• Food security in the broad spectrum encompasses
issues of :
– Food availability
– Food accessibility
– Food affordability
– Food safety
• Known as AAA’S
• Increase in food demand – increase
• Competition for resource use - agricultural
• Occurrence of calamities – climate change
• Technology needs – productivity
• Changing trends in food habit – Raw vs.
Banana in Malaysia
• Most important fresh fruits
Durian > Pineapple > Banana
• Main producing areas
– Pahang: Raub & Lipis
– Perak: Parit, Kuala Kangsar & Larut Matang
– Johor: Kulang, Pontian & Batu Pahat
• Varieties planted more than 70 species.
• Family : Musaceae
• Genus : Musa
• Species : Musa acuminata
Desert banana ( A genome )
Plantain / cooking banana ( B genome )
• Suitable to the tropical climate with small temperature
fluctuations from day to night and throughout the year.
• Temperature: determine the rate of banana growth &
– 21̊C – 32̊C
• Rainfall: crop has high water demand.
– Average requirement = 2000 mm – 2500 mm / year
– Evenly distributed throughout the year.
– 8 – 12 liter per day.
• Rich which means high fertility status & organic matter
– 40 % clay, 75 % silt, 85 % loam.
• Suitable soil series:
– Tok Yong Series, Penambang Series, Kerayong Series,
Beserah Series, Kuantan Series, Gong Chenak Series.
• Optimum soil pH is 6.0 – 7.5.
• Low soil pH makes banana more susceptible to Panama
Desert – Pisang Berangan ( AA )
• Each bunch has 8 -12 hands and weighed 12 – 20 kg.
• Every hand has 12 -20 fingers.
• Medium to large size fingers ranges 12 – 18 cm in length
and 2.5 – 3.5 cm in thickness.
• Fruit skin is thick, smooth and yellow in colour when
• It has yellowish orange, pleasant aroma and sweet flesh.
Desert – Cavendish ( AAA )
• The most popular cultivar grown is Montel, Comel, Cabana
and Sun King.
• Each bunch has 15 – 25 hands and weighed more than 20
• Large size fingers range 15 – 22 cm in length and 3.5 – 4.5
cm in thickness.
• Fruit skin is thick, smooth and yellow in colour when ripen.
• It has white, fine texture, pleasant aroma and sweet flesh.
Conventional In Vitro Planting
( Corm /
Planting Materials -
• The bit ( corms / rhizome ) – flesh structure at
the base of the plant.
– Functioning as a food storage.
• Banana root systems arise from the corm.
• Suckers develop from the newer portion of the
• Suckers – vegetative shoots which develop
from the root stalk of corm.
• Young plants which grow at the base of the
• There are 3 types of suckers:
– Sword suckers
– Water suckers
• Sword suckers
– Robust conical in shape.
– Large suckers with narrow leaves & large rhizome.
– Best material planting material.
• Water suckers
– Poorly developed suckers.
– Broad leaves, weak & narrow pseudostem.
– Small corms.
– Lack of vigor and not recommended as planting material.
Planting Materials –
In - vitro
• In vitro techniques
– Process of tissue culture from parent plant to
produce young plantlets as planting materials.
• The processed to be done in a sterile condition.
• Mostly utilized by the big and established plantations
Advantages of in - vitro
i. Large number of planting materials can be produced
within a short time.
ii. Ensures uniformity of size, shape and time of harvest.
iii. Healthy & vigorous growth.
iv. Shorter harvesting period.
v. Produce high yield potential.
vi. Pest and diseases tolerant if planted on clean uninfected
Disadvantages of in - vitro
i. High initial cost
ii. Intensive initial care
iii. Transmission of virus
iv. Physical instability in the field
• Selected land must be cleared from any
vegetation, ploughed and harrowed.
• Followed by lining and holing according to
planting system and planting distance
• Square, rectangle / triangle planting systems
Planting System & Planting
• Inter cropping with permanent crops
– Recommended planting distance 3 m x 3 m
– 1 111 plants / ha
• Monoculture crop
– Recommended planting distance is 3.0 m x 1.5 m
– 2 222 plants / ha
Holling & Planting
• Size of planting holes is 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm.
• Allow holes to weather for 2 – 4 weeks.
• About 100 g of Christmas Island Rock Phosphate (CIRP),
5 – 10 kg of organic fertilizer and 30 g of Furadan are
incorparated into each planting hole.
• Plant seedling with minimal disturbance to the roots.
• Soil around the plant should be tramped down firmly to
remove air pockets.
Fertilizer Application Program
Time of Application Type of Fertilizer Rate (kg) /
At planting CIRP
1 month after planting 15:15:15 or 14:14:14 0.3
3 months after planting 15:15:15 or 14:14:14 0.4
5 -6 months after
12:12:17:2 or 12:16:22:3 0.5
• Leaves of the banana plant need to be pruned regularly.
• Type of fronds / leaves to be pruned:
– Dead fronds
– Diseased fronds
– Too close to the fruit brunch
• To avoid fruit damage ( bruising).
• To enable free air circulation around the developing fruits.
• The pruned leaves are gathered in a selected site (in between
the planting rows)
– Provides natural mulch to the plants.
Desuckering or Thinning of the Suckers
• Process of removing unwanted suckers.
• Involve in the selection of the suckers to be removed
and that to be maintained as ratoon.
• Proper desuckering enable farmer to regulate cropping
whether to plant or program the harvesting seasons.
• Reduce unnecessary competition among suckers.
• Quality of bunches can also be improved.
Bunch Management – Bunch Propping
• Bunch propping is done to support banana
plants with bamboos or wooden poles.
• Therefore, 2 bamboos should be propped by
placing 1 against the top of the bunch and the
other one is against the stem on the leaning
Bunch Management – Bunch Propping
• Removal the “Bell” – the purple male flower petals
at the end of the bunch.
– Also known as “banana blosson” / “banana heart”.
• It is cut off once the distance between the distal
hand and the top of the bell is at least 15 cm at 8 -
12 days after bunch emergence.
• Fruit bunches normally ready to be harvested
in 7 -9 weeks after bell formation.
• The time for harvesting depends on the
intended marketing strategy.
• Fruits for immediate marketing and foe local
consumption are harvested when they are
• For short distance transport, 90 % maturity
could be used.
• For long distance transport such as by ship,
75 % maturity is normally used.
• There are several criteria that can be used as
a guidance when harvesting the bananas
Variety Maturation Period
( Weeks After Shooting)
Cavendish (AAA) 20 – 23
Berangan (AA) 11 – 14
Nangka (AAB) 22
Awak (ABB) 8
Fruit Colour Characteristics
1 Dark green Fruits is unripe and not suitable yet to be harvested.
2 Green with a little bit yellow Fruit is almost matured, can be harvested for a long
transportation journey through ships.
3 More green than yellow Fruit is fully matured. Not suitable to be harvested for a long
4 More yellow than green The fruit is almost ripe. Only suitable for the local market.
5 Yellow with a little bit at the
The fruit is ripe. Only suitable for the local market.
6 Yellow The fruit is ripe. Only suitable for the local market. The best
stage to be eaten freshly.
7 Yellow orangish The fruit is overripe. Only suitable for local market die to
short shelf life.
• Mechanical harvesting system use cable that
can run the banana from field to the processing
– Less damage to the harvested bunches
Variety 1st Year
( mt / ha)
( mt / ha)
( mt / ha)
Berangan (AA) 13 26 24
Embun (AAA) 18 36 30
Mas (AA) 8 16 14
Post Harvest Operations
Packing Grading Pre -