An
Presentation
On
BREEDING OF TOMATO
by: lav kumar
Ph.D SCHOLAR
College of agriculture, raipur
Among the vegetables maximum attempts
have been made to improve this crop because
of its short duration, easy cultivation...
Origin and distribution
Tomato has its origin in Peru, Equador and Bolivia on
the basis of availability of numerous wild a...
Uses
•Tomato is also rich in medicinal value.
•The pulp and juice are digestible, mild aperients, a promoter
of gastric se...
TAXONOMY
Family- Solanceae
Linnaeus called it Solanum lycopersicon.
Miller: Lycopersicon esculentum
Now restored as Solanu...
Lycopersicon: (1) Eulycopersicon- Red
fruited edible species with carotenoid
pigmentation, annual and self compatible.
E.g...
L. cerassiformae is the immediate proginator
and L.hirsutum is ultimate proginator.
 Interspecific crosses between L. es...
BOTANY
Tomato plant is characterized by two types of plant:
Determinate type – inflorescence occurs more
frequently in alm...
Flowers are borne in small forked raceme
cyme. There are four to eight flowers in each
compound inflorescence. Flowers are...
The optimum temperature for pollination is
around 21 C.
Emasculation is usually done 1 day prior to
anthesis/flower ope...
BREEDING OBJECTIVES
 Earliness
 Increased fruit yield
 Fruit quality:
Large round fruit with adequate firmness and
shel...
Indeterminate cultivars for greenhouse
production
Resistance to diseases:
Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.
lycope...
Resistance to insects:
Fruit borer (Heliothis armigera)
White fly(Bemisia tabaci)
 Resistance to abiotic stresses:
Cold ...
BREEDING METHODS
1. INTRODUCTION: It consists of taking a
genotype or a group of genotypes of plants
into new environments...
2. PURE LINE SELECTION: A pure line is
progeny of single homozygous plant of self
pollinated species. Therefore, all the p...
3. SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD: Suited for
characteristics with low heritability (yield & yield
components, earliness) and ...
4. SINGLE PLANT SELECTION: single plant
seletion is used to select chance variants, off types,
superior types from mixed h...
6. Pedigree Method: Pedigree may be defined
as a description of the ancestors of an
individual and it generally goes back ...
7. Back Cross Method: A cross between a
hybrid (F1 or segregation) and one of its
parents is known as back cross. Hybrid
a...
8. Heterosis Breeding:
Though, tomato a self pollinated crop has a tremendous
potential for heterosis breeding. The commer...
9. Interspecific Hybridization:
L. peruvianum – Source of Resistance to
Verticillium wilt, TLCV, Nematodes and
Salinity.
L...
10. Mutation Breeding:
S12 (Pusa S12 ) – Sioux variety is exposed to
mutation.
Pusa Lal Meeruti – From Improved
Meeruti.
...
11. Polyploidy Breeding:
Not so much scope in tomato 0.2% Colchicine-
Tetraploids are sterile and fruit size was smaller.
...
Breeding for Storage life and
Processing type
Fruits with high acidity, uniform intense red colour, high TSS,
Resistance t...
Breeding for Resistance to Diseases
Bacterial wilt: Arka Abha, Arka Alok, PI 127805-A
(L.pimpinellifolium)
Leaf Curl Virus...
Other hybrids
Pusa Divya – Indeterminate type
Pusa Sadabahar- It can set fruit at wide range of
temperature (6-30⁰C).
Kash...
Varieties
Pusa Red Plum
•It has been evolved at the IARI by a cross between a
cultivated tomato and the wild L .pimpinelli...
Pusa Early Dwarf
•It is an early ripening selection from the cross
between 'Improved Meeruti' and 'Red Cloud' - a
typical ...
CO 3 (Marutham)
•It is an induced mutant from Co 1; a determinate type
suitable for close planting even as close as 30 cm ...
Arka Saurabh
•Developed by Indian Institute of Horticultural
Research, Bangalore, it is a high-yielding variety
exhibiting...
Arka Ahuti (Sel.11)
•It is pureline selection from 'Ottawa-60' developed at IIHR,
Bangalore.
•Plants are semi-determinate ...
Arka Ashish (IHR 674 SBSB)
•Developed at IIHR, Bangalore.
•It is an improvement over UC83 B from California.
•The plants a...
Hisar Arun (Sel-7)
•Developed at HAU, Hisar, by hybridization and
selection from a cross Pusa Early Dwarf X K1.
•Extremely...
Arka Alok (BWR-5)
•It is also a bacterial wilt resistant variety developed through
pure line selection (IHR 719-1/6) out o...
Hisar Lalit (NRT 8)
•Developed at HAU, Hisar by bybridization and
selection from a cross HS101 X Resistant Bangalore.
•The...
Pant T3
•Another variety developed through pure line selection at
G.B.Pant University, Pant Nagar.
•Plants are semi-determ...
Roma Variety Cherry Tomato
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
Tomato Breeding
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Tomato Breeding

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Tomato Breeding

  1. 1. An Presentation On BREEDING OF TOMATO by: lav kumar Ph.D SCHOLAR College of agriculture, raipur
  2. 2. Among the vegetables maximum attempts have been made to improve this crop because of its short duration, easy cultivation and large number of seeds per fruit and this has made it an ideal crop for many research workers. An exclusive Tomato Genetics Co-operative located in University of California, USA, published genetic information on crop and maintains a large number of collections which have already been thoroughly catalogued. . Introduction
  3. 3. Origin and distribution Tomato has its origin in Peru, Equador and Bolivia on the basis of availability of numerous wild and cultivated relatives of the tomato in this area.  From its centre of origin, the tomato first moved to Mexico for domestication and cultivation Area and production In India tomato grown in an area 4.58 lakh ha. And 74.62 lakh tonns respectively with a productivity of 16.29 tonns / ha. The leading producing states are UP, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana and Bihar.
  4. 4. Uses •Tomato is also rich in medicinal value. •The pulp and juice are digestible, mild aperients, a promoter of gastric secretion and blood purifier. •It is reported to have antiseptic properties against intestinal infestations. •In the present days, it is gaining more medicinal importance because of the antioxidant property of ascorbic acid and lycopene content. •It is also an important source of -carotene and valued for their colour and flavour. •Thus, today it is one of the important raw materials for multimillion food industries. Tomatoes are also called as “Poor man’s apple”. •Tomato is consumed either fresh, cooked or processed into various products like juice, ketchup, sauce, puree, whole canned fruit and is the main constituent of ‘pizzas’.
  5. 5. TAXONOMY Family- Solanceae Linnaeus called it Solanum lycopersicon. Miller: Lycopersicon esculentum Now restored as Solanum lycopersicon. Lykos= Wolf, persicon= peach.
  6. 6. Lycopersicon: (1) Eulycopersicon- Red fruited edible species with carotenoid pigmentation, annual and self compatible. E.g. L. esculentum and L. pimpinellifolium (2) Eriopersicon- Green fruitedspecies with anthocyanin pigmentation and self incompatible. E.g. L. hirsutum, L. peruvianum, L. cheesmani, L.chilense
  7. 7. L. cerassiformae is the immediate proginator and L.hirsutum is ultimate proginator.  Interspecific crosses between L. esculentum and L. pimpinellifolium are easily made.  Embryo abortion may occur between L. esculentum x L. peruvianum. However, this can be overcome through embryo rescue technique.  Chromosome Number: True diploid, 2n= 24. All species of Lycopersicon have 2n=24.
  8. 8. BOTANY Tomato plant is characterized by two types of plant: Determinate type – inflorescence occurs more frequently in almost every internode until terminal ones are formed and elongation ceases at this point. In other words, it may be defined as self-topping and the main axis terminates with a flower cluster. Indeterminate type- inflorescence cluster occurs at every third internode and the main axis continues growing indefinitely.
  9. 9. Flowers are borne in small forked raceme cyme. There are four to eight flowers in each compound inflorescence. Flowers are pendent, perfect, hypogynous. There is a light protective anther cone surrounding the stigma leading to self-pollination Dehiscence of anther is longitudinal, 1-2 days after opening of corolla.  If the pollen is shed as the style grows up through anther tube, self-fertilization occurs and when the stigma protrudes, chances of cross-pollination through bees increases.
  10. 10. The optimum temperature for pollination is around 21 C. Emasculation is usually done 1 day prior to anthesis/flower opening. At this stage, the sepals have started to separate and the anthers and corolla are beginning to change from light to dark yellow.  The stigma is fully receptive at this stage allowing for pollination even immediately after emasculation.  Protection of pollinated flowers by wrapping with cotton or small pollination bags is essential.
  11. 11. BREEDING OBJECTIVES  Earliness  Increased fruit yield  Fruit quality: Large round fruit with adequate firmness and shelf life, uniform fruit size, shape, red colour and freedom from external blemishes or abnormalities for fresh market Large fruit size, high fruit quality and continuous production for home garden tomatoes Deep, uniformly red coloured tomatoes, pH below 4.4, high TSS (4.5-7%) and high alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) in processing tomatoes
  12. 12. Indeterminate cultivars for greenhouse production Resistance to diseases: Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth) Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) Early blight (Alternaria solani) Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici) Anthracnose (Colletotrichum phomoides) Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) Bacterial canker (Corynebacterium michiganense) Tomato mosaic (Tobacco mosaic virus) Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
  13. 13. Resistance to insects: Fruit borer (Heliothis armigera) White fly(Bemisia tabaci)  Resistance to abiotic stresses: Cold set varieties Hot set varieties Drought tolerance Salt tolerance Low temperature germination and growth Chilling injury tolerance Herbicide tolerance
  14. 14. BREEDING METHODS 1. INTRODUCTION: It consists of taking a genotype or a group of genotypes of plants into new environments where they have not been grown before. Ex. Sioux from USA, Marglobe from USA.
  15. 15. 2. PURE LINE SELECTION: A pure line is progeny of single homozygous plant of self pollinated species. Therefore, all the plants in a pure line have the same genotype. Ex.Arka Vikas: (+ Rainfed), PLS from Tip-Top (USA) Arka Saurabh: PLS from V-685 (Canadian Breeding line) Arka Abha: (+bacterial wilt), PLS from VC- 8-12-1 (AVRDC, Thaiwan) Arka Alok: (+bacterial wilt), PLS from CL- 144-5-1-0 (AVRDC, Thaiwan) Arka Ahuti: (+processing), PLS from Ottawa-60 (Canada)
  16. 16. 3. SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD: Suited for characteristics with low heritability (yield & yield components, earliness) and in crops with wider spacing. •SSD is a modification of bulk method. •This is the classic procedure of having a single seed from each plant, bulking the individual seeds, and planting out the next generation. •With this procedure one or two seed are collected from each F2 plant and then bulk to grow F3 generation •SSD is a system to rapidly develop pure lines followed by selection among those pure lines
  17. 17. 4. SINGLE PLANT SELECTION: single plant seletion is used to select chance variants, off types, superior types from mixed homozygous population in self pollinated vegetable crops. This is one of effective method to make maximum use of germplasm. Eg: Earliana, Greater Baltimore and Bonny Best. 5. MASS SELECTION: Massing of IIHR-674 from VC-82 line from USA developed in to Arka Ashish (+ P.M. and processing ).
  18. 18. 6. Pedigree Method: Pedigree may be defined as a description of the ancestors of an individual and it generally goes back to some distant ancestor or ancestors in the past. Pedigree would describe the parents, grand- parents, great grand parents and so on.  It is useful by finding out if two individuals are related by descent, have a common parent in their ancestors and they have some genes in common. Eg: Arka Meghali of tomato PS (F8) of Arka Vikas x IHR 554 Pusa Ruby selection from Improved Meeruti x Sioux
  19. 19. 7. Back Cross Method: A cross between a hybrid (F1 or segregation) and one of its parents is known as back cross. Hybrid and the progenies in the subsequent generation are repeatedly back crossed to one of the parents.  Followed when character is governed by one/few genes.  For Early blight, Nematode and Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato.
  20. 20. 8. Heterosis Breeding: Though, tomato a self pollinated crop has a tremendous potential for heterosis breeding. The commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour in tomato has received greater importance on account of several advantages of hybrids over pure line varieties with response to marketable fruit yield and its component traits as well as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. That is why large number of commercial hybrids have been developed in the country in this crop. With increasing popularity of F1 hybrids in tomato, it is imperative to obtain such hybrids which have excellent qualities and yield coupled with resistance to diseases. Released F1 Hybrids: Arka Vishal (IHR-837 X IHR-932) Arka Vardan: IHR-550-3 X IHR-932 Arka Shreshta: 15-SBSB X IHR-1614 Arka Abhijit: 15-SBSB X IHR-1334
  21. 21. 9. Interspecific Hybridization: L. peruvianum – Source of Resistance to Verticillium wilt, TLCV, Nematodes and Salinity. L. pimpinellifolium – Source of Resistance to bacterial wilt, Fusarium wilt. Source of carotene and Vit-C content. L. hirsutum - Source of Resistance to Fusarium wilt, Helicoverpa insect and Virus. L. cheesmani - Good source for salinity resistance. L. pennelli - Drought resistance and salinity resistance.
  22. 22. 10. Mutation Breeding: S12 (Pusa S12 ) – Sioux variety is exposed to mutation. Pusa Lal Meeruti – From Improved Meeruti.  Seeds were exposed to 15-30 Kv. Of ϒ-rays. Natural mutants are also available in tomato like- Nr - (Never ripening) rin – Single recessive gene (Ripening inhibitor) nor – (Non-ripening) alc - (Slow ripening)
  23. 23. 11. Polyploidy Breeding: Not so much scope in tomato 0.2% Colchicine- Tetraploids are sterile and fruit size was smaller. 12. Biotechnology: (i)Antisense RNA for Polygalactourinase (PGU) enzyme. (The cell wall degrading enzyme. Activity appears at the onset of ripening and in ripe fruit it is one of the major cell-wall- bound proteins.) Eg. FLAVR SAVR Variety available in market. (ii) Viral Coat Protein – Introduced gene which can synthesize the protein which coats the virus material. Eg. Avinash-1 and Avinash-2 varieties. (iii) Herbicide Resistance:- Gene which can resist that herbicide. Means variety should not be affected but weeds should be cleared. Insect Resistance: Eg. ‘Bt’ for Helicoverpa(fruit borer) resistance.
  24. 24. Breeding for Storage life and Processing type Fruits with high acidity, uniform intense red colour, high TSS, Resistance to cracking, elongated fruits with high yield. Plants should be adopted to mechanical harvesting with determinate habit, concentrated fruit set for once harvesting only and jointless pedicel on fruit etc. Varieties – Roma, Punjab Chuhara, Arka Ahuti, Arka Ashish Juice and Canning purpose: Roma, Son Marzano, Red Top, HS-110 Puree preparation: Indo Process-II, Indo Process-III, Rupali Paste and Ketchup: HS 101, HS 110.
  25. 25. Breeding for Resistance to Diseases Bacterial wilt: Arka Abha, Arka Alok, PI 127805-A (L.pimpinellifolium) Leaf Curl Virus : L. peruvianum & L. hirsutum. Resistant Varieties: Nandi, Vaibhav, Sankranthi. Nematodes: ‘Mi’ gene carries resistance to nematodes, located on chromosome No. 6 in tomato. PI 128657 (L.peruvianum), Neematex (not infected by all three races of RKN), Arka Vardan (F1 hybrid), NTDR-1, PNR-7, Pusa-120 etc. Hybrids : Determinate type: ARTH-3, Pusa Hybrid-2, NARF-101, Swarna-12, NDTH-6, Nath Amruth-501, DTH-4 Indeterminate type: ARTH-4, FM-2, KT-4, MTH-6,FM-1, Nath Amruth-601, NDTH-2.
  26. 26. Other hybrids Pusa Divya – Indeterminate type Pusa Sadabahar- It can set fruit at wide range of temperature (6-30⁰C). Kashi Hybrid-1 and Kashi Vishesh (H-86) – from IIVR, Varanasi Pusa Hybrid-8: Determinate hybrid from IARI, New Delhi. Arka Ananya: Semi-determinate and resistant to leaf curl virus.
  27. 27. Varieties Pusa Red Plum •It has been evolved at the IARI by a cross between a cultivated tomato and the wild L .pimpinellifolium. •It is an early variety suitable for table use. •The fruits are small, borne in clusters with red colour and high vitamin C and sugar content. •The plants are tall, with determinate growth habit, vigorous and high yielding. Pusa Early Dwarf •It is an early ripening selection from the cross between 'Improved Meeruti' and 'Red Cloud' - a typical dwarf type with medium large fruits of uniform colour. •It has been observed to do well in both the seasons, and yields up to 395 q/ha.
  28. 28. Pusa Early Dwarf •It is an early ripening selection from the cross between 'Improved Meeruti' and 'Red Cloud' - a typical dwarf type with medium large fruits of uniform colour. •It has been observed to do well in both the seasons, and yields up to 395 q/ha. CO 2 •It is a selection from a Russian introduction. It is an indeterminate variety. •The fruits are flat with 4-5 furrows. •Each fruit weighs on an average 55-60 g. •Ripe fruits are deep orange red in colour, its duration is 140 days and the yield is 28-30 tonnes/ha.
  29. 29. CO 3 (Marutham) •It is an induced mutant from Co 1; a determinate type suitable for close planting even as close as 30 cm x 30 cm. •Fruits are round in shape with four light grooves and capsicum red in colour. •It is a cluster bearing type capable of yielding as high as 40 tonnes/ha under a close spacing in a duration of 100-105 days. PKM 1 •This is another induced mutant from a local variety called Annanji. •The fruits are flat-round with prominent green shoulder and capsicum red colour. •It is suitable for long distance transport. •It yields about 30-35 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 135 days.
  30. 30. Arka Saurabh •Developed by Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, it is a high-yielding variety exhibiting 30-35% higher yield than "Pusa Ruby'. •It is semi-determinate, bears very firm, deep red, medium-sized fruits with smooth skin and thick flesh. •The fruits are round with nipple tip. •It has very good transport and keeping quality, 8-10 days at room temperature amongst the round-fruited varieties. •It has an excellent blend of sugar and acidity and is very suitably both for •fresh and processing purposes particularly for ketchup and juice-making.
  31. 31. Arka Ahuti (Sel.11) •It is pureline selection from 'Ottawa-60' developed at IIHR, Bangalore. •Plants are semi-determinate with a duration of 135 days. •The fruits are oblong, thick fleshed, bilocular and uniform ripening. •The fruits have a TSS of 5.25% with an acidity of 0.35%. •It has an yield potential of 45 tonnes/ha. Arka Abha (BWR-1) •This is from line selection (IHR 638-12) from a SSD derived line got from AVRDC, Taiwan (VC8-1-2-1). •The semi determinate vines bear oblate fruits with an average fruit weight of 75 g with light green shoulder. •It is resistant to bacterial wilt and is capable of yielding 25 tonnes/ha. in 135 days.
  32. 32. Arka Ashish (IHR 674 SBSB) •Developed at IIHR, Bangalore. •It is an improvement over UC83 B from California. •The plants are determinate with concentrated fruit maturity. •The fruits are uniform ripening, very firm, bilocular, oval and the ripened fruits store well on the vine. •It is tolerant to powdery mildew. The colour is excellent (Lycopene 10 mg/100g), TSS is 4.8% and with low acidity (0.35%), it makes excellent ketchup, juice and puree. •It yields 35 tonnes/ha. in 130 days HS101 •Developed at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar by hybridization (Sel 2-3 X Exotic culture) and selecting in the segregating progenies. •The plants are determinate, dwarf, fruit medium sized, round, borne in cluster of 2-3, juicy, suitable for winter season for northern region.
  33. 33. Hisar Arun (Sel-7) •Developed at HAU, Hisar, by hybridization and selection from a cross Pusa Early Dwarf X K1. •Extremely early and high yielding, plants are determinate, dwarf in stature with concentrated flowering and fruiting; fruits medium to large, round, deep red, recommended for cultivation in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Maharashtra. Hisar Lalima (Sel-18) •Developed from the segregating population of a cross Pusa Early Dwarf X HS101 at HAU, Hisar. •An early variety. Plants are determinate, leaves have deep cut, fruits are round, large, fleshy, high yielding
  34. 34. Arka Alok (BWR-5) •It is also a bacterial wilt resistant variety developed through pure line selection (IHR 719-1/6) out of an accession (CL114-5- 1-0) from AVRDC, Taiwan developed at IIHR, Bangalore. •The plant habit is determinate with a duration of 125 days. •The fruit weighs on an average of 100 g and is square round in shape, thick fleshed with light green shoulder. •It has an yield potential of 35 tonnes/ha. HS102 •Developed at HAU, Hisar by selecting from the segregating progenies of the cross S12 X Pusa Early Dwarf. •It is an early variety with concentrated flowering and fruiting. •Fruits medium to small, round, juicy, thin pericarp, recommended for cultivation in Haryana.
  35. 35. Hisar Lalit (NRT 8) •Developed at HAU, Hisar by bybridization and selection from a cross HS101 X Resistant Bangalore. •The plants are semi-determinate, early with round medium to large fruits, resistant to root-knot nematode. •Recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested area. Hisar Anmol (H24) •It is a variety showing field resistance to tomato leaf curl virus. Developed at HAU, Hisar through selection from the cross Hisar Arun X L.hirsutum f.glabratum. •Plants are determinate, fruits medium in size, round, red and fleshy.
  36. 36. Pant T3 •Another variety developed through pure line selection at G.B.Pant University, Pant Nagar. •Plants are semi-determinate, stem thick, round, hairy. •Suitable for winter season, fruits medium, round and smooth. •Recommended for Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra Arka Meghali •It is a new high yielding tomato variety developed at IIHR, Bangalore through pedigree method of selection from a cross between Arka Vikas and IHR 554 specifically suited for rainfed cultivation. •Under rainfed situation it recorded on an average 17.2 tonnes/ha compared to 10.9 tonnes/ha by Pusa Ruby. •The individual fruit weight is 63 g. It has more thick and firm flesh than Pusa Ruby.
  37. 37. Roma Variety Cherry Tomato

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