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System of Rice Intensification (SRI) -
3 years of experience from Mali
Introducing SRI to Haiti
Erika Styger
SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice)
6 Principles of SRI
1. Transplant single seedlings
2. Transplanting at young age:
2 leaf stage (8-12 days old)
3. Wide spacing: 25cm x 25cm
or wider, planted in line
4. Minimum water application
during vegetative growth
5. Use mechanical hand
weeder
6. Application of organic
matter as base fertilization
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Timbuktu region
Climate: Sahelo-
Saharien/Saharien
• 150-200 mm rain/yr
• Annual mean temp:
29.1°C (13°- 43°C)
Food insecurity:
>70% communes
are among most
vulnerable in Mali
Irrigated rice in the Timbuktu region
Village Irrigation Perimeter
30-35 ha - 1 motor pump
Shared among 100 farmers
0.33 ha / farmer
SRI in 2007 - Exploratory test
• NGO Africare has worked
for 12 years on food security
in the Timbuktu region
• 1 volunteer farmer tried SRI
• Farmers from surrounding
villages participated in a
field visit
• Farmers’ recommendation:
To evaluate SRI at larger
scale in 2008
• Yield:
SRI 9 t/ha, Control 6.7 t/ha
Objectives for SRI in 2008
• Adapted the SRI
principals to agro-
ecological conditions
of Goundam and
Dire, Timbuktu
region
• Comparison of SRI
practices with farmer
practices
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
Year 2: Methodology
• 5 volunteer farmers per village
x 12 villages = 60 farmers
• 2 treatments: i) SRI ii) control plot
with farmers’ best practices
• SRI and control plot: side by side
• Started rice nursery on the same
day with the same seeds (variety)
• Farmers had free choice of rice
variety to plant
• Technical follow-up and data
collection by solid technical team
• Exchange visits
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Soil preparation of SRI plots
1. Application of manure (10-15 t/ha)
4. Land leveling
3. Breaking up chunks of soil
2. Soil tilling by hand or tractor
SRI nursery
• Mixed clay, sand and manure
• Sowing after soaking seeds for 24h
• Seedlings appeared after 2 days
• Transplanting young seedlings after 8 to
12 days (at 2 leaf-stage)
Transplanting
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
SRI Irrigation
During vegetative period, followed practice of
Alternate Wetting and Drying
• Introduced 1-2 cm of water
• Let the plot dry until cracks became
visible, then
• Introduced another thin layer a water,
with this cycle repeating
Cono-weeding
• First weeding at 20 days after
transplanting, then repeat every
7 to 10 days
• This incorporates weeds into soil
– Also aerates the soil
– Stimulates root growth, and
– Redistributes water across plot
Weeding with Sri Lankan Cono-Weeder
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Fields of Asseydou Alhassane, Hara-Hara
30 days after nursery establishment
SRI
Control
plot
Plant development I
Higher tiller number per plant with SRI
SRI
Control
Faster growth and shorter crop cycle
ControlSRI
Plant development II
SRI
SRI Control
Control
Results: Timbuktu, 2008 (N = 60)
• Yield increased from 5.5 t/ha to 9.1 t/ha (+66%)
• Less seed was required: by 85% to 90%
Quantity used for SRI: 6.1 kg/ha compared to
Quantity used in usual farmer practice: 40-60 kg/ha
• Reduced fertilizer use by 30%
• Reduced irrigation water use by 10%-30%
• Reduced production costs / kg paddy: 30%
• Increased revenue per hectare: more than double
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Scaling up SRI (2009) - 5 regions in Mali
• Timbuktu
NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers
OLD: 21 villages, 250 farmers
• Gao
– 8 villages, 39 farmers
• Mopti
– 6 villages, 44 farmers
• Segou
– 2 villages, 37 farmers
• Sikasso
– 3 villages, 10 farmers
57 villages, 472 farmers
Africare, IICEM (USAID), Syngenta Development Foundation,
IER (National Research Institute), Ministry of Agriculture
Scaling up SRI practices: Year 3
• Communities and farmers take
full responsibility for scaling up!
• They decide on the number of
farmers and on training of new
farmers
• Go from 60 to 250 farmers (2008
to 2009), from 12 to 27 villages
• Technical support reduced
Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
SRI yields, Mali 2009
SRI Farmer plot SRI yield over
(t/ha) (t/ha) farmer plots
Africare farmers
240 farmers Timbuktu 7.7 4.5 . +72%
IICEM farmers
38 farmers Gao 7.8 5.6 . +40%
28 farmers Mopti 7.8 4.8 . +64%
36 farmers Timbuktu (other areas) 7 4.2 . +68%
342 farmers 3 regions 7.6 4.8 . +58%
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
SRI for rainfed and
lowland systems in Southern Mali
Four rice systems are found in Sikasso region
• Upland rice
• Lowland rice - high zone
• Lowland rice - medium zone
• Lowland rice - low zone
Checking the SRI principles
• 1 plant: yes (by direct
seeding of 2-3 seeds, then
thinning to 1 plant)
• Young transplant: Direct
seeding has same effect
• Wide spacing: yes
• Water control: not possible
• Mechanical weeder: to be
tested
• Organic matter: yes
SRI plot
Traditional plot
Results from adapted SRI
Yields (t/ha) from
rainfed/lowland
systems:
• SRI : 4.2 t/ha
• Control: 3.0 t/ha
= 40% increase
Non-SRI SRI
IICEM project, IER (research center) and Ministry of Agriculture
SRI for Wheat
SWI Traditional
System of Wheat Intensification (SWI)
Africare, Ministry of Agriculture, IER, and CAFON (private sector)
SRI with African Rice Varieties
Tested Oryza glaberrima - Africa rice
Raised yield from 2 t/ha to 4.5 t/ha
Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
SRI Potential for West Africa?
64%
32%
3% 1%
West Africa
Eastern Africa
Central Africa
Southern Africa
Each dot represents 20,000 tons Data: FAO
Rice production, 2006
Production of rice in
Sub-Saharan Africa
Ref: Warda (2008) Africa rice trends 2007
1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
Rice production and consumption in
Sub-Saharan Africa, 1961-2006
Production
Consumption 40%
imported
SRI In West Africa since 2001
• Benin 2001: 1 plot managed by govt. technician with
former ECHO intern: SRI gave 7.5 t/ha - no follow up?
• The Gambia 2002-2005: Research trials and some
on-farm work: SRI yields 5.4-8.3 t/ha
• Guinea 2003: hybrid varieties introduced by China Natl.
Hybrid Rice Research & Dev Center with SRI: 9 t/ha
• Senegal 2003-2009: Peace Corps Volunteer on-farm
trials, reported by Rodale Institute; dissertation
research under WARDA auspices
• Sierra Leone 2004: World Vision in-village evaluation:
5.3 t/ha vs 2.5 t/ha
• Burkina 2006: 6 farmers in Bobo: SRI 7 t/ha vs 3.5 t/ha
• Ghana: 2007-2009 private farmer initiative: 4.18t/ha
• Mali: 2007-2010 : 3 projects, 5 regions, 450 farmers
http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html
Rice systems in West Africa
• African rice domesticated 3500 years ago
in Niger Inner Delta (Oryza glaberrima)
• Rice systems are diverse and complex:
– Upland rice / Riz pluviale
– Rainfed lowland rice / Riz de bas-fond
– Mangrove swamp rice / Riz de mangrove
– Deep-water rice / Riz flottant
– Recession agriculture rice / Riz décrue
– Irrigated lowland rice / Riz irrigué
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
SRI West Africa Network ? !!
• Solid and convincing experience in Mali
– 50-70 trained technicians, 450 farmers (2009)
• Isolated but promising trials across W. Africa
• Cornell’s SRI-Rice would like to support a
SRI West Africa Network
– Connect initiatives and people
– Provide technical information and backstopping
– Knowing who is doing what
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Introduction of SRI in Haiti 2010
Cornell SRI-Rice Initiative with funding from
the Better U Foundation:
1. SRI training started in June 2010
– 3 locations: Ferrier (north), Artibonite (Hait’s
‘rice basket’) and Les Cayes (south)
– 123 farmers and technicians
– Cooperation with USAID project (WINNER)
1. Follow-up of field trials in August-Sept.
2. Evaluation & programming (January 2011)
Introducing SRI in Haiti
(since June 2010)
Partners and Implementers: International Organization for Migration (IOM); World
Hunger Relief; WINNER project (USAID); Mennonite Central Committee (MCC);
Oxfam Intermon; Church of the Brethren; Farmer Training Center at Leveques
Thank you!
SRI farmers from Donghoi village, Timbuktu
SRI-Rice, Cornell University
Resources in French and English
SRI in Africa and across the world :
http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html
Practical Manuals on SRI:
http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/manuals.html
More rice for people, more water for the planet
http://www.sri-
india.net/documents/More_Water_For_The_Planet.pdf
SRI-Rice Website Cornell University
http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/index.html
Contact: Erika Styger, eds8@cornell.edu
SRI-Rice, Cornell University

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1053 SRI 3 Years of Experience from Mali. Introducing SRI to Haiti

  • 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - 3 years of experience from Mali Introducing SRI to Haiti Erika Styger SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice)
  • 2. 6 Principles of SRI 1. Transplant single seedlings 2. Transplanting at young age: 2 leaf stage (8-12 days old) 3. Wide spacing: 25cm x 25cm or wider, planted in line 4. Minimum water application during vegetative growth 5. Use mechanical hand weeder 6. Application of organic matter as base fertilization SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 3. Timbuktu region Climate: Sahelo- Saharien/Saharien • 150-200 mm rain/yr • Annual mean temp: 29.1°C (13°- 43°C) Food insecurity: >70% communes are among most vulnerable in Mali
  • 4. Irrigated rice in the Timbuktu region Village Irrigation Perimeter 30-35 ha - 1 motor pump Shared among 100 farmers 0.33 ha / farmer
  • 5. SRI in 2007 - Exploratory test • NGO Africare has worked for 12 years on food security in the Timbuktu region • 1 volunteer farmer tried SRI • Farmers from surrounding villages participated in a field visit • Farmers’ recommendation: To evaluate SRI at larger scale in 2008 • Yield: SRI 9 t/ha, Control 6.7 t/ha
  • 6. Objectives for SRI in 2008 • Adapted the SRI principals to agro- ecological conditions of Goundam and Dire, Timbuktu region • Comparison of SRI practices with farmer practices SRI-Rice, Cornell University Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
  • 7. Year 2: Methodology • 5 volunteer farmers per village x 12 villages = 60 farmers • 2 treatments: i) SRI ii) control plot with farmers’ best practices • SRI and control plot: side by side • Started rice nursery on the same day with the same seeds (variety) • Farmers had free choice of rice variety to plant • Technical follow-up and data collection by solid technical team • Exchange visits SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 8. Soil preparation of SRI plots 1. Application of manure (10-15 t/ha) 4. Land leveling 3. Breaking up chunks of soil 2. Soil tilling by hand or tractor
  • 9. SRI nursery • Mixed clay, sand and manure • Sowing after soaking seeds for 24h • Seedlings appeared after 2 days • Transplanting young seedlings after 8 to 12 days (at 2 leaf-stage)
  • 11. SRI Irrigation During vegetative period, followed practice of Alternate Wetting and Drying • Introduced 1-2 cm of water • Let the plot dry until cracks became visible, then • Introduced another thin layer a water, with this cycle repeating
  • 12. Cono-weeding • First weeding at 20 days after transplanting, then repeat every 7 to 10 days • This incorporates weeds into soil – Also aerates the soil – Stimulates root growth, and – Redistributes water across plot
  • 13. Weeding with Sri Lankan Cono-Weeder SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 14. Fields of Asseydou Alhassane, Hara-Hara 30 days after nursery establishment SRI Control plot
  • 15. Plant development I Higher tiller number per plant with SRI SRI Control
  • 16. Faster growth and shorter crop cycle ControlSRI Plant development II SRI SRI Control Control
  • 17. Results: Timbuktu, 2008 (N = 60) • Yield increased from 5.5 t/ha to 9.1 t/ha (+66%) • Less seed was required: by 85% to 90% Quantity used for SRI: 6.1 kg/ha compared to Quantity used in usual farmer practice: 40-60 kg/ha • Reduced fertilizer use by 30% • Reduced irrigation water use by 10%-30% • Reduced production costs / kg paddy: 30% • Increased revenue per hectare: more than double SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 18. Scaling up SRI (2009) - 5 regions in Mali • Timbuktu NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers OLD: 21 villages, 250 farmers • Gao – 8 villages, 39 farmers • Mopti – 6 villages, 44 farmers • Segou – 2 villages, 37 farmers • Sikasso – 3 villages, 10 farmers 57 villages, 472 farmers Africare, IICEM (USAID), Syngenta Development Foundation, IER (National Research Institute), Ministry of Agriculture
  • 19. Scaling up SRI practices: Year 3 • Communities and farmers take full responsibility for scaling up! • They decide on the number of farmers and on training of new farmers • Go from 60 to 250 farmers (2008 to 2009), from 12 to 27 villages • Technical support reduced Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
  • 20. SRI yields, Mali 2009 SRI Farmer plot SRI yield over (t/ha) (t/ha) farmer plots Africare farmers 240 farmers Timbuktu 7.7 4.5 . +72% IICEM farmers 38 farmers Gao 7.8 5.6 . +40% 28 farmers Mopti 7.8 4.8 . +64% 36 farmers Timbuktu (other areas) 7 4.2 . +68% 342 farmers 3 regions 7.6 4.8 . +58% SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 21. SRI for rainfed and lowland systems in Southern Mali Four rice systems are found in Sikasso region • Upland rice • Lowland rice - high zone • Lowland rice - medium zone • Lowland rice - low zone
  • 22. Checking the SRI principles • 1 plant: yes (by direct seeding of 2-3 seeds, then thinning to 1 plant) • Young transplant: Direct seeding has same effect • Wide spacing: yes • Water control: not possible • Mechanical weeder: to be tested • Organic matter: yes SRI plot Traditional plot
  • 23. Results from adapted SRI Yields (t/ha) from rainfed/lowland systems: • SRI : 4.2 t/ha • Control: 3.0 t/ha = 40% increase Non-SRI SRI IICEM project, IER (research center) and Ministry of Agriculture
  • 24. SRI for Wheat SWI Traditional System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) Africare, Ministry of Agriculture, IER, and CAFON (private sector)
  • 25. SRI with African Rice Varieties Tested Oryza glaberrima - Africa rice Raised yield from 2 t/ha to 4.5 t/ha Africare and Ministry of Agriculture
  • 26. SRI Potential for West Africa? 64% 32% 3% 1% West Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa Southern Africa Each dot represents 20,000 tons Data: FAO Rice production, 2006 Production of rice in Sub-Saharan Africa Ref: Warda (2008) Africa rice trends 2007
  • 27. 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Rice production and consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1961-2006 Production Consumption 40% imported
  • 28. SRI In West Africa since 2001 • Benin 2001: 1 plot managed by govt. technician with former ECHO intern: SRI gave 7.5 t/ha - no follow up? • The Gambia 2002-2005: Research trials and some on-farm work: SRI yields 5.4-8.3 t/ha • Guinea 2003: hybrid varieties introduced by China Natl. Hybrid Rice Research & Dev Center with SRI: 9 t/ha • Senegal 2003-2009: Peace Corps Volunteer on-farm trials, reported by Rodale Institute; dissertation research under WARDA auspices • Sierra Leone 2004: World Vision in-village evaluation: 5.3 t/ha vs 2.5 t/ha • Burkina 2006: 6 farmers in Bobo: SRI 7 t/ha vs 3.5 t/ha • Ghana: 2007-2009 private farmer initiative: 4.18t/ha • Mali: 2007-2010 : 3 projects, 5 regions, 450 farmers http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html
  • 29. Rice systems in West Africa • African rice domesticated 3500 years ago in Niger Inner Delta (Oryza glaberrima) • Rice systems are diverse and complex: – Upland rice / Riz pluviale – Rainfed lowland rice / Riz de bas-fond – Mangrove swamp rice / Riz de mangrove – Deep-water rice / Riz flottant – Recession agriculture rice / Riz décrue – Irrigated lowland rice / Riz irrigué SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 30. SRI West Africa Network ? !! • Solid and convincing experience in Mali – 50-70 trained technicians, 450 farmers (2009) • Isolated but promising trials across W. Africa • Cornell’s SRI-Rice would like to support a SRI West Africa Network – Connect initiatives and people – Provide technical information and backstopping – Knowing who is doing what SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 31. Introduction of SRI in Haiti 2010 Cornell SRI-Rice Initiative with funding from the Better U Foundation: 1. SRI training started in June 2010 – 3 locations: Ferrier (north), Artibonite (Hait’s ‘rice basket’) and Les Cayes (south) – 123 farmers and technicians – Cooperation with USAID project (WINNER) 1. Follow-up of field trials in August-Sept. 2. Evaluation & programming (January 2011)
  • 32. Introducing SRI in Haiti (since June 2010) Partners and Implementers: International Organization for Migration (IOM); World Hunger Relief; WINNER project (USAID); Mennonite Central Committee (MCC); Oxfam Intermon; Church of the Brethren; Farmer Training Center at Leveques
  • 33. Thank you! SRI farmers from Donghoi village, Timbuktu SRI-Rice, Cornell University
  • 34. Resources in French and English SRI in Africa and across the world : http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html Practical Manuals on SRI: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/manuals.html More rice for people, more water for the planet http://www.sri- india.net/documents/More_Water_For_The_Planet.pdf SRI-Rice Website Cornell University http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/index.html Contact: Erika Styger, eds8@cornell.edu SRI-Rice, Cornell University