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Banana
Introduction 
• Food security in the broad spectrum encompasses 
issues of : 
– Food availability 
– Food accessibility 
–...
Features 
• Increase in food demand – increase 
population. 
• Competition for resource use - agricultural 
vs. non-agricu...
Banana in Malaysia 
• Most important fresh fruits 
Durian > Pineapple > Banana 
• Main producing areas 
– Pahang: Raub & L...
Scientific Classification 
• Family : Musaceae 
• Genus : Musa 
• Species : Musa acuminata 
Desert banana ( A genome ) 
Mu...
Climate 
• Suitable to the tropical climate with small temperature 
fluctuations from day to night and throughout the year...
Soil 
• Rich which means high fertility status & organic matter 
content. 
– 40 % clay, 75 % silt, 85 % loam. 
• Suitable ...
Desert – Pisang Berangan ( AA ) 
• Each bunch has 8 -12 hands and weighed 12 – 20 kg. 
• Every hand has 12 -20 fingers. 
•...
Desert – Cavendish ( AAA ) 
• The most popular cultivar grown is Montel, Comel, Cabana 
and Sun King. 
• Each bunch has 15...
Propagation 
Method 
Conventional In Vitro Planting 
Tissue Culture 
BIT 
( Corm / 
Rhizome) 
Suckers 
Sword 
Suckers 
Wat...
Sword Sucker Water Sucker
Banana Corm
Planting Materials - 
Conventional 
• The bit ( corms / rhizome ) – flesh structure at 
the base of the plant. 
– Function...
• Suckers – vegetative shoots which develop 
from the root stalk of corm. 
• Young plants which grow at the base of the 
p...
• Sword suckers 
– Robust conical in shape. 
– Large suckers with narrow leaves & large rhizome. 
– Best material planting...
Peepers Plant Morphology
Planting Materials – 
In - vitro 
• In vitro techniques 
– Process of tissue culture from parent plant to 
produce young p...
Advantages of in - vitro 
i. Large number of planting materials can be produced 
within a short time. 
ii. Ensures uniform...
Disadvantages of in - vitro 
i. High initial cost 
ii. Intensive initial care 
iii. Transmission of virus 
iv. Physical in...
Land Preparation 
• Selected land must be cleared from any 
vegetation, ploughed and harrowed. 
• Followed by lining and h...
Planting System & Planting 
Distance 
• Inter cropping with permanent crops 
– Recommended planting distance 3 m x 3 m 
– ...
Holling & Planting 
• Size of planting holes is 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm. 
• Allow holes to weather for 2 – 4 weeks. 
• About...
Pest & 
Diseases 
Pests 
Corm Weevil / 
Weevil Borer 
Fruit 
Fly 
Stem Borer, 
Weevil 
Nematoda 
Diseases 
Sigatoka 
Leaf ...
Fertilizer Application Program 
Time of Application Type of Fertilizer Rate (kg) / 
Plant 
At planting CIRP 
Organic ferti...
Pruning 
• Leaves of the banana plant need to be pruned regularly. 
• Type of fronds / leaves to be pruned: 
– Dead fronds...
Desuckering or Thinning of the Suckers 
• Process of removing unwanted suckers. 
• Involve in the selection of the suckers...
Bunch Management – Bunch Propping 
• Bunch propping is done to support banana 
plants with bamboos or wooden poles. 
• The...
Bunch Management – Bunch Propping 
Deflowering 
• Removal the “Bell” – the purple male flower petals 
at the end of the bu...
• Fruit bunches normally ready to be harvested 
in 7 -9 weeks after bell formation. 
• The time for harvesting depends on ...
• For short distance transport, 90 % maturity 
could be used. 
• For long distance transport such as by ship, 
75 % maturi...
Maturation Periods 
Variety Maturation Period 
( Weeks After Shooting) 
Cavendish (AAA) 20 – 23 
Berangan (AA) 11 – 14 
Na...
Harvesting Indices 
Ripeness 
Index 
Fruit Colour Characteristics 
1 Dark green Fruits is unripe and not suitable yet to b...
Harvesting Method 
• Mechanical harvesting system use cable that 
can run the banana from field to the processing 
house. ...
Average Production 
Variety 1st Year 
( mt / ha) 
2nd Year 
( mt / ha) 
3rd Year 
( mt / ha) 
Berangan (AA) 13 26 24 
Embu...
Post Harvest Operations 
Removal of 
pronounced 
ridges 
Dehanding 
Washing, 
delatexing & 
fungicide 
treatment 
Drying 
...
Banana Production - 
Requirement 
• Knowledge grower 
• Systematic management
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Banana

  1. 1. Banana
  2. 2. Introduction • Food security in the broad spectrum encompasses issues of : – Food availability – Food accessibility – Food affordability – Food safety • Known as AAA’S
  3. 3. Features • Increase in food demand – increase population. • Competition for resource use - agricultural vs. non-agricultural • Occurrence of calamities – climate change • Technology needs – productivity enhancement • Changing trends in food habit – Raw vs. Processed.
  4. 4. Banana in Malaysia • Most important fresh fruits Durian > Pineapple > Banana • Main producing areas – Pahang: Raub & Lipis – Perak: Parit, Kuala Kangsar & Larut Matang – Johor: Kulang, Pontian & Batu Pahat • Varieties planted more than 70 species.
  5. 5. Scientific Classification • Family : Musaceae • Genus : Musa • Species : Musa acuminata Desert banana ( A genome ) Musa balbisiana Plantain / cooking banana ( B genome )
  6. 6. Climate • Suitable to the tropical climate with small temperature fluctuations from day to night and throughout the year. • Temperature: determine the rate of banana growth & developemnet. – 21̊C – 32̊C • Rainfall: crop has high water demand. – Average requirement = 2000 mm – 2500 mm / year – Evenly distributed throughout the year. – 8 – 12 liter per day.
  7. 7. Soil • Rich which means high fertility status & organic matter content. – 40 % clay, 75 % silt, 85 % loam. • Suitable soil series: – Tok Yong Series, Penambang Series, Kerayong Series, Beserah Series, Kuantan Series, Gong Chenak Series. • Optimum soil pH is 6.0 – 7.5. • Low soil pH makes banana more susceptible to Panama disease.
  8. 8. Desert – Pisang Berangan ( AA ) • Each bunch has 8 -12 hands and weighed 12 – 20 kg. • Every hand has 12 -20 fingers. • Medium to large size fingers ranges 12 – 18 cm in length and 2.5 – 3.5 cm in thickness. • Fruit skin is thick, smooth and yellow in colour when ripen. • It has yellowish orange, pleasant aroma and sweet flesh.
  9. 9. Desert – Cavendish ( AAA ) • The most popular cultivar grown is Montel, Comel, Cabana and Sun King. • Each bunch has 15 – 25 hands and weighed more than 20 kg. • Large size fingers range 15 – 22 cm in length and 3.5 – 4.5 cm in thickness. • Fruit skin is thick, smooth and yellow in colour when ripen. • It has white, fine texture, pleasant aroma and sweet flesh.
  10. 10. Propagation Method Conventional In Vitro Planting Tissue Culture BIT ( Corm / Rhizome) Suckers Sword Suckers Water Suckers
  11. 11. Sword Sucker Water Sucker
  12. 12. Banana Corm
  13. 13. Planting Materials - Conventional • The bit ( corms / rhizome ) – flesh structure at the base of the plant. – Functioning as a food storage. • Banana root systems arise from the corm. • Suckers develop from the newer portion of the corm.
  14. 14. • Suckers – vegetative shoots which develop from the root stalk of corm. • Young plants which grow at the base of the parent plant. • There are 3 types of suckers: – Peepers – Sword suckers – Water suckers
  15. 15. • Sword suckers – Robust conical in shape. – Large suckers with narrow leaves & large rhizome. – Best material planting material. • Water suckers – Poorly developed suckers. – Broad leaves, weak & narrow pseudostem. – Small corms. – Lack of vigor and not recommended as planting material.
  16. 16. Peepers Plant Morphology
  17. 17. Planting Materials – In - vitro • In vitro techniques – Process of tissue culture from parent plant to produce young plantlets as planting materials. • The processed to be done in a sterile condition. • Mostly utilized by the big and established plantations company.
  18. 18. Advantages of in - vitro i. Large number of planting materials can be produced within a short time. ii. Ensures uniformity of size, shape and time of harvest. iii. Healthy & vigorous growth. iv. Shorter harvesting period. v. Produce high yield potential. vi. Pest and diseases tolerant if planted on clean uninfected soil.
  19. 19. Disadvantages of in - vitro i. High initial cost ii. Intensive initial care iii. Transmission of virus iv. Physical instability in the field
  20. 20. Land Preparation • Selected land must be cleared from any vegetation, ploughed and harrowed. • Followed by lining and holing according to planting system and planting distance selected. • Square, rectangle / triangle planting systems are recommended.
  21. 21. Planting System & Planting Distance • Inter cropping with permanent crops – Recommended planting distance 3 m x 3 m – 1 111 plants / ha • Monoculture crop – Recommended planting distance is 3.0 m x 1.5 m – 2 222 plants / ha
  22. 22. Holling & Planting • Size of planting holes is 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm. • Allow holes to weather for 2 – 4 weeks. • About 100 g of Christmas Island Rock Phosphate (CIRP), 5 – 10 kg of organic fertilizer and 30 g of Furadan are incorparated into each planting hole. • Plant seedling with minimal disturbance to the roots. • Soil around the plant should be tramped down firmly to remove air pockets.
  23. 23. Pest & Diseases Pests Corm Weevil / Weevil Borer Fruit Fly Stem Borer, Weevil Nematoda Diseases Sigatoka Leaf Fusarium Wilt Mycosphaerella musicola Fusarium oxysporium
  24. 24. Fertilizer Application Program Time of Application Type of Fertilizer Rate (kg) / Plant At planting CIRP Organic fertilizer 0.1 10 1 month after planting 15:15:15 or 14:14:14 0.3 3 months after planting 15:15:15 or 14:14:14 0.4 5 -6 months after planting 12:12:17:2 or 12:16:22:3 0.5
  25. 25. Pruning • Leaves of the banana plant need to be pruned regularly. • Type of fronds / leaves to be pruned: – Dead fronds – Diseased fronds – Too close to the fruit brunch • To avoid fruit damage ( bruising). • To enable free air circulation around the developing fruits. • The pruned leaves are gathered in a selected site (in between the planting rows) – Provides natural mulch to the plants.
  26. 26. Desuckering or Thinning of the Suckers • Process of removing unwanted suckers. • Involve in the selection of the suckers to be removed and that to be maintained as ratoon. • Proper desuckering enable farmer to regulate cropping whether to plant or program the harvesting seasons. • Reduce unnecessary competition among suckers. • Quality of bunches can also be improved.
  27. 27. Bunch Management – Bunch Propping • Bunch propping is done to support banana plants with bamboos or wooden poles. • Therefore, 2 bamboos should be propped by placing 1 against the top of the bunch and the other one is against the stem on the leaning side.
  28. 28. Bunch Management – Bunch Propping Deflowering • Removal the “Bell” – the purple male flower petals at the end of the bunch. – Also known as “banana blosson” / “banana heart”. • It is cut off once the distance between the distal hand and the top of the bell is at least 15 cm at 8 - 12 days after bunch emergence.
  29. 29. • Fruit bunches normally ready to be harvested in 7 -9 weeks after bell formation. • The time for harvesting depends on the intended marketing strategy. • Fruits for immediate marketing and foe local consumption are harvested when they are matured.
  30. 30. • For short distance transport, 90 % maturity could be used. • For long distance transport such as by ship, 75 % maturity is normally used. • There are several criteria that can be used as a guidance when harvesting the bananas such as:
  31. 31. Maturation Periods Variety Maturation Period ( Weeks After Shooting) Cavendish (AAA) 20 – 23 Berangan (AA) 11 – 14 Nangka (AAB) 22 Awak (ABB) 8
  32. 32. Harvesting Indices Ripeness Index Fruit Colour Characteristics 1 Dark green Fruits is unripe and not suitable yet to be harvested. 2 Green with a little bit yellow Fruit is almost matured, can be harvested for a long transportation journey through ships. 3 More green than yellow Fruit is fully matured. Not suitable to be harvested for a long transportation journey. 4 More yellow than green The fruit is almost ripe. Only suitable for the local market. 5 Yellow with a little bit at the fruit tips The fruit is ripe. Only suitable for the local market. 6 Yellow The fruit is ripe. Only suitable for the local market. The best stage to be eaten freshly. 7 Yellow orangish The fruit is overripe. Only suitable for local market die to short shelf life.
  33. 33. Harvesting Method • Mechanical harvesting system use cable that can run the banana from field to the processing house. • Advantages: – Faster – Easier – Less damage to the harvested bunches
  34. 34. Average Production Variety 1st Year ( mt / ha) 2nd Year ( mt / ha) 3rd Year ( mt / ha) Berangan (AA) 13 26 24 Embun (AAA) 18 36 30 Mas (AA) 8 16 14
  35. 35. Post Harvest Operations Removal of pronounced ridges Dehanding Washing, delatexing & fungicide treatment Drying Packing Grading Pre - cooling Removal of air & ethylene Storage Transportation Banana ripening room
  36. 36. Banana Production - Requirement • Knowledge grower • Systematic management
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biology of economic agriculture

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