cross between nantes and Pusa Kesar. Orange coloured roots with self-coloured core, shoot tops suitable for early sowing. This is the only variety having orange coloured flush in the tropical group. 3)Selection-233: A derivative of a cross of Nantes x No.29. It is a desi type with all good qualities of Nantes. Top reduced ,Leaves dark green, less cracking and forking of roots. Harvesting can be delayed without bolting and impairing its edible qualities.
  21. 21. 4)No.29: Released by selection from local material by PAU. A desi variety with long tapering red and thin roots. B. European or Temperate Types: 1)Nantes half Long: suitable for sowing during winter months. It takes about 110- 120 days for root formation. An introduction recommended by IARI Regional Station, Katrain. 2)EarlyNantes: Almost cylindrical roots terminating abruptly in small thin tail, 12-15 cm long, fine textured, oranges flesh with self-coloured core. It takes 90-100 days for roots formation and 310-330 days for seed crops.
  22. 22. 3)Chatenay: An excellent cultivar for canning and storage. roots are 11.5-15 cm long and 3-5 cm in diameter, thick, attractive orange growth, core indistinct, flesh tender, sweet and fine textures. 4)Imperator: Developed from a cross of Nantes and Chantenay. Roots are 15-17.5 cm long and 2.5-4.5 cm in diameter, with short tapered end ,deep orange cortex and slightly distinct core 5)Zeno: This is very popular variety for the Nilgiri hills .The roots are 15-17 cm long, and slightly tapering towards the end. It takes 110-120 days for root formation. 6)Pusa Yamdagini (Sel-5): Development by hybridization between EDC 9981 x Nantes .. Roots are 15-16cm long, orange, self-colored core, slightly tapering, medium tops, quick growing in comparison with other temperate types, high yielding and richer in carotene content.
  23. 23. Resistance Breeding For Biotic Stress • Nantes, Imperator: Res. To pythium spp. • Vilmorium 66: Res. To Nematode. • Virginia Savoy: Res. To CMV • Scarlet, Nantes: Res. To Tip burn.
  24. 24. MOLECULAR MARKER: Plunkett used DNA sequence analysis of the chloroplast matK gene to examine relationship within the Apiaceae. They demonstrate generally poor molecular support for morphologically defined subfamilies. similar conclusions were reached by Downie Dna sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and he intron of chloroplast gene rpoC1. However monophyletic origin for the economically important subfamily apioideae has been supported at the morphological and molecular levels. Nakajima (1991) used RADP and AFLO markers to characterize relationship between 5 Daucus spp. Including D. carota all D.carota, including 7 carrot cultivars lines and accessions of six wild D.carota spp. Could be distinguished from other Daucus spp. By both RADP and AFLP. Using markers, Nakajima demonstrated that two carrot cultivars of Japanese origin appear more closely related to wild D.carrota ssp. Than to carrot cultivars of European origin.
  25. 25. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY: Genome size is relatively small. Variation in molecular genetics markers is quite extensive, and both genetic transformation and regeneration of carrot are readily achieved. Therefore, carrot is good candidate for biotechnological applications. The carrot genetic linkage map includes around 1000 isozymes, RFLPs, AFLPs, RAPDs and other molecular markers. From 10-25% of genomics bclones tested are estimated to be in high copy numbers, while 20-30% of the RFLP probes and RADP primers, and 40% of AFLP bands were polymorphic.  Reports of success have not yet been published but markers linked to nematode resistance, CMS restorers, carotene content, and sugar content are being sought. Carrot transformants have been developed for hepatitis B vaccine and other unique plant products but like most other vegetables, commercial release of the carrot transgenics has not materialized.
  26. 26. RADISH BOTANICAL NAME: Raphanus sativus L FAMILY: Brassicaceae ORIGIN: Egypt CH. NO.: 2n=18
  27. 27. Introduction:  Radish {Mooli) is a quick growing and short duration vegetable crop. It has high nutritive value.  It is a good source of ascorbic acid and trace elements. Pink-skinned radish is generally richer in ascorbic acid than the white skinned. Cultivation of radish both for root and seed is very easy. Radish is an ancient vegetable. Inscriptions in Pyramids in Egypt showed its existence about 2000 B.C:  It is widely grown in almost all states of India. It is most suitable for raising in kitchen garden or home garden. Origin:  Radish probably originated in Europe and Asia. It has been under extensive cultivations in Egypt since long. It was introduced in England and France in the beginning of 16th century.
  28. 28. BOTANY  The edible portion of radish develops from the primary root and hypocotyl the inflorescence is a typical terminal raceme of crciferae.  The flowers are small, usually white in colour and resemble those in cabbage and cauliflower. Sepals (four) are erect and petals (four) are clawed.  Radish is cross- pollinated due to sporophytic system of self-incompatibility.  It shows considerable inbreeding depression on selfing. It is entomophilous. It is pollinated mainly by wild honey bees and wild-flower flies. Stigma receptivity is maintained upto four days after anthesis.  Emasculation is not necessary in bud-pollination. After pollination, the buds are to be protected from foreign pollen by enclosing the particular branch bearing those
  29. 29. Taxonomy: Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angioserms Order: Brassicacales Family: Brassicaceae Genus: Raphanus Species: R.sativus
  30. 30. CYTOGENETICS: •Basic and haploid chromosome numbers of radish: X=n=9. •Chromosome size range: 1.5-3.5 m. •Basic genome of radish has both homologous and non- homologous chromosome. •Basic cytological and phylogenetics relationship, the species of Raphanus and Brassica evolved from a common ancestral form with chromosome number 2n=6 by chromosome duplication.
  31. 31. Character No. of genes Type of gene action Leaf lobbing Monogenic Lobbed leaf dominant to simple Leaf hairiness Monogenic Hairy leaf dominant to glabrous Root colour 3 genes and complimentary gene action Red: R2r2/R3r3/cc White:r2r2/r3r3/CC Leaf colour Monogenic Dark green leaf colour dominant to yellow green. Genetics:
  32. 32. Breeding objective: •Early rooting •High yield •White, long/stump roots with thin tap root and non-branching habit •Nonpithy roots •Pungency of roots as per consumers preference •Slow bolting habit •Heat tolerance •Drought resistance •Wet tolerance •Resistance to alternaria blight, white rust, RMV •Tolerance to aphids
  33. 33. BREEDING METHODS: Mass selection: • This is practiced in cultivars collected from the farmer’s fields. • Arka Nishant from IIHR. Pedigree metho: • Pusa Himani: Black Radish× Japanese White • Pusa Rashami: Green Top×Desi. Polyploid breeding: Polyploids with 2n=36 produced. No distict advantages. Two polyploid varieties have been developed and these yields more than diploids. 1.Sofia Delicious(2n=36) 2.Semi long Red Giant(2n=36).
  34. 34. Variety and Varietal character: A. European or Temperate Types: 1)White Icicle: The roots are thin and tender and icicle shaped. The skin of roots of this variety is pure white. It is a sweet flavoured variety. It is very short duration (20-25 days) and suitable for kitchen garden. It can be grown in pot also. Delay in harvesting causes pithiness in roots that reduces quality of roots. It is sown in October-November in plains. 2)Scarlet Globe: It is an early variety takes about 25-30 days for' development of harvestable roots, Outer skin of roots is scarlet in colour with white tip, flesh is pure white. Roots are round in shape. 3)Scarlet Long: It is an early variety (25-30 days). Leaves are 15-20 cm in length and light green in colour. The roots are long and tapering to a point.
  35. 35. B.Tropical or Asiatic Types: 1) Japanese White: It in an introduction ' from Japan, c.v. "Shiroaguri-kiyO" recommended by IAR! Regional Station, Katrain (HP). The roots are pure white, 20 to 30 cm or so long, blunt at root-end. They are mildly pungent. Though, it is tropical variety but it responds well to comparatively low temperature. Roots become ready for harvesting in 45 days, It is suitable for October to December sowing. 2)Pusa Desi: Roots are long (30-35 cm) white, tapering with green stem -end variety is suitable for sowing in early August to October in two northern plains of India, Roots become ready for harvesting in 45 to 50 days. 3)Pusa chetki: It is developed by IARI, New Delhi from the seeds collected from Denmark. Roots are pure white and they are mildly pungent. The leaves are entire, upright, dark green and siightiy lobed. Sowing can be done from March to August. The roots become ready for harvesting in 40 to 45 days (early variety). It flowers during October-November depending on sowing time.
  36. 36. 4)Pusa Reshmi: it was developed through recombination breeding, released by IARI, New Delhi. The roots are white, long (30 to 35 cm), tapering with green stem-end. The foliage is medium, light green with cut leaves. It can be sown in September and roots become ready before the onset of cooler period of the winter season. Roots are ready for hatvesting in 50 to 60 days. 5)Punjab Safed: (White 5 x Japanese White): The roots of this variety are white, tapering, mildly pungent and 30-40 cm long. The roots are ready for harvesting in 40 to 45 days or so. 6)Kalyani white: The roots are pure white having blunt ends, 25-30 cm long. Top growth is short. The roots are mildly pungent. This variety is suitable to grow all the year round except during hot summer. Roots become ready for harvesting in 45-50 days.
  37. 37. 7)Arka Nishant: This variety was developed from the seed collected from Singapore; and released by Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore in 1980. The roots are mildly pungent, marble white in colour, non-pithy roots of excellent quality. Roots become ready for harvesting in 45 to 50 days. Pre- mature bolting and root forking are not commonly seen. 8)Chinese pink: An introduction identified by Dr. Y.S. Parmar. University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (HP). The roots are 10 to 15 cm long pink with white colour towards the tip. The roots are ready for harvesting in about 50-55 days.
  38. 38. Resistance Breeding For Biotic Stress • Asmer Tip Top: Res. To insect Erioischia brassicae • Punjab Safed: Res. To Leaf spot. • Chinese Rose White: Res. To Downy Mildew. • Nerina: Res. To Mosaic Virus. • Summer Wonder: Res. To Black rot.
  39. 39. MOLECULAR MARKER: The evolutionary pathway in cruciferae or the genetic relationship between some relatives was analyzed by RFLP and microsatellite markers derived from the nuclear DNA and a specific domain of DNA from a cytoplasmic organelle. Moreover it was suggested that radish is related chloroplast no-coding region between trnT and trnF and between trnD and trnT. On the basis of these facts,yang postulated the hybrid origin of radish between the above two linages. Microsatellite markers developed in B.rapa were effective for genome analysis in cruciferae including radish. The DNA analysis for nucleous and cytoplasm was confirmed to be effective to depict the genetic, genomic and phytogenetic relationship in cruciferae.
  40. 40. REFERENCES: 1. A Textbook of Glastus Olericulture By R. Selvakumar. 2. Vegetable Breeding Principles and Practices By Hari Har Ram 3. Plant Breeding Principles and methods by B.D.Singh

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