BREEDING OF TOMATO
by: lav kumar
College of agriculture, raipur
Among the vegetables maximum attempts
have been made to improve this crop because
of its short duration, easy cultivation and large
number of seeds per fruit and this has made it
an ideal crop for many research workers.
An exclusive Tomato Genetics Co-operative
located in University of California, USA,
published genetic information on crop and
maintains a large number of collections which
have already been thoroughly catalogued.
Origin and distribution
Tomato has its origin in Peru, Equador and Bolivia on
the basis of availability of numerous wild and
cultivated relatives of the tomato in this area.
From its centre of origin, the tomato first moved
to Mexico for domestication and cultivation
Area and production
In India tomato grown in an area 4.58 lakh ha. And
74.62 lakh tonns respectively with a productivity of
16.29 tonns / ha. The leading producing states are
UP, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana
•Tomato is also rich in medicinal value.
•The pulp and juice are digestible, mild aperients, a promoter
of gastric secretion and blood purifier.
•It is reported to have antiseptic properties against intestinal
•In the present days, it is gaining more medicinal importance
because of the antioxidant property of ascorbic acid and
•It is also an important source of -carotene and valued for
their colour and flavour.
•Thus, today it is one of the important raw materials for
multimillion food industries. Tomatoes are also called as “Poor
•Tomato is consumed either fresh, cooked or processed into
various products like juice, ketchup, sauce, puree, whole
canned fruit and is the main constituent of ‘pizzas’.
Linnaeus called it Solanum lycopersicon.
Miller: Lycopersicon esculentum
Now restored as Solanum lycopersicon. Lykos=
Wolf, persicon= peach.
Lycopersicon: (1) Eulycopersicon- Red
fruited edible species with carotenoid
pigmentation, annual and self compatible.
E.g. L. esculentum and L.
(2) Eriopersicon- Green fruitedspecies
with anthocyanin pigmentation and self
E.g. L. hirsutum, L. peruvianum, L.
L. cerassiformae is the immediate proginator
and L.hirsutum is ultimate proginator.
Interspecific crosses between L. esculentum
and L. pimpinellifolium are easily made.
Embryo abortion may occur between L.
esculentum x L. peruvianum. However, this can
be overcome through embryo rescue technique.
Chromosome Number: True diploid, 2n= 24.
All species of Lycopersicon have 2n=24.
Tomato plant is characterized by two types of plant:
Determinate type – inflorescence occurs more
frequently in almost every internode until terminal
ones are formed and elongation ceases at this point.
In other words, it may be defined as self-topping and
the main axis terminates with a flower cluster.
Indeterminate type- inflorescence cluster occurs at
every third internode and the main axis continues
Flowers are borne in small forked raceme
cyme. There are four to eight flowers in each
compound inflorescence. Flowers are pendent,
perfect, hypogynous. There is a light
protective anther cone surrounding the stigma
leading to self-pollination
Dehiscence of anther is longitudinal, 1-2 days
after opening of corolla.
If the pollen is shed as the style grows up
through anther tube, self-fertilization occurs
and when the stigma protrudes, chances of
cross-pollination through bees increases.
The optimum temperature for pollination is
around 21 C.
Emasculation is usually done 1 day prior to
At this stage, the sepals have started to
separate and the anthers and corolla are
beginning to change from light to dark yellow.
The stigma is fully receptive at this stage
allowing for pollination even immediately after
Protection of pollinated flowers by wrapping
with cotton or small pollination bags is
Increased fruit yield
Large round fruit with adequate firmness and
shelf life, uniform fruit size, shape, red colour and
freedom from external blemishes or abnormalities
for fresh market
Large fruit size, high fruit quality and continuous
production for home garden tomatoes
Deep, uniformly red coloured tomatoes, pH below
4.4, high TSS (4.5-7%) and high alcohol insoluble
solids (AIS) in processing tomatoes
Indeterminate cultivars for greenhouse
Resistance to diseases:
Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.
Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke &
Late blight (Phytophthora infestans)
Early blight (Alternaria solani)
Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici)
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum phomoides)
Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
Bacterial canker (Corynebacterium michiganense)
Tomato mosaic (Tobacco mosaic virus)
Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
Resistance to insects:
Fruit borer (Heliothis armigera)
White fly(Bemisia tabaci)
Resistance to abiotic stresses:
Cold set varieties
Hot set varieties
Low temperature germination and growth
Chilling injury tolerance
1. INTRODUCTION: It consists of taking a
genotype or a group of genotypes of plants
into new environments where they have not
been grown before.
Ex. Sioux from USA, Marglobe from USA.
2. PURE LINE SELECTION: A pure line is
progeny of single homozygous plant of self
pollinated species. Therefore, all the plants in
a pure line have the same genotype.
Ex.Arka Vikas: (+ Rainfed), PLS from Tip-Top
Arka Saurabh: PLS from V-685 (Canadian
Arka Abha: (+bacterial wilt), PLS from VC-
8-12-1 (AVRDC, Thaiwan)
Arka Alok: (+bacterial wilt), PLS from CL-
144-5-1-0 (AVRDC, Thaiwan)
Arka Ahuti: (+processing), PLS from
3. SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD: Suited for
characteristics with low heritability (yield & yield
components, earliness) and in crops with wider
•SSD is a modification of bulk method.
•This is the classic procedure of having a single seed
from each plant, bulking the individual seeds, and
planting out the next generation.
•With this procedure one or two seed are collected
from each F2 plant and then bulk to grow F3
•SSD is a system to rapidly develop pure lines
followed by selection among those pure lines
4. SINGLE PLANT SELECTION: single plant
seletion is used to select chance variants, off types,
superior types from mixed homozygous population in
self pollinated vegetable crops. This is one of
effective method to make maximum use of
Eg: Earliana, Greater Baltimore and Bonny Best.
5. MASS SELECTION: Massing of IIHR-674 from
VC-82 line from USA developed in to Arka Ashish
(+ P.M. and processing ).
6. Pedigree Method: Pedigree may be defined
as a description of the ancestors of an
individual and it generally goes back to some
distant ancestor or ancestors in the past.
Pedigree would describe the parents, grand-
parents, great grand parents and so on.
It is useful by finding out if two individuals
are related by descent, have a common parent
in their ancestors and they have some genes in
Eg: Arka Meghali of tomato PS (F8) of Arka
Vikas x IHR 554
Pusa Ruby selection from Improved
Meeruti x Sioux
7. Back Cross Method: A cross between a
hybrid (F1 or segregation) and one of its
parents is known as back cross. Hybrid
and the progenies in the subsequent
generation are repeatedly back crossed to one
of the parents.
Followed when character is governed by
For Early blight, Nematode and Bacterial
wilt resistance in tomato.
8. Heterosis Breeding:
Though, tomato a self pollinated crop has a tremendous
potential for heterosis breeding. The commercial exploitation
of hybrid vigour in tomato has received greater importance on
account of several advantages of hybrids over pure line
varieties with response to marketable fruit yield and its
component traits as well as resistance to biotic and abiotic
stresses. That is why large number of commercial hybrids have
been developed in the country in this crop. With increasing
popularity of F1 hybrids in tomato, it is imperative to obtain
such hybrids which have excellent qualities and yield coupled
with resistance to diseases.
Released F1 Hybrids:
Arka Vishal (IHR-837 X IHR-932)
Arka Vardan: IHR-550-3 X IHR-932
Arka Shreshta: 15-SBSB X IHR-1614
Arka Abhijit: 15-SBSB X IHR-1334
9. Interspecific Hybridization:
L. peruvianum – Source of Resistance to
Verticillium wilt, TLCV, Nematodes and
L. pimpinellifolium – Source of Resistance
to bacterial wilt, Fusarium wilt. Source of
carotene and Vit-C content.
L. hirsutum - Source of Resistance to
Fusarium wilt, Helicoverpa insect and Virus.
L. cheesmani - Good source for salinity
L. pennelli - Drought resistance and
10. Mutation Breeding:
S12 (Pusa S12 ) – Sioux variety is exposed to
Pusa Lal Meeruti – From Improved
Seeds were exposed to 15-30 Kv. Of ϒ-rays.
Natural mutants are also available in tomato like-
Nr - (Never ripening)
rin – Single recessive gene (Ripening
nor – (Non-ripening)
alc - (Slow ripening)
11. Polyploidy Breeding:
Not so much scope in tomato 0.2% Colchicine-
Tetraploids are sterile and fruit size was smaller.
(i)Antisense RNA for Polygalactourinase (PGU) enzyme.
(The cell wall degrading enzyme. Activity appears at the onset
of ripening and in ripe fruit it is one of the major cell-wall-
bound proteins.) Eg. FLAVR SAVR Variety available in
(ii) Viral Coat Protein – Introduced gene which can
synthesize the protein which coats the virus material. Eg.
Avinash-1 and Avinash-2 varieties.
(iii) Herbicide Resistance:- Gene which can resist that
herbicide. Means variety should not be affected but weeds
should be cleared.
Insect Resistance: Eg. ‘Bt’ for Helicoverpa(fruit
Breeding for Storage life and
Fruits with high acidity, uniform intense red colour, high TSS,
Resistance to cracking, elongated fruits with high yield. Plants
should be adopted to mechanical harvesting with determinate
habit, concentrated fruit set for once harvesting only and
jointless pedicel on fruit etc.
Varieties – Roma, Punjab Chuhara, Arka Ahuti, Arka Ashish
Juice and Canning purpose:
Roma, Son Marzano, Red Top, HS-110
Indo Process-II, Indo Process-III, Rupali
Paste and Ketchup:
HS 101, HS 110.
Breeding for Resistance to Diseases
Bacterial wilt: Arka Abha, Arka Alok, PI 127805-A
Leaf Curl Virus : L. peruvianum & L. hirsutum.
Resistant Varieties: Nandi, Vaibhav, Sankranthi.
Nematodes: ‘Mi’ gene carries resistance to nematodes,
located on chromosome No. 6 in tomato.
PI 128657 (L.peruvianum), Neematex (not infected by
all three races of RKN), Arka Vardan (F1 hybrid), NTDR-1,
PNR-7, Pusa-120 etc.
Determinate type: ARTH-3, Pusa Hybrid-2, NARF-101,
Swarna-12, NDTH-6, Nath Amruth-501, DTH-4
Indeterminate type: ARTH-4, FM-2, KT-4, MTH-6,FM-1, Nath
Pusa Divya – Indeterminate type
Pusa Sadabahar- It can set fruit at wide range of
Kashi Hybrid-1 and Kashi Vishesh (H-86) – from IIVR,
Pusa Hybrid-8: Determinate hybrid from IARI, New
Arka Ananya: Semi-determinate and resistant to leaf
Pusa Red Plum
•It has been evolved at the IARI by a cross between a
cultivated tomato and the wild L .pimpinellifolium.
•It is an early variety suitable for table use.
•The fruits are small, borne in clusters with red colour and
high vitamin C and sugar content.
•The plants are tall, with determinate growth habit, vigorous
and high yielding.
Pusa Early Dwarf
•It is an early ripening selection from the cross between
'Improved Meeruti' and 'Red Cloud' - a typical dwarf type
with medium large fruits of uniform colour.
•It has been observed to do well in both the seasons, and
yields up to 395 q/ha.
Pusa Early Dwarf
•It is an early ripening selection from the cross
between 'Improved Meeruti' and 'Red Cloud' - a
typical dwarf type with medium large fruits of
•It has been observed to do well in both the seasons,
and yields up to 395 q/ha.
•It is a selection from a Russian introduction. It is an
•The fruits are flat with 4-5 furrows.
•Each fruit weighs on an average 55-60 g.
•Ripe fruits are deep orange red in colour, its
duration is 140 days and the yield is 28-30 tonnes/ha.
CO 3 (Marutham)
•It is an induced mutant from Co 1; a determinate type
suitable for close planting even as close as 30 cm x 30 cm.
•Fruits are round in shape with four light grooves and capsicum
red in colour.
•It is a cluster bearing type capable of yielding as high as 40
tonnes/ha under a close spacing in a duration of 100-105 days.
•This is another induced mutant from a local variety called
•The fruits are flat-round with prominent green shoulder and
capsicum red colour.
•It is suitable for long distance transport.
•It yields about 30-35 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 135
•Developed by Indian Institute of Horticultural
Research, Bangalore, it is a high-yielding variety
exhibiting 30-35% higher yield than "Pusa Ruby'.
•It is semi-determinate, bears very firm, deep red,
medium-sized fruits with smooth skin and thick flesh.
•The fruits are round with nipple tip.
•It has very good transport and keeping quality, 8-10
days at room temperature amongst the round-fruited
•It has an excellent blend of sugar and acidity and is
very suitably both for
•fresh and processing purposes particularly for
ketchup and juice-making.
Arka Ahuti (Sel.11)
•It is pureline selection from 'Ottawa-60' developed at IIHR,
•Plants are semi-determinate with a duration of 135 days.
•The fruits are oblong, thick fleshed, bilocular and uniform
•The fruits have a TSS of 5.25% with an acidity of 0.35%.
•It has an yield potential of 45 tonnes/ha.
Arka Abha (BWR-1)
•This is from line selection (IHR 638-12) from a SSD derived
line got from AVRDC, Taiwan (VC8-1-2-1).
•The semi determinate vines bear oblate fruits with an
average fruit weight of 75 g with light green shoulder.
•It is resistant to bacterial wilt and is capable of yielding 25
tonnes/ha. in 135 days.
Arka Ashish (IHR 674 SBSB)
•Developed at IIHR, Bangalore.
•It is an improvement over UC83 B from California.
•The plants are determinate with concentrated fruit maturity.
•The fruits are uniform ripening, very firm, bilocular, oval and
the ripened fruits store well on the vine.
•It is tolerant to powdery mildew. The colour is excellent
(Lycopene 10 mg/100g), TSS is 4.8% and with low acidity
(0.35%), it makes excellent ketchup, juice and puree.
•It yields 35 tonnes/ha. in 130 days
•Developed at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar by
hybridization (Sel 2-3 X Exotic culture) and selecting in the
•The plants are determinate, dwarf, fruit medium sized, round,
borne in cluster of 2-3, juicy, suitable for winter season for
Hisar Arun (Sel-7)
•Developed at HAU, Hisar, by hybridization and
selection from a cross Pusa Early Dwarf X K1.
•Extremely early and high yielding, plants are
determinate, dwarf in stature with concentrated
flowering and fruiting; fruits medium to large, round,
deep red, recommended for cultivation in Delhi, Uttar
Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Maharashtra.
Hisar Lalima (Sel-18)
•Developed from the segregating population of a
cross Pusa Early Dwarf X HS101 at HAU, Hisar.
•An early variety. Plants are determinate, leaves have
deep cut, fruits are round, large, fleshy, high yielding
Arka Alok (BWR-5)
•It is also a bacterial wilt resistant variety developed through
pure line selection (IHR 719-1/6) out of an accession (CL114-5-
1-0) from AVRDC, Taiwan developed at IIHR, Bangalore.
•The plant habit is determinate with a duration of 125 days.
•The fruit weighs on an average of 100 g and is square round in
shape, thick fleshed with light green shoulder.
•It has an yield potential of 35 tonnes/ha.
•Developed at HAU, Hisar by selecting from the segregating
progenies of the cross S12 X Pusa Early Dwarf.
•It is an early variety with concentrated flowering and
•Fruits medium to small, round, juicy, thin pericarp,
recommended for cultivation in Haryana.
Hisar Lalit (NRT 8)
•Developed at HAU, Hisar by bybridization and
selection from a cross HS101 X Resistant Bangalore.
•The plants are semi-determinate, early with round
medium to large fruits, resistant to root-knot
•Recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode
Hisar Anmol (H24)
•It is a variety showing field resistance to tomato
leaf curl virus. Developed at HAU, Hisar through
selection from the cross Hisar Arun X L.hirsutum
•Plants are determinate, fruits medium in size, round,
red and fleshy.
•Another variety developed through pure line selection at
G.B.Pant University, Pant Nagar.
•Plants are semi-determinate, stem thick, round, hairy.
•Suitable for winter season, fruits medium, round and smooth.
•Recommended for Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and
•It is a new high yielding tomato variety developed at IIHR,
Bangalore through pedigree method of selection from a cross
between Arka Vikas and IHR 554 specifically suited for
•Under rainfed situation it recorded on an average 17.2
tonnes/ha compared to 10.9 tonnes/ha by Pusa Ruby.
•The individual fruit weight is 63 g. It has more thick and firm
flesh than Pusa Ruby.