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Assessment Tools 1
EARLY CHILDHOOD
ASSESSMENT TOOLS
Assessment Tools 2
Early Childhood Assessment Program
Document prepared by:
Walkiria Oliver
Florida International University
Miami, Florida
NOTE: Factors such as (a child's) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperience
or failure to establish rapport may invalidate a child's test scores. Individual users may
have different experiences.
The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers of
the assessments and/or drawn from the examiner's manuals or other sources. For the sake of
brevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing these
instruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult the
respective publisher directly.
AP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of these
these instruments and AP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errors
and/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes,
errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
Assessment Tools 3
Table of Contents
Foreword ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analyses ………………………………………………………………...7
Using Assessment to Inform Teaching or to Identify Special Needs ………………………………………………………………..20
Spanish Versions of Instruments Reviewed …………………………………………………………………………………………...22
Summary of Assessment Tools ..................…………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®) …………………………………………………………….. 24
Ages and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II) …………………………………………………………………27
Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) …………………………………………………………………30
Basic Early Assessment of Reading (BEAR) ………………………………………………………………………………………32
Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
Battelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2) ……………………………………………………………………………35
Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2) ……………………………………………………......37
Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests- Normative Update (BVAT-NU) …………………………………………………………………...42
Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) ……………………………………………………………………………..44
Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) …………………………………………………………46
Bracken Basic Concept Scale -Revised (BBCS-R) …………………………………………………………………………...… 48
Brigance® Preschool Screen I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….52
Brigance K & 1 Screen II …………………………………………………………………………………………………………......54
Child Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2) ………………………………………………………………………………56
CELF® Preschool, Second Edition (CELF® Preschool-2) ……………………………………………………………………….58
Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment …………………………………………………………………61
Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-R) ……………………………………………………………………………..62
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3) ………………………………………….....64
Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) ………………………………………………………………………………….66
Differential Ability Scales (DAS) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….68
Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP) …………………………………………………………………………………..70
Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K) ………………………………………………………………………................72
Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 74
Early Screening Profile (ESP) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
FirstSTEp: Screening Test for Evaluating Preschoolers ……………………………………………………………………….. 78
Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) ……………………………………………………….. 80
Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D) ………………………………………………………….. 83
Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old) ………………………………………………………. 85
Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-R ………………………………………………….....87
Miller Assessments for Preschoolers (MAP) …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
NEPSY® …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…90
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood (Early SB5) ………………………………………………………….. 92
Test of Mathematics Ability - Third Edition (TEMA-3) …………………………………………………………………………… 94
Test of Early Reading Ability - Third Edition (TERA-3) …………………………………………………………………………. 96
Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI™-III) …………………………………………. 98
Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Achievement ……………………………………………………………………… 101
Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities ………………………………………………………….............104
Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R) …………………………………………………………………… 107
Work Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4) …………………………………………………………………………………….110
Appendix A – Coding Scheme Used in Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
Appendix B – References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
Assessment Tools 4
Early Childhood Assessment Program
On behalf of the Early Learning Coalition of Miami-Dade/Monroe (ELCMDM) Counties
and, as part of the planning for the 2007 Assessment Task Force being sponsored by ELCMDM,
the Early Childhood Assessment Program (AP) located at Florida International University (FIU),
University Campus, researched numerous assessments instruments which were developed for
preschool children. The attached document entitled Early Childhood Tools evidences the results
of this research.
Due to the comprehensiveness of said results, the list of possible instruments to be
reviewed by the Assessment Task Force was narrowed down according to specific criteria, and
the instruments were rated based on a categorical matrix system. The assessment tools were
either accepted or eliminated for inclusion in the final list of possible candidates of tools to be
reviewed by the Assessment Task Force. (The AP staff’s expertise is in School Psychology,
specializing in Early Childhood Assessments, thus they are fully qualified to make the original
selection on behalf of ELCMDM.)
Only thirteen (13) instruments from the original list met the final criteria from the matrix.
Each criterion was used for these purposes as follows:
I. Language
Approximately twenty-five (25) instruments from the original list which had some type
of Spanish version; of these thirty (30), only thirteen (13) instruments also met additional
criteria. Thus, having a Spanish version became the first criteria when rating the instruments.
Language is of utmost importance in selecting instruments to appropriately serve the Miami-
Dade County population where many children are second-language learners (e.g., Spanish being
the dominant language).
II. Psychometrics
Norm-referenced instruments with good psychometric properties were preferred (e.g.,
those with concurrent validity, predictive validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest
reliability correlations of, at least, above .70, preferably in the .80’s and .90’s.). Criterion-
referenced instruments were expected to have lower psychometric properties, but preferential
treatment was given to those that approached the .70 cut-off point. However, it is important to
remember that with authentic-based assessments such as portfolios and teacher-rating scales, the
cut-off scores in the field can be as low as .45 and still prove to be effective tools.
III. Translated/Adaptations
This criteria pertained to whether the Spanish version of the instrument was a literal
translation from the English language (e.g., not desirable) or a true adaptation (e.g., desirable)
where ideas and basic concepts are expressed in native patterns and colloquialisms.
Assessment Tools 5
Unfortunately, few of the instruments either a) were adaptations from English into Spanish or b)
had information on whether they were translated or adapted into Spanish from English.
IV. Spanish-Speaking Norms
This category has to do with whether, or not, the normative data was gathered from a
Spanish-speaking population. For the purposes of making a determination on the selection of
instruments, preferential treatment (or weigh) was given to the Spanish version of instruments
which were standardized on this type of sample of children. Unfortunately, only three (3)
instruments met these criteria.
V. Reporting System (Friendly Recommendations)
The fifth category of the matrix was tools with parent/teacher-friendly reporting systems.
This category was critical because sometimes instruments which are child-friendly fail to provide
usefulness to the parent or teacher. Given a) the young age of our preschool population and b)
the current trend to work with the child before any referral can be made, the instruments with
useful reporting systems were preferred over others.
VI. Date Published
The cut-off date of publication was 1990. Instruments that were developed before this
time, though perhaps reviewed, were not even considered for the original list. The more recent
instruments were preferred because since their norming samples were more current, they were
generally more representative of the populations being tested today.
VII. Examiner Characteristics
This criterion was based on the examiner minimum qualifications as prescribed by the
test publishers. The final eleven (11) instruments had examiner qualifications which ranged from
that of a broad continuum (e.g., professional to paraprofessional) to being very narrow and
specific in focus (e.g., licensed school psychologists only). There was no predetermined
preference; the decision depended on the instrument.
VIII. Administration
This category had a specific cut-off point; specifically, +/-thirty minutes. Assessments
with administration times less than thirty minutes - most of which were screeners - were given
favorable ratings in the matrix; those with times over the thirty minutes were not given favorable
ratings, unless the other criteria could justify doing so. Keeping this in mind, few tools with
administration times over thirty minutes were able to meet criteria. The rationale for establishing
this low cut-off point was to meet the intentions of the ELCMDM for 2007; in other words, to
reduce the assessment time in order to increase the time in which to implement interventions.
Assessment Tools 6
IX. Purpose
This criteria was the most complicated to score. Principles and recommendations of the
National Educational Goals Panel (NEGP) were used to operationalize the purposes of
assessments - according to NEGP there are four: a) to support learning – P1, b) to screen for
and/or identify special needs – P2, c) to meet program evaluation/monitoring objectives – P3, d)
for high stakes accountability – P4. The original list was reviewed and scored in the matrix and
the respective sub-grouping was chosen in the case of each instrument – P1, P2, P3, or P4. There
was no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. However, the NEGP
is clear about the risks of combining assessment purposes. The AP staff followed these
recommendations when making final selection.
X. Software
This last criteria pertained to whether, or not, the tool had some type of computer
program available, and if so, the extent to which the program would assist users (e.g., 1- just to
enter data; 2- enter data & simple reporting system; 3- enter data, palm pilot program, plus all
types of reports, including program evaluation, etc.). The instruments which had useful, better
software were preferred, however, no tool was disqualified for poor or lack of software (e.g., this
is a variable that can always be added or improved).
XI. Other Considerations
A. Type: Formal/ Informal
This criteria was relevant to the extent that it is a dichotomous variable (e.g., categorizing
the tool into an either/or sub-grouping). One sub-grouping is that of the formal assessments; the
norm-referenced tools fall in this category. The other sub-grouping is that of the informal
assessments; the criterion-referenced tools fall in this category. There was no predetermined
preference; the decision depended on the instrument.
B. Type: Domains-Multi/ Single
This, too, is a dichotomous variable which categorizes tools according to the number of
domains – whether multiple (e.g., assesses a number of different concepts/content areas) or
single (e.g., assesses just one concept/content area). There was no predetermined preference; the
decision depended on the instrument.
XII. Summaries of Selected Instruments
The following tables summarize the relevant information on each of the thirteen (13) final
instruments chosen by the AP staff for the 2007 Assessment Task Force to review. Appendix A
explains the coding scheme used in tables.
Assessment Tools 7
Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analyses
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999 Diane Bricker, & Jane
Squires, with assistance
from Linda Mounts,
LaWanda Potter, Robert
Nickel, Elizabeth
Twombly, et al
Brookes Publishing Co.
Contact:
By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638-
3775
By FAX: 1-410-337-8539
By e-mail:
custserv@brookespublishing.com
 User’s Guide &
(photocopiable)
Questionnaires -
$125.00
 CD-ROM & User’s
Guide - $125.00
English and Spanish
versions are sold
separately
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Multiple: Communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and
personal-social (ea. domain is called a “questionnaire”)
P2 – Identification of special needs
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multiple developmental
skills
6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used for
monitoring purposes)
10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental)
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Parent self-report 30-item Parents observe their child and complete simple
questionnaires about their child's abilities (some
activities prescribed)
Visual Questionnaire
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Evaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box
 Parents circle the appropriate item
none
Scoring:
Scoring by professionals –
Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are converted
to 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child is
considered to be competent (by parent completing questionnaires).
Notes:
Brookes Publishing offer ASQ Train-the-Trainer* programs with the test developers (or
associate) at the following approximate costs: 1 day: $2200–$3575; 2 days: $4400–$4675
*These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees will
vary.
Assessment Tools 8
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002 Jane Squires, Diane
Bricker, & Elizabeth
Twombly, with assistance
from Suzanne Yockelson,
Maura Schoen Davis, &
Younghee Kim
Brookes Publishing Co.
Contact:
By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638-
3775
By FAX: 1-410-337-8539
By e-mail:
custserv@brookespublishing.com
 User’s Guide &
(photocopiable)
Questionnaires -
$199
 CD-ROM & User’s
Guide - $199.00
English and Spanish
versions are sold
separately
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Single: Personal-social (self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive
functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people)
P2 – Identification of special needs
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Social-emotional 6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used for
monitoring purposes)
10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental)
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Parent self-report 32-item Parents are asked to respond to questions about their
child’s social-emotional behaviors.
Visual Questionnaire
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Evaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box
 Parents circle the appropriate item
none
Scoring:
Scoring by professionals –
Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are converted
to 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child is
considered to be competent by the parent completing the questionnaire.
Notes:
Brookes Publishing offer ASQ: SE Train-the-Trainer* programs at the following approximate
costs: 1 day: $1200–$1950
2 days: $1950–$2475
*These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees will
vary.
Assessment Tools 9
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2) Jean Newborg The Riverside Publishing
Company
 Kit w/manipulatives -
$867.50
 Complete kit plus
software - $ 1,076.50
 Screener Kit only –
$171.50
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Multi: Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication & Cognitive P1 – Support learning; P2 – Identification of special needs; P3 – Program
evaluation/monitoring trends; and P4 – Accountability
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multiple developmental
skills
Birth to 8.0 years Individual Periodical  Full BDI-2: 1 to 2 hrs.
 BDI-2 Screener: 10 to
30 minutes
On-demand response
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Oral-Directed Varies Auditory Visual and mixed Multiple
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Child performance and oral response
Scoring: Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software: the BDI-2 ScoringPro®
software. Also available is the BDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application -
Palm® Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions.
Notes:
Assessment Tools 10
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005
Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005
Albert H. Brigance Curriculum Associates®,
Inc.
Corporate Headquarters
P.O. Box 2001
North Billerica, MA
01862-9914
info CAinc.com
USA & Canada:
Tel. (800) 225-0248
Fax (800) 366-1158
Order Desk: USA x – 432
Product Info: x - 62
Brigance® Manual with
Building Blocks *
 Early Preschool
Screen II - $110.00
 Preschool Screen II -
$110.00
Brigance® Screens
Scoring Software II with
Technical Report Manual -
$117.95
NOTE: *data sheets sold
separately
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Multi: Fine and gross motor skills, receptive and expressive language, self-help skills,
and social-emotional domains; assesses reading and math at older ages
P1 – Support learning and P2 – Identification of special needs
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multiple developmental
skills
Age 2.0 to 4.0 Individual Periodical 10 to 15 minutes On-demand response
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Oral-Directed 44 skills Multi: Including personal data responses, block building,
identifying objects by pointing, matching colors, naming
objects from pictures, adding plural s’s and –ing endings,
etc.
Auditory, Visual and
mixed
Multiple
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Child performance and oral response
Scoring: Correct responses are given credit based on examiner’s professional judgment
plus directions in manual – either 1, 2 or 3 points.
Notes: Also available are Class Summary Folders, Spanish Directions Booklets, and
other Brigance® relevant materials
Assessment Tools 11
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Child Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002 High/Scope Educational
Research Foundation
Tel. 1-800-40-PRESS
press@highscope.org
 Preschool Child
Observation Record
(COR), Second
Edition - $174.95
 Preschool Child
Observation Record
(COR) for CD-ROM,
Second Edition -
$199.95 (includes one
user license)
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Multi: Initiative, Social Relations, Creative Representation, Movement & Music,
Language & Literacy, Mathematics & Science
P1 – Support learning
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi
2.6 to 6.0 years Individual Ongoing Ongoing Observational profile
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Running records
Observational N/A N/A
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multiple - As occurring in natural environment
Multiple Responses Multiple Responses
Scoring:
Score of 1 to 5 on 32 behaviors and skills with subscale scores for four broad categories
Notes:
For customized training contact High/Scope's Educational Services Division at
734/485-2000, ext. 218, or e-mail gavinh@highscope.org
Assessment Tools 12
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005) Diane Trister Dodge,
Laura Colker & Cate
Heroman
Teaching Strategies, Inc.
P.O. Box 42243
Washington, DC 20015
Toll Free: 800-637-3652
Local: 202-362-7543
Fax: 202-364-7273
Complete Assessment
System Kit - $89.95
(English & Spanish kits
sold separately/same
price)
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Multi: Includes social/emotional, physical, cognitive, & language developmental
areas
P1 – Support learning
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi Age 3.0 to 5.0 Ongoing 3 summary points per year
recommended
Ongoing Observational checklist
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Varies, includes
observations, and oral-
directed running records
11 interest areas ;
multiple items in each
area
Observational N/A N/A
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multiple - As occurring in natural environment Multiple Responses Multiple Responses
Scoring: Notes:
The Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum for Ages 3-5 is a valid and reliable
instrument which is the assessment component of The Creative Curriculum®
Assessment Tools 13
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Third
Edition(DIAL-3), 1998
Carol Mardell-
Czudnowski & Dorothea
S. Goldenberg
AGS Publishing
4201 Woodland Road
Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796
phone 800.328.2560 /
651.287.7220
fax 800.471.8457 /
651.287.7223
customerservice@agsnet.com
 Complete kit, inc.
Speed DIAL
(Eng./Spa.) –
$469.99
 Complete kit with
ASSIST - $569.99
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Domains - Physical, Cognitive, Communication, Social or Emotional, and Adaptive.
Subtests - Motor - gross & fine motor development; Concepts – knowledge of basic
concepts such as counting and colors; Language – receptive & expressive language;
Self-Help Development – daily living skills in such areas as eating, drinking, &
dressing, and; Social Development – skills in relating to others.
(P2) - Developmental screening.
DIAL-3 is an individually administered screening test designed to identify young children
in need of further diagnostic assessment.
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi Age 3.0 - 6.11 Individual Periodic 20 -30 minutes; Speed DIAL
(condensed version): 15 - 20
minutes
Multiple: On-demand
response from child;
observational record;
parent questionnaire
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Each item assesses unique
behaviors. Some items
consist of only one task
(for example, catching),
while other items include
more than one task (for
example, jumping,
hopping, and skipping).
Gross Motor items include catching, jumping,
hopping, & skipping; Fine Motor items include
building with blocks, cutting, copying shapes and
letters, and writing, and a finger-touching task;
Language items include answering simple personal
questions, articulation, naming, or identifying objects
and actions, plus phonemic awareness tasks; Concept
items include pointing to named body parts, naming or
identifying colors, rote counting, counting blocks &
sorting shapes.
Multiple Varies
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Depending on task, child's response could be oral/motor.
Scoring: By hand or computer. Computerized scoring: ASSIST scoring software inc.
optional report to parents, parent-child activities, and group reporting capabilities.
Notes: Training options available. Optional 45-minute video is available in both
languages to enhance training through visual examples of the screening situation and item
administration.
Assessment Tools 14
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
DECA Program, 1999 Paul A. Le Buffe & Jack
A. Naglieri
Kaplan Early Learning
Company
Tel.: 1-800-334-2014 or
336-766-7374
Fax: 1-800-7526
DECA Kit - $199.95
DECA rating form –
approx. $1.00 ea.
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Protective Factors – Initiative, Attachment, Self-Control
Behavioral Concerns
(P2) Standardized assessment for protective factors; screener for behavior concerns
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Social-emotional Ages 2 through 5 Individual (parent &
teacher)
Periodic – 3 times p/year 10-15 minutes Observational record
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Questions to be rated (see
scoring below)
37 Ea. item answers: “During the past 4 weeks, how often
did the child...”
Visual Rating
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Evaluation and decision-making (by parent & teacher,
not child)
checkmark none
Scoring:
Items are scored according to following Likert scale: Never (O); Rarely (1);
Occasionally (2); Frequently (3); and Very Frequently (4)
Notes:
Contact Kaplan directly. A trainer can be contracted starting at approx. $1,200 +
expenses per day/per trainer/Professional Development * (*Does not apply to Creative
Curriculum Approach training).
Keynote Address (if applicable) $3,000 + expenses
Training fees are based on a maximum number of 35 participants
Expenses include airfare or mileage, lodging, meals and training materials.
Assessment Tools 15
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997
NOTE: ESI-R is a continuous protocol screener for children age 3 to 6 years old. ESI-
P is for age 3 to 4 ½ while ESI-K is for children age 4 ½ to 6 years old.
Samuel J. Meisels, Martha
Stone Wiske, and Laura
W. Henderson
Pearson Early Learning
Group
1185 Avenue of the
Americas, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Tel.: 1.800.321.3106
Fax: 1.800.393.3156
ESI-P Kit, English version
(Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50
ESI-P Kit, Spanish version
(Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Developmental areas addressed: Score Sheet: Visual Motor/Adaptive, Language, and
Cognition; (Social/Emotional is covered in the comments) Parent Questionnaire: Self-
help skills
(P2) - It identifies young children at risk for school failure — accurately, quickly, and
cost effectively. Extensive research has shown the ESI-R to be both reliable and valid
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi Age 3 to 4 ½ Individual administered in
home or center
Periodic 15 to 20 minutes Multiple: On-demand
response from child and
observational
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Each item assesses unique
behaviors. Some items
consist of only one task
while others items include
more than one task along a
continuum of development
Some examples include: block building from imitation
or from model, and cutting, copying shapes; catching,
jumping, & skipping;
Multiple Varies
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and
processing involved
Depending on task, child's response could be oral/motor
Scoring: By hand or computer.
Yields three scores: Refer, Re-screen and OK. - interpreted differently, depending on
age group. For each item, the child receives from 0-3 points.
Computerized scoring: ESI-Online (both ESI-P & ESI-K) scoring software includes
downloadable user guides, data entry & automated scoring, printable score-sheets
(Eng./Spa.) & parent questionnaires, class reports, report to parents, and tutorials.
 Licensed annually at a cost of $2.95 p/child. Technical support available from
8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EST, Mon. – Fri. For information on online products
(including registration) call Leah Theodorou at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1775.
Notes: Training videos demonstrating procedures and administration are sold
separately; this is a recommended resource for every user.
On-site training is available for a fee, plus expenses; to be able to negotiate better price
and terms for training, (maybe a discount if included with the entire package), call
company with the actual number of participants.
For information on professional development and general product questions, call Dana
Schmidek at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1763.
Assessment Tools 16
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005 Nehring, Aubrey D.;
Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni,
John R., Jr.; Randolph,
Patricia L.; Kaplan Press;
Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman,
Janet G.; Glover, M.
Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L.
Kaplan Early Learning
Company
1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –
Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)
mailto:info@kaplanco.com
LAP-DIII Kit - $799.95
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Four developmental areas: fine motor, gross motor, cognition, and language. Each area
is contains two subscales. Language Naming & Language Comprehension; Fine Motor
Manipulation & Fine Motor Writing; Gross Motor Body Movement & Gross Motor
Object Movement, and; Cognitive Matching & Cognitive Counting
(P1) & (P2) Results from the LAP-D can be used for developing IEP's and for
classroom planning. Personal/Social and Self-Help Checklists are included, along with
LAP-D Pupil/Teacher/Parent Planning Cards
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi 30-60 months individual Periodic Approx. 1 ½ hours
(although this estimate
does not take into account
incidentals such as time to
establish rapport with the
child, bathroom breaks,
rest periods, etc.)
On-demand response,
some items timed
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Each item assesses unique
behavior
Total 226 items but each
subscale varies in # of
items.
Multi: including block building, from model or by
imitation, identifying objects by pointing, matching
colors, naming objects from pictures, to jumping,
hopping, and skipping.
Auditory, Visual and
mixed
Varies depending on item
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and
processing involved
Child performance and oral response
Scoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot.
The child reaches ceiling w/3 errors out of 5 consecutive items administered
Notes:
Contact Kaplan directly for training.
Assessment Tools 17
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Learning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004 Kaplan Early Learning
Company
1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –
Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)
mailto:info@kaplanco.com
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Seven developmental domains, including: Gross Motor, Fine, Motor, Pre-Writing,
Cognitive, Language, Self-Help, Personal/Social
(P1) The purpose of the LAP 3 is to assist teachers plan instruction
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi Children functioning in the
36-72 month age range
individual Periodic (at the beginning,
middle, and end of the
program year) or ongoing
Approx. 1 ½ hours
(although this estimate
does not take into account
incidentals such as time to
establish rapport with the
child, bathroom breaks,
rest periods, etc.)
On-demand response
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Each item assesses unique
behavior
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Scoring:
The LAP-3 neither assigns a diagnostic label nor yields statistically precise measures
regarding a child’s level of functioning
Notes:
Contact Kaplan directly for training.
Assessment Tools 18
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-D
Screens-3 Yr. Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old)
Nehring, Aubrey D.;
Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni,
John R., Jr.; Randolph,
Patricia L.; Kaplan Press;
Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman,
Janet G.; Glover, M.
Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L.
Kaplan Early Learning
Company
1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –
Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)
mailto:info@kaplanco.com
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Four developmental domains inc. Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Cognitive & Language (P2)
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
Multi (“condensed”
version of LAP-D)
3-, 4-, and 5-year-old
children
Individual, one-on-one
only
Periodic 12-15 minutes to
administer
On-demand response
screen, some items timed
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
Each item assesses unique
behavior
16 Multi: including block building, from model or by
imitation, identifying objects by pointing, matching
colors, naming objects from pictures,
Auditory, Visual and
mixed
Varies depending on item
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and
processing involved
Child performance and oral response
Scoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot.
Results are divided into PASS (P) or REFER (R)
Notes:
Contact Kaplan directly for training.
Assessment Tools 19
Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit
Work Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001
Pearson Early Learning
Group
1185 Avenue of the
Americas, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Tel.: 1.800.321.3106
Fax: 1.800.393.3156
Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose
Personal and social development; language and literacy; mathematical thinking;
scientific thinking; social studies; the arts, and; physical development and health
(P1) WSS is a curriculum-embedded assessment based on national and state standards
which help teachers plan instruction.
Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of
Administration
Amount of time
required to
administer
Assessment Model ID
N/A Preschool - 6th
grade N/A Ongoing N/A Observational record
Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response
Children assessed in natural setting, in non-threatening-
manner.
N/A None specific
Scoring: WSS does not involve point-in-time assessment scores, but rather, it charts the
child's progress over time.
Notes: Contact publishers for more information
Assessment Tools 20
Using Assessment to Inform Teaching
or to Identify Special Needs
The following two options represent two different assessment models and the
corresponding instruments which were reviewed. These assessment models are based on
the NEGP principles and recommendations used to operationalize the purposes of
assessments discussed above in Section IX.-Purpose. The FIU staff’s recommendation to
the ELCMDM was to consider the use of two distinct types of instruments in their future
planning, as follows: one instrument developed for instructional purposes, to help
teachers plan their classroom activities to meet the children’s needs; another instrument
developed along the lines of a diagnostic purpose, to screen for and identify special
needs. The instruments are listed according to their corresponding purpose or function:
(P1) Support Learning/Instructional Purpose:
*Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2)
*Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005
*Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005
Child Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002
Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005)
*DECA Program, 1999
*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005
*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004
Work Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001
(P2) Screening Purpose:
Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999
Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002
*Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2)
*Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005
*Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005
Assessment Tools 21
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Third Edition(DIAL-3),
1998
*DECA Program, 1999
Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997
*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005
*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-D Screens-3 Yr.
Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old)
NOTE: *Instruments with more than one purpose.
Assessment Tools 22
Spanish Versions of Instruments Reviewed
Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®)
● Only Child Behavior Checklist (CBC) has a version in Spanish
Ages and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II)
Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE)
Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™
● Spanish adaptation/translation of WJ® III
Battelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2)
● Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish)
Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2)
Bilingual Verval Ability Tests - Normative Update (BVAT-NU)
Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E)
Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R)
Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised (BBCS-R)
● Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)
Brigance K & 1 Screen II
Child Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2)
Creative Curriculum Developmental Continuum Assessment
Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-R)
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3)
Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA)
Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP)
Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K)
Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P)
Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D)
Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old)
Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-R
Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised
Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised
Work Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4)
● Some WSS-4 materials have been translated into Spanish
Assessment Tools 23
Summary of Assessment Tools
NOTE: Factors such as (a child's) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperience
or failure to establish rapport may invalidate a child's test scores. Individual users may
have different experiences.
The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers of
the assessments and/or drawn from the examiner's manuals or other sources. For the sake of
brevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing these
instruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult the
respective publisher directly.
AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of these
these instruments and AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errors
and/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes,
errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
Assessment Tools 24
NOTE: The following Information pertains to the Pre-School module of the comprehensive Achenbach
System of Empirically Based Assessment which includes an integrated set of rating forms for ages 1.5 - 59+
THERE IS A SPANISH VERSION OF THE CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST
Publisher ASEBA
Date 2000
Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-
Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), revised in 2000, are a set of rating
forms and profiles for the preschool-aged child. They replace the
previous editions of CBCL/2-3 and C-TRF/2-5.
● CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST: parent report consisting of a 99-
item child behavioral checklist (CBC) and a language development
survey (LDS) that asks parents to provide the child's best multi-
word phrases and words the child uses from a list of 310 words;
the LSD indicates whether a child's vocabulary and word
combinations are delayed relative to norms.
● CAREGIVER-TEACHER REPORT FORM: (CTR) a 99-item checklist
similar to the CBC except 17 family-specific items have been
replaced with group situation items.
● DSM-Oriented Scales: the 99 items in the CBC were organized
into seven syndromes and two broader groupings of syndromes,
while the 99 items in the CTR were organized into six of the CBC
syndromes with two of the broader groupings:
□ Internalizing: Emotionally reactive, Anxious/depressive, Somatic
complaints, Withdrawn
□ Externalizing: Attention problems, Aggressive behavior
□ Ungrouped (CBC only): Sleep problem
□ In the 2000 revision, the syndromes scored between forms are
based on results of factor analyses
□ DSM scales were constructed for the following categories:
Affective Problems, Anxiety Problems, Attention-Deficit/
Hyperactivity Problems, Oppositional Defiant Problems,
Pervasive Developmental Problems
Uses or purpose of instrument ● Information collected from parents and caregivers/teachers
is used to assess the behavioral, emotional, and social
functioning (including language development) of young
Assessment Tools 25
children between the ages of 1.5 and 5 years.
● To get a better understanding of how the child functions in
different conditions, it is recommended that information be
collected from more than one adult.
● The results can be used to structure interviews with parents,
identify areas for intervention, and evaluate intervention
outcomes; used in many setting including mental health clinics
Age Range 1.5 to 5 years
Administration Time 10 to 15 minutes to complete the forms (minimum 5th grade
reading level)
Examiner Parent/teacher self-report
Scores ● The manual provides instructions for converting raw scores into
T-scores; can be hand or computer scored with the Assessment
Data Manager (ADM) software
● T-scores compare a child’s performance against other children
& the scoring forms classify scores as normal (under 93%),
borderline (93 to 97%), or clinical (over 97%); the authors
recommend that the results be interpreted by someone with some
graduate training.
● Respondents complete the CBC and CTR by circling one of three
responses and the LDS by circling the words the child uses
spontaneously.
● The behavioral raw scores are derived by summing the response
item values (0, 1, or 2) for the syndrome scale, response
syndrome groupings, and total score.
● The raw score for the language development survey is the total
number of circled words.
Language(s) CBC is in English, Spanish and French; other forms in English
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● CBCL/1.5-5 & C-TRF: re-normed as of 1999
□ LDS: Available norms for ages 18 to 35 months can indicate
whether a child's expressive language is delayed relative to his
chronological age
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic; at the discretion of the respective program
Validity ● (1) Concurrent validity: The CBC correctly classified 84% of a
sample of children (some of whom were diagnosed as having
emotional/behavioral problems), and the CTR correctly classified
74% of the children.
● (2) Predictive validity: An 11-year longitudinal study found that
children identified by the LDS to have language development
Assessment Tools 26
problems were more likely to have weak verbal skills at age 13.
Reliability ● (1) Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha): the CBC
scales - ranged from .66 to .92 for the syndromes & .63 to .86 for
the DSM-oriented scales: between .89 and .92 for the two broader
groupings (internalizing & externalizing syndromes) & .95 for the
total score; the CTR syndromes - ranged from .52 to .96 & for the
the DSM-oriented scales from .68 to .93; and the internalizing
and externalizing groupings - .89 and .96, respectively, and for
the total score, .97.
● (2) Test-retest reliability (w/an 8-day interval between tests): the
correlations were .85 and .76 for the CBC and CTR, respectively;
studies on the LDS reported correlations greater or equal to .90.
Uses Manipulative Materials N/A
Adaptations for Special Needs None indicated
OTHER: New Instrument Test Observation Form for Ages 2-18 (TOF)
● Empirically based & DSM-oriented assessment of behavioral &
emotional problems during testing - documenting examiner's
observations without written reports
● 125-items; separate norms for each gender; co-normed with
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 27
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher Brookes Publishing Company
Date 1999
Domains/Areas Assessed ● Areas screened: Communication, gross motor, fine motor,
problem solving, and personal-social
● There are 19 questionnaires (corresponding to 19 designated
age intervals); each includes 30 developmental items to be
completed by parents at designated age-intervals, assessing
children in their natural environments with the goal of
ensuring valid results.
● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the needs of diverse
monitoring & screening programs: the entire Master set
(all the age intervals) of questionnaires can be used or only
some age intervals: at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22,
24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and/or 60 months of age;
using the Master set, screening programs may choose ASQ
age intervals that fit their populations, program goals, & needs
Uses or purpose of instrument ● Main Uses: 1) Comprehensive, first-level screening of large
groups of infants and young children; 2) to monitor
development of children who are at-risk for delays
● The forms are photocopiable which keeps costs low for
preschools and, ultimately, parents
● Eight new questionnaires were added to this edition (since
1980) as a result of user feedback, extending the age-range
of the system to create a more authentic means of measuring
the rapidly developing skills of young children.
● Using parent-completed tools fulfills the spirit of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Amendments of 1997, which calls for parents to be partners in
their child's assessment and intervention activities.
Age Range 4 to 60 months of age (5 years old)
Administration Time Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to complete
and approximately 3 minutes to score
Examiner(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals;
(in practice, the parents/caregivers complete the
the questionnaires and the professionals score them; it can also
Assessment Tools 28
be adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics)
Scores ● Professionals convert parents' responses of yes, sometimes,
and not yet to 10, 5, and 0, respectively — in just 2-3
minutes — to color-coded scoring sheets, enabling them to
quickly determine a child's progress in each developmental
area.
● A low total score is indicative of problems while a high score
indicates the child is considered to be competent by the
parent completing the questionnaire
● The User's Guide then offers clear guidelines for determining
whether children are at high or low risk in the various
domains.
Language(s) English, Spanish, French and Korean; translations are in
development in other languages including Mandarin and
Arabic
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals)
Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes, which is often)
Validity ● Concurrent validity was studied by comparing the
classifications of the child's performance based on parent
questionnaire with that on professionally administered
standardized tests; the instruments were: The Revised
Gessell & Armatruda Developmental and Neurological
Examination (1980); the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
(1969):; the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (1985); the
McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (1972); and the
Battelle Developmental Inventory - BDI - (1984).
□ A child was considered "identified" when his score fell
below the cut-off point set at 2 standard deviations below
the mean.
● Specificity (ability to correctly identify typically developing
children) ranged from 81% to 92% with overall agreement of
86%; Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development)
was lower, averaging 72%; according to publishers, in other
studies it was as high as 96%.
Reliability ● Test-retest reliability studies compared the results of
questionnaires completed by parents in a two-week time
period; the percentage of agreement based on the
questionnaires was .94%; interobserver reliability compared
questionnaires completed by parents with those completed
by examiners; percentage of agreement was also .94% - in
other words, 9 out of 10 times, there was agreement.
● Test-retest and interobserver reliability indicate that parents's
perception of their children using the questionnaire were
Assessment Tools 29
consistent over time; examiners's agreement with parental
evaluations of children were consistently high
● Internal consistency analyses indicated a strong relationship
across items and within areas on the questionnaires.
Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environment
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A; a however, subsample of children with disabilities was used
to evaluate concurrent validity of questionnaires
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 30
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher Brookes Publishing Company
Date 2002
Domains/Areas Assessed ● General areas screened: Personal-social (self-regulation,
compliance, communication, adaptive functioning,
autonomy, affect, and interaction with people)
● There are 8 questionnaires (corresponding to 8 designated
age intervals); each includes 22 - 36 developmental items
● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the social-emotional needs
of diverse monitoring & screening programs:
the entire Master set of questionnaires can be used or only
some of the age intervals, such as at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48,
and/or or 60 months of age; using the Master set, screening
programs may choose ASQ-SE age intervals that fit their
populations, program goals, and needs
Uses or purpose of instrument ● The ASQ: SE is a series of 8 questionnaires designed to
be completed by parents to address the emotional &
social competence of young children.
● Created in response to feedback from Ages & Stages
Questionnaires® - giving users an easy-to-use tool with a
focus on children’s social-emotional behavior and all the
advantages of ASQ — the opportunity for input (as the
questionnaires are parent-completed) and the cost-effectiveness
of the photocopiable forms; the instruments are research
validated by professionals and also culturally sensitive.
Age Range 6–60 months
Administration Time ● Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to complete and
approximately 3 minutes to score
Examiner(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals;
(in practice the parents/caregivers complete the
the questionnaires and the professionals score them, & it can
be adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics)
Scores ● Professionals converted parents' responses of most of the
time, sometimes, and rarely or never to 10, 5, and 0, &
Assessment Tools 31
the total score, respectively — in just 2-3 minutes — to color-
coded scoring sheets, enabling them to quickly determine
a child's progress in each developmental area and total.
● Scoring pattern is opposite that of the ASQ - in the ASQ:SE
a high total score is indicative of problems, while a low
total score indicates the child is considered to be competent
by the parent completing the questionnaire
● The User's Guide then offers clear guidelines for determining
whether children are at high or low risk in the various
domains.
Language(s) Questionnaires in English and Spanish
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals)
Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes - which is often)
Validity ● Validity was studied by comparing the classification of
questionnaires completed by parents with the classification
of standardized assessments by trained examiners.
Comparisons were made with the following instruments:
□ the Child Behavior Checklist (1991, 1992); the Vineland
Social-Emotional Early Childhood Scale (1998)
● Concurrent validity between the ASQ:SE & concurrent
measures ranged from 81% to 95% with overall agreement
of 93%;
● Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development) ranged
from 71% to 85% with 78% overall sensitivity.
● Specificity (ability to screen correctly those children without
delayed development) ranged from 90% to 98% with 95%
overall specificity - supporting the usefulness of the ASQ:SE
Reliability ● Investigated with over 3,000 children across the age intervals
and their families. Test-retest reliability was 94%
Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environment
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 32
Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company
Date 2001
Domains/Areas Assessed The paper-pencil edition of BEAR is a suite of four criterion-
referenced assessments of beginning reading and language arts
skills, as follows:
BEAR assesses progress toward developing four essential
reading skills: Reading Basics, Language Arts, Comprehension,
And Reading Fluency. There is a computer edition of BEAR
which offers computer-assisted administration of the 4 subtests
Uses or purpose of instrument To assess young students’ acquisition of the essential
components of reading—phonemic awareness, phonics,
vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading fluency.
Age Range Grades: K through 3
rd
Administration Time Un-timed, estimated administration: Initial-Skills Analysis 45-60
minutes total; Specific-Skills Analysis 30-40 minutes per content
area; Oral Reading Fluency Assessment 15-30 minutes per
passage or list; and Summative Assessment 30-40 minutes per
content area.
Examiner Professional or paraprofessional
Scores ● Initial-Skills Analysis, Specific-Skill Analysis, and Summative
Assessment via computer. program
● BEAR paper and pencil assessments help monitor student
progress through-out the school-year
Language(s) English
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referenced assessments
Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing
Validity & Reliability None described
Uses Manipulative Materials Yes
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 33
THIS INSTRUMENT IS IN SPANISH
The completely and newly revised Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ is a comprehensive set of tests
that includes the Pruebas de habilidades cognitivas and Pruebas de aprovechamiento which are
carefully adapted parallel Spanish versions of the Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ® III) - cognitive
and achievement tests - and are also updated revisions of the Bateria-R.
Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company
Date 2005
Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Cognitive battery offers 6 major scales that yield a
General Intellectual Ability (GIA) Score:
□ Brief Scale
□ Standard Scale
□ Extended Scale
□ Early Development Scale
□ Bilingual scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement)
□ Low verbal scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement)
NOTE:
□ A language-reduced General Intellectual Ability (GIA)
score measures the intellectual ability of bilingual or
multilingual individuals
□ A Broad Cognitive-low Verbal score (BVC) identifies
strengths in individuals with limited English skills
● The Achievement battery includes:
□ Five tests of reading
□ Four tests of oral language
□ Four tests of mathematics
□ Four tests of written language
□ Five tests of academic language
● A Comparative Language Index (CLI) determines
language dominance
Uses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measurement of general intellectual ability, specific
cognitive abilities, oral language, and academic achievement
● Helps identify and diagnose leaning difficulties in Spanish-
dominant individuals
● May be used with WJ® III to obtain a comparative language
index to determine language dominance.
● Assesses specific cognitive abilities based on CHC theory
● Offers several options for brief as well as comprehensive
Assessment
Age Range 2.0 to 90.0+ years
Assessment Tools 34
Administration Time Varies, approximately 5-10 minutes per test
Examiner Professionals (commonly used by bilingual school psychologists
in school settings )
● Training required
● Practice sessions are recommended prior to "real"
Administration
Scores ● Scores obtained using Batería III: AE; GE; PR; SS; RPI;
Instructional Ranges; Developmental Zones
● Optional scores offered for the Batería III: NCE; Z; Stanines;
CALP
● Provides General Intellectual Ability (GIA) measurement,
including a language-reduced Broad Cognitive Ability score
as well as an early development GIA score
● Provides interpretive information from test and cluster scores
that helps measure performance levels, determine educational
progress, and identify individual strengths and weaknesses.
● Includes Compuscore® and Profiles Program - a computer
scoring software which saves valuable professional time &
significantly increases scoring accuracy
□ Provides a brief summary report in both English and Spanish
Language(s) Spanish
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - The norms are from the WJ III® - year 2000,
which allows comparisons between an individual performance
on the Batería III and the WJ III; includes co-normed cognitive
and achievement batteries.
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic
Validity Information not available at this time
Reliability Information not available at this time
Uses Manipulative Materials No
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 35
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company
Date 2004
Domains/Areas Assessed ● Five (5) Domains:
● Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication &
Cognitive
Twenty-two (22) Subtests including, but not limited to the
● Expression of feelings, peer interaction, attention, personal
responsibility, body coordination, fine motor, perceptual
motor communication (receptive/expressive), perceptual
discrimination, memory, conceptual development, reasoning
& academic skills.
Uses or purpose of instrument ● To assess and identify pre-k children w/disabilities
● To evaluate groups of pre-k children w/disabilities
● To assess the typically developing pre-k child
● To assess or screen for school readiness
● To use for program evaluation & accountability purposes
● The screening test consists of 96 of the 341 total items &
identifies if there is a need for further examination
● The full BDI-2 provides useful information for eligibility or
placement decisions
● Useful for Head Start mandates
● Matches all areas as required by IDEA
Age Range Birth to 7 years/11 months
Administration Time ● Complete BDI-2: 1 - 2 hours;
● Screening Test: 10 - 30 minutes
Examiner(s) ● Can be administered by a team of professionals or by an
experienced individual service provider
Scores ● Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software:
the BDI-2 ScoringPro software. Examiners can also use the
BDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application - Palm®
Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions
● Data is collected on electronic record forms.
● Examiners then hotsynch data to their local desktop & can
use the scoring software
Assessment Tools 36
● Flexible web-based scoring options for use by team of
professionals or single examiner
● Wide range of computerized reports to choose
● Scoring procedure for BDI-2 Screening are similar to those
of the full BDI-2, but cut-off scores are provided to help
identify children who need additional follow-up
Language(s) ● English & Spanish
● The BDI-2 in Spanish can be administered entirely in Spanish
in English, or both, in Spanish and English. The child is free
to respond in either language. Flexibility paramount.
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced
● Normative data gathered nationally from over 2500 children
between the ages of birth to 7 years 11 months - for the
2nd edition of instrument
● Sample closely matched the 2000 U.S. Census
● (The earlier version of the BDI-2 (BDI, 1985) was
standardized nationally on approx. 800+/- subjects)
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic
Validity Correlations are in the .79 to .94 range when compared to
similar instruments - according to publishers &/or the
related literature on the topic
Reliability Test-Retest Reliability for the BDI Total was in the .90 to .99
range according to publishers &/or related literature
Uses Manipulative Materials Yes
Adaptations for Special Needs Yes
SPANISH VERSION Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish)
● Translation/adaptation of the BDI-2 to be conducted in
Spanish for use with non-English proficient children and
caregivers; cut-off scores based on the BDI-2 standardization
● The BDI-2 Spanish may be either hand-scored or computer
scored using the BDI-2 ScoringPro™ software.
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 37
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A SPANISH VERSION
Publisher AGS Publishing
Date 2005
Domains/Areas Assessed Overview: A comprehensive set of rating scales and forms
including the Teacher Rating Scales (TRS), Parent Rating
Scales (PRS), Self-Report of Personality (SRP), Student
Observation System (SOS), and Structured Developmental
History (SDH).
● By analyzing the child’s behavior from three perspectives—
Self, Teacher, and Parent—one gets a more complete and
balanced picture, as follows:
□ Self Perspective -
○ Self-Report of Personality (SRP): provides insight
into a child’s or adult’s thoughts and feelings.
○ Each form—child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12
to 21), college (ages 18 to 25)—includes validity scales
for helping judge the quality of completed forms.
▪ A Spanish version is available for the child and
adolescent forms.
○ The BASC-2 version includes an SRP-Interview (SRP-I)
form for children 6-7 in which children provide simple
yes-or-no responses to questions asked by examiner;
responses are then recorded on a checklist - takes
20 minutes to complete.
□ Teacher Perspectives -
○ Teacher Rating Scales (TRS): used to measure adaptive
and problem behaviors in the preschool or school setting.
○ The forms describe specific behaviors that are rated on
a four-point scale of frequency, ranging from “Never” to
“Almost Always”; the TRS contains 100-139 items.
○ Student Observation System (SOS): used to code and
record direct observations of a child’s behavior utilizing
momentary time sampling—during 3-second intervals
spaced 30 seconds apart for 15 minutes.
▪ SOS assesses both adaptive and maladaptive
behaviors, from positive peer interaction to repetitive
motor movements
○ The SOS can also be used for the direct observation
portion of a FBA (Functional Behavioral Assessment).
Assessment Tools 38
○ You can use the SOS on its own, or with other BASC-2
components.
□ Parent Perspectives -
○ Parent Rating Scales (PRS): used to measure both
adaptive and problem behaviors in the community and
home setting.
○ The PRS contains 134-160 items and uses a four-
choice response format.
○ Structured Developmental History (SDH): a 12-page
history and background survey, helps when gathering
crucial information for the diagnostic and treatment
process. The SDH provides a thorough review of social,
psychological, developmental, educational, and medical
Information about a child.
○ You can use the SDH on its own, or with other BASC-2
Components.
□ Activities of Daily Living, Adaptability, Aggression, Anxiety,
Attention Problems, Atypicability, Conduct Problems,
Depression, Functional Communication, Hyperactivity,
Leadership, Learning Problems, Social Skills, Somatization,
Study Skills, Withdrawal
● This revision of the BASC includes new scales: Functional
Communication (TRS/PRS), Activities of Daily Living
(PRS), Attention Problems (SRP), and Hyperactivity
(SRP)
Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BASC-2 is a multi-method, multi-dimensional system
to evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of children
young adults - it is multi-dimensional in that it has five
components, which may be used individually, or in any
combination, and that it measures numerous aspects of
and personality, including positive (adaptive) as well as
(clinical) dimensions
● BASC-2 is a well-established system for measuring behavior
and emotions - together the comprehensive set of rating
scales and forms will help you help understand the behaviors
and emotions of children and adolescents.
● These scales measure areas important for both IDEA and
DSM-IV classifications. In addition, the instrument is
respected for its developmental sensitivity and provides the
most extensive view of adaptive and maladaptive behavior.
● The uses of the basic BASC-2 tools are the following:
□ To assess behavior patterns - Teacher Rating Scales
(TRS); Parent Rating Scales (PRS); Student Observation
System (SOS)
□ To assess emotions and feelings - Self-Report of
Personality (SRP)
□ To gather background information - Structured
Assessment Tools 39
Developmental History (SDH)
● A great benefit of the BASC-2 if that it differentiates
between hyperactivity and attention problems.
Age Range & Administration Time 2-0 through 21-11 (TRS and PRS)
● TRS: Teachers or other qualified observers can complete
forms in about 10–20 minutes for each of the three age levels —
preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), and adolescent
(ages 12 to 21)
● PRS: Parents or caregivers can complete forms in about 10-20
minutes for each of the three age levels —
preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), and
adolescent (ages 12 to 21)
● 8-0 through college age (SRP)
□ Each form takes about 30 minutes to complete for each of
the three age levels -
child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12 to 21), and college
(ages 18 to 25)
□ SRP-I (for ages 6 to 7) takes about 20 minutes to complete.
Examiner ● Professionals - test users/examiners should have a Ph.D. in
Psychology or be certified in School Psychology (applicable
for administration of TRS, PRS, and SRP)
● Paraprofessionals with training and supervision - (applicable
for administration of SOS and SDH)
Scores ● T scores and percentiles, for a general population and clinical
populations
● Parent Feedback Report:
○ Survey results are presented to parents by means of the
Parent Feedback Report - the reports work with all age levels
of the TRS, PRS, and SRP
○ Parents receive test results, interpretative information,
definitions of behavior problems, an explanation of treatment
approaches, and next steps
○ Includes a resource list.
Language(s) English and Spanish
● BASC-2 test items on CD: For parents and students wh
difficulty reading, test items are available on audio CD -
and Spanish versions are offered for both the Parent Ra
Scales and the Self-Report of Personality
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - Normed based on current U.S. Census
population characteristics
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic
Validity ● Concurrent:
Groups of children with preexisting clinical diagnoses tend to
have distinct BASC-2 profiles.
Assessment Tools 40
● Predictive: none
● Content:
Item content came from teachers, parents, children, and
psychologists, as well as from reference sources such as the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth
Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric
Association, 2000) and other instruments.
● Instruments used in correlation studies:
TRS - include Achenbach System of Empirically Based
Assessment (ASEBA), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form for Ages
1.5-5 (ASEBA) and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised
(CTRS-R; Conners, 1997).
PRS - include ASEBA Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5
(ASEBA; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and the Conners'
Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R; Conners, 1997)
Reliability ● Internal consistency:
TRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .87-.96 for
Composites; and .75-.92 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5)
within the range of .91-.96 for Composites; and .81-.93 for the
Scales.
PRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .85-.93 for
Composites; and .77-.88 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5)
within the range of .87-.93 for Composites; and (.70-.87) for the
Scales.
● Test-retest:
TRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .84-.87 for
Composites; and .72-.87 for the Scales.
PRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .81-.86 for
Composites; and .72-.85 for the Scales.
Uses Manipulative Materials No
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A
Software Programs ○ BASC-2 ASSIST™ PLUS: computer scoring and interpretation
software which generates profiles, calculates validity indexes,
identifies strengths and weaknesses, and computes multi-rater
comparisons.
● Provides reports on all the optional content scales, target
behaviors for intervention, and relationships to DSM-IV-TR
diagnostic criteria
▪ Because the content scales are optional, they are only
available with the BASC-2 ASSIST Plus
▪ The optional seven TRS and PRS scales include anger
control, bullying, developmental social disorders,
emotional self-control, executive functioning, negative
emotionality, and resiliency
▪ Form levels SRP-A and SRP-COL offer these four optional
scales: anger control, ego strength, mania, and test
anxiety
Assessment Tools 41
● Available for Windows and Macintosh.
○ BASC Portable Observation Program: lets users design their
own template for observations in the classroom using their own
desktop computer; they can then download the form onto their
Personal Digital Assistant to record personal observations. Or, they
can use their laptop computer to directly record their observations.
Additional features of software program include:
● Streamline report-writing
□ Electronic reports are archived as Portable Document Format
(PDF) files
□ Allows quickly retrieval of details needed to create in-depth,
precise reports for IEP teams
● Track information over time
● Includes the detailed Student Observation System (SOS)
□ Uses of the SOS are to:
▪ Collect diagnostic information
▪ Create focused treatment plans
▪ Monitor the effects of treatment
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 42
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company
Date 2006 - expected date
Domains/Areas Assessed The Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests are comprised of three
subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Test of
Cognitive Ability; Picture Vocabulary; Oral Vocabulary, and
Verbal Analogies.
● These three subtests have been translated into eighteen
languages, plus English.
Uses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measure of overall verbal ability for bilingual
individuals, or the unique combination of cognitive/academic
language abilities possessed by bilingual individuals in
English and another language.
□ The need for this test is based in the reality that bilingual
persons know some things in one language, some things in
the other language, and some things in both languages -
traditional procedures only allow the person's ability to be
tested in the dominant language.
● The BVAT-NU can be used for a variety of purposes in bilingual
education and clinical assessment; it can be used for entry and
exit criteria for bilingual programs. It can be used to assess the
academic potential of bilingual students through a comparison of
his or her current level of English language proficiency to his or
her bilingual verbal ability.
● The BVAT-NU can also be used in place of Tests 1 an 31 the
WJ® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities to provide a general intellectual
ability-bilingual (GIA-Bil) score.
Age Range 5.0 to Adult
Administration Time Varies. When using the BVAT-NU, the examiner administers
the three subtests in English first. Any item that was missed is
then administered in the native language.
□ an estimate is approximately 30 minutes
Examiner ● It may be administered either by one examiner who is fluent in
the individual's two languages, or, alternatively, by a primary and
ancillary examiner team when a bilingual examiner is not
available.
Assessment Tools 43
Scores ● Scores that can be generated by using the BVAT include:
SS, PR, AE, GE, RPI, Instructional Ranges, CALP levels
● The BVAT-NU provides an overall score (BVA) which can be
used to determine an individual's overall level of verbal ability.
● For comparative purposes, the BVAT-NU also provides a
measure of English language proficiency.
● The BVAT yields an aptitude measure that can be used in
conjunction with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement.
● A Scoring and Reporting Program is included with each test
kit. This software program automates scoring procedures and
provides a narrative report of the individual's bilingual verbal
ability, English language proficiency, and language use and
exposure. When used with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement,
the achievement test results are scored and aptitude/
achievement discrepancies are calculated and interpreted.
The program determines and explains whether any identified
discrepancy is related to limitations of English language
proficiency.
Language(s) The languages available in BVAT -NU are:
Arabic; Chinese Simplified; Chinese Traditional; French;
German; Haitian-Creole; Hindi; Hmong; Italian;
Japanese; Korean; Navajo; Polish; Portuguese; Russian;
Spanish; Turkish; Vietnamese - plus English
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic
Validity The construct validity of the BVA score was validated by
comparing estimates of bilingual verbal ability obtained by two
parallel, but independent, testing procedures. No further details
were available, per results of search.
Reliability According to the publishers, alternative form procedures
reliabilities are provided for the BVA score. No further details
were available, per results of search.
Uses Manipulative Materials No
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 44
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*
NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual
Publisher The Psychological Corporation
Date Available Fall 2006
Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS:E is a new test meant to complement the Receptive
Bracken instrument: The Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third
Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) detailed separately.
The BBCS:E assesses important educational concepts such as:
● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes,
direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, quality
time/sequence
Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS:E is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’s
basic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’s
understanding of basic concepts expressively.
● The purpose of the BBCS:E is to evaluate the acquisition of basic
concepts of a child expressively, and to determine cognitive and
language development for childhood academic achievement.
● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to the
educational curriculum
● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined through
Head Start and No Child left Behind Act
Age Range 3:0 through 6:11 years
Administration Time Individual; 30 minutes
Examiner Professional and paraprofessional
Scores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents
● Scoring Assistant software which quickly & accurately score test
results, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, and
create comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both the
BBCS–3:R and BBCS:E.
Language(s) English and Spanish
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
Assessment Tools 45
Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manual
Reliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manual
Uses Manipulative Materials None described
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations including
Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 46
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*
NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual
Publisher The Psychological Corporation
Date Available Fall 2006
Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-3:R is a revision of a test (including updated norms and
new items) meant to complement the Expressive Bracken instrument:
The Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) detailed
separately.
The BBCS-3:R assesses important educational concepts such as:
● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes,
direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, quality,
time/sequence
Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS-3:R is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’s
basic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’s
(receptive) understanding of basic concepts.
● The purpose of the BBCS-3:R is to evaluate the acquisition of
basic concepts of a child, and to determine cognitive and (receptive)
language development for childhood academic achievement.
● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to the
educational curriculum
● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined through
Head Start and No Child left Behind Act
Age Range 3:0 through 6:11 years
Administration Time Individual; 30 to 45 minutes
Examiner Professional and paraprofessional
Scores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents
● Scoring Assistant software which quickly and accurately score test
results, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, and
create comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both the
BBCS–3:R and BBCS:E.
Language(s) English and Spanish
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
Assessment Tools 47
Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manual
Reliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manual
Uses Manipulative Materials None described
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations including
Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 48
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*
NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual
Publisher The Psychological Corporation
Date 1998
Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-R consists of 308 items in 11 subtests assessing
relevant educational concepts for this age group, as follows:
● Colors -identification of primary colors and basic color terms
● Letters - knowledge of upper and lower case letters
● Numbers/Counting - number recognition and counting abilities
● Sizes - understanding of one-, two- and three-dimensional sized
concepts such as tall, short and thick
● Comparisons - matching or differentiating objects based on
salient characteristics
● Shapes - knowledge of basic one-, two-, and three-dimensional
shapes (e.g., line, square, cube), and abstract shape-related
concepts (e.g., space)
● Direction/Position - understanding concepts such as behind,
on, closed, left/right, and center
● Self-/Social-Awareness - understanding of emotions such as
angry and tired; understanding of terms describing kinship,
gender, relative ages, and social appropriateness
● Texture/Material - understanding terms of characteristics of an
object such as heavy and sharp; knowledge of composition of
objects, such as wood and glass
● Quantity - understanding of concepts involving relative
quantities, such as a lot, full and triple
● Time/Sequence - understanding of concepts related to timing,
duration and ordering of events, such as after and slow
● A School Readiness Composite (SRC) is constructed from the
first six subtests: Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting, Sizes,
Comparisons, and Shapes. A full battery score is created from
the 11 subtests.
Uses or purpose of instrument ● Designed to measure basic concept acquisition and receptive
language skills in young children - and to determine how familiar
children are with concepts that parents and teachers have taught
them to prepare them for a formal education.
● The BBCS-R is a developmentally sensitive measure enabling you to
assess important conceptual and receptive language abilities in
children rather than only their knowledge of common vocabulary words
Assessment Tools 49
● This measure is achievement-oriented, focusing on constructs
that children learn (or not learn) through instruction.
● The BBCS-R is designed to minimize verbal responses:
responses are either pointing or short verbal responses
● Because the BBCS-R minimizes verbal responses it can be
used as an ice-breaker exercise/warm-up before other
assessments. It is useful for children who are shy or those that
have any one of a variety of conditions that might limit their
participation in other assessments (e.g., autism, phobias)
● The BBCS-R remediates deficiencies in concept acquisition with
the Bracken Concept Development Program (BCDP)
□ comprehensive instructional program featuring colorful materials for
working with children experiencing gaps in concept development
□ primarily a multi-sensory approach which encourages hands-on
activities and experiences
Age Range 2.6 to 8 years
Administration Time The BBCS-R is un-timed so it varies (time for each subtest or full
battery is not provided); however, the SRC composite takes
approximately 30 minutes to administer (first 6 subtests)
□ Individual administration only
Examiner Professional
Scores ● Subtest and Composite, Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores,
and Concept Age Equivalents
● The BBCS-R uses basals and ceilings.
□ basal is established when a child passes three consecutive
items
□ ceiling is established within each subtest when a child
answers three items incorrectly
□ for each of the first 6 subtests, assessment always starts
with the first item of the respective scale
□ stating point for the remaining subtests is determined by the
child's SRC score
Language(s) English and Spanish versions available
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● English version of the BBCS-R is norm-referenced, criterion-
referenced, or curriculum-based assessment, depending on
purpose to be used.
The standardization sample was representative of the general U.S.
population of children between the ages of 2.6 and 8.0 and was
stratified by age, gender, race/ethnicity, region and parent
education. Demographic percentages were based on 1995 U.S.
census data.
● Spanish version of the BBCS-R is used as a criterion-referenced
Assessment Tools 50
curriculum-based measure only. Spanish-language forms are
designed for use with the English-language manual.
□ Norms were established on a Latino sample of 293 children.
Coefficient Alpha was used to assess internal consistency with r
ranging from .93 to .99. Grade Level: PK - 4
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
Validity ● Internal validity - intercorrelations among the SRC and subtests 7 to
11 for the full sample ranged from .58 to .72. In the full sample,
intercorrelations between subtests 7 to 11 and Total test scores
ranged from .79 to .87. The intercorrelations between SRC and
Total Test was .85 indicating that the subtests and the SRC were
reasonably consistent in their associations with the Total Test scores
● Concurrent validity - across studies correlations between the
BBCS-R scale scores and other measures ranged from .34 to .89
(most being above .70)
□ correlations between SRC scale scores and WPPSI-R ranged
from .76 to .88 (highest correlation being with the WPPSI-R Full
Scale IQ scores and lowest correlation being with the WPPSI-R
Performance IQ scores)
□ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and WPPSI-R
scale scores ranged from .72 to .85 with the lowest being the
correlation w/Performance IQ scores & the highest w/Full scale IQ scores
□ correlations between SRC and DAS scale scores ranged between .69
and .79 (highest correlation being with DAS General Conceptual Ability
scores & the lowest correlation being with the DAS Verbal Clusters scores
□ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and DAS scale
scores ranged from .74 to .88 with the lowest being the DAS Verbal
Cluster scores and the highest being the DAS General Conceptual Ability
scores
● The readers are encouraged to consult the manual for details on the
specific correlations described in numerous validity studies as follows:
□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of Basic
Concepts-Revised - .73 between Boehm-R scores and SRC scores; and
.89 between Boehm-R scores and BBCS-R full battery scores
□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of Basic
Preschool Version - .34 between Boehm-Preschool scores & SRC
scores; and .84 between Boehm-Preschool scores and BBCS-R full
battery scores
It should be noted that this large difference between correlations (.34
& .84) is difficult to interpret given that six scales making up the SRC
are also part of the BBCS-R full battery.
□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test - Third Edition - .69 between PPVT-III scores and SRC;
and .79 between PPVT-III scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores
Assessment Tools 51
□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Preschool Language
Scale-3 -between SRC scores and PLS-3 scale scores ranging from .46
to .57; and between PLS-3 scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores,
ranging from .74 to .84.
● Predictive Validity - SRC scores & scores on subtests 7 through 11
were found to be the strongest predictors of young children's academic
growth; stronger than children's chronological age, social skills and
perceptual motor skills.
● Discriminant validity - In study conducted with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old
children who were diagnosed with a language delay (with a receptive
component), as detailed in manual, BBCS-R correctly classified children
as to the presence or absence of a language disorder 74 % of the times.
Reliability ● Split-half reliability - analyses were conducted using the SRC,
subtests 7 to 11, and the full battery score. The average split-half
reliability across ages 2 years to 7 years ranged from .91 for the
to .98 the Total Test, with reliabilities estimates increasing slightly
between ages 2 and 5.
● Test-retest reliability - SRC was .88 The test-retest reliabilities
of subtests 7 to 11 were .78 for both Quantity and Time/Sequence,
.80 for Texture and Material, and .82 for both Direction/Position,
and Self-/Social Awareness. Test-rest reliability for Total Test was .94
Uses Manipulative Materials No
Adaptations for Special Needs N/A - but provides clinical studies on specific populations including
Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation
Related Instrument Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)- Non-verbal
screener which helps determine if a child may have an
underlying language disorder that requires further evaluation
(published in 2002)
● Easy to administer; includes the first six subtests from the Bracken Basic
Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R): Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting,
Sizes, Comparisons, and Shapes.
● Includes information on how to develop local norms based on your school
or area population to be more reflective of your clients - this will also help in
the process involved in establishing the criteria for identifying children
at-risk (or not at-risk) for educational failure.
● The BSRA is administered in English and Spanish; however, national
norms are provided for English only, but Spanish norms can be developed
using your Spanish-speaking population.
□ Scores - "(English) Composite Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores by
Age, Descriptive Classification (Spanish) Percent Mastery"
□ Administration Time: 10 - 15 minutes
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 52
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc.
Date 2005
Domains/Areas Assessed ● In common with other Brigance® screens, the Preschool
Screen II samples skills in the broad range of areas
including:
□ fine & gross motor
□ general knowledge
□ language
□ pre-academic/academic
□ graphomotor development
● Revision includes self-help and social emotional scales
● Preschool Screen II assesses:
□ personal data & color recognition
□ picture vocabulary including identifying use of objects
□ visual & gross-motor skills
□ identifying body parts
□ block tower building, number concepts, & rote counting
□ sentence repetition, prepositions, irregular plural nouns,
syntax & fluency, and following verbal directions
□ visual discrimination
□ feeding/eating skills & dressing/undressing skills
□ toileting skills
□ work/help skills
□ play skills & behaviors
□ gets along with others
Uses or Purpose of Instrument ● To record a sampling of children's language, motor, social-
emotional, and early learning skills
● To identify at-risk or gifted students early on
● To offer a parental component to children's education
● To provide useful information for planning heterogeneous or
homogeneous grouping
● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandated
screening compliance, as well as to indicate developmental
problems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - &
to identify children with academic talent or intellectual
giftedness
Age Range 2.0 to 2.5 for the Brigance® Early Preschool Screen - II
3.0 to 4.0 for the Brigance® Preschool Screen - II
Assessment Tools 53
Administration Time ● 10 - 15 minutes per child individually or in stations
● Screening can be done
● Some skills may be assessed in groups
Examiner(s) ● Professionals - Widely used in educational settings
Scores ● Age equivalents, standardized scores, growth indicators, at-
risk cut-off scores,& percentile scores
● Online secure browser-based program manages data
including:
□ program-wide data analysis based on demographic
factors
□ customized reports, tables, & statistical bar graphs for
district/program-wide analysis
● The Brigrance® online management system generates
custom reports detailing age equivalents, growth
indicators, at-risk cut-off scores, & evidence-based
standardized scores
Language(s) English & Spanish
Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Depending on the information being sought, the
Brigance® screens are both criterion-referenced &
normed-referenced
Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic
Validity ● There is abundant support for the content validity of the
Brigance screens & for the applicability of the screens in
educational settings.
Reliability ● Test-retest reliability in the lower grades - in the .85 range, &
the inter-rater reliability (.97), alternative forms reliability,
& internal consistency measures - also uniformly high
(.80 - .97+/-), according to publishers & related
literature
Uses Manipulative Materials No
Adaptations for Special Needs No
NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their
website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
Assessment Tools 54
THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH
Publisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc.
Date 2005
Domains/Areas Assessed ● The broad areas screened are the following:
□ general knowledge & comprehension
□ speech & language
□ fine-motor & gross-motor skills
□ pre-academic/academic
□ social-emotional & self-help scales
□ reading skills & manuscript writing
● Specific areas sampled include:
□ personal data (response & in print)
□ color recognition
□ visual discrimination, visual motor & gross motor
□ rote counting, number readiness, numerals in sequence
□ body parts & draws-a-person
□ syntax & fluency
□ reads upper or lower case letters, recites alphabet
□ auditory discrimination & listening vocabulary
□ phonemic awareness, decoding & word recognition
□ computation
□ work/help skills & feeding/eating skills
□ toileting skills
□ play skills & behaviors
□ gets along with others
● Supplemental assessments include uppercase letters
dictated, lowercase letters dictated, verbal concepts,
substitutes initial consonant sounds
Uses or purpose of instrument ● To screen key developmental & early academic skills
before entering kindergarten & first grade
● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandated
screening compliance, as well as to indicate
developmental
problems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - &
to identify children with academic talent or intellectual
giftedness
● At-risk guidelines for use in prevention programs is
included to identify children in need of prompt referral
● K & 1 Screen II correlates to Head Start Child Outcomes
Framework; Parent questionnaires add valuable
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Early lap assessment tools

  • 1. Assessment Tools 1 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT TOOLS
  • 2. Assessment Tools 2 Early Childhood Assessment Program Document prepared by: Walkiria Oliver Florida International University Miami, Florida NOTE: Factors such as (a child's) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperience or failure to establish rapport may invalidate a child's test scores. Individual users may have different experiences. The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers of the assessments and/or drawn from the examiner's manuals or other sources. For the sake of brevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing these instruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult the respective publisher directly. AP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of these these instruments and AP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errors and/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes, errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
  • 3. Assessment Tools 3 Table of Contents Foreword ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analyses ………………………………………………………………...7 Using Assessment to Inform Teaching or to Identify Special Needs ………………………………………………………………..20 Spanish Versions of Instruments Reviewed …………………………………………………………………………………………...22 Summary of Assessment Tools ..................…………………………………………………………………………………………… 23 Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®) …………………………………………………………….. 24 Ages and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II) …………………………………………………………………27 Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) …………………………………………………………………30 Basic Early Assessment of Reading (BEAR) ………………………………………………………………………………………32 Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..33 Battelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2) ……………………………………………………………………………35 Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2) ……………………………………………………......37 Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests- Normative Update (BVAT-NU) …………………………………………………………………...42 Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) ……………………………………………………………………………..44 Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) …………………………………………………………46 Bracken Basic Concept Scale -Revised (BBCS-R) …………………………………………………………………………...… 48 Brigance® Preschool Screen I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….52 Brigance K & 1 Screen II …………………………………………………………………………………………………………......54 Child Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2) ………………………………………………………………………………56 CELF® Preschool, Second Edition (CELF® Preschool-2) ……………………………………………………………………….58 Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment …………………………………………………………………61 Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-R) ……………………………………………………………………………..62 Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3) ………………………………………….....64 Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) ………………………………………………………………………………….66 Differential Ability Scales (DAS) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….68 Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP) …………………………………………………………………………………..70 Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K) ………………………………………………………………………................72 Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 74 Early Screening Profile (ESP) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76 FirstSTEp: Screening Test for Evaluating Preschoolers ……………………………………………………………………….. 78 Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) ……………………………………………………….. 80 Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D) ………………………………………………………….. 83 Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old) ………………………………………………………. 85 Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-R ………………………………………………….....87 Miller Assessments for Preschoolers (MAP) …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89 NEPSY® …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…90 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood (Early SB5) ………………………………………………………….. 92 Test of Mathematics Ability - Third Edition (TEMA-3) …………………………………………………………………………… 94 Test of Early Reading Ability - Third Edition (TERA-3) …………………………………………………………………………. 96 Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI™-III) …………………………………………. 98 Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Achievement ……………………………………………………………………… 101 Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities ………………………………………………………….............104 Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R) …………………………………………………………………… 107 Work Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4) …………………………………………………………………………………….110 Appendix A – Coding Scheme Used in Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 113 Appendix B – References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • 4. Assessment Tools 4 Early Childhood Assessment Program On behalf of the Early Learning Coalition of Miami-Dade/Monroe (ELCMDM) Counties and, as part of the planning for the 2007 Assessment Task Force being sponsored by ELCMDM, the Early Childhood Assessment Program (AP) located at Florida International University (FIU), University Campus, researched numerous assessments instruments which were developed for preschool children. The attached document entitled Early Childhood Tools evidences the results of this research. Due to the comprehensiveness of said results, the list of possible instruments to be reviewed by the Assessment Task Force was narrowed down according to specific criteria, and the instruments were rated based on a categorical matrix system. The assessment tools were either accepted or eliminated for inclusion in the final list of possible candidates of tools to be reviewed by the Assessment Task Force. (The AP staff’s expertise is in School Psychology, specializing in Early Childhood Assessments, thus they are fully qualified to make the original selection on behalf of ELCMDM.) Only thirteen (13) instruments from the original list met the final criteria from the matrix. Each criterion was used for these purposes as follows: I. Language Approximately twenty-five (25) instruments from the original list which had some type of Spanish version; of these thirty (30), only thirteen (13) instruments also met additional criteria. Thus, having a Spanish version became the first criteria when rating the instruments. Language is of utmost importance in selecting instruments to appropriately serve the Miami- Dade County population where many children are second-language learners (e.g., Spanish being the dominant language). II. Psychometrics Norm-referenced instruments with good psychometric properties were preferred (e.g., those with concurrent validity, predictive validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability correlations of, at least, above .70, preferably in the .80’s and .90’s.). Criterion- referenced instruments were expected to have lower psychometric properties, but preferential treatment was given to those that approached the .70 cut-off point. However, it is important to remember that with authentic-based assessments such as portfolios and teacher-rating scales, the cut-off scores in the field can be as low as .45 and still prove to be effective tools. III. Translated/Adaptations This criteria pertained to whether the Spanish version of the instrument was a literal translation from the English language (e.g., not desirable) or a true adaptation (e.g., desirable) where ideas and basic concepts are expressed in native patterns and colloquialisms.
  • 5. Assessment Tools 5 Unfortunately, few of the instruments either a) were adaptations from English into Spanish or b) had information on whether they were translated or adapted into Spanish from English. IV. Spanish-Speaking Norms This category has to do with whether, or not, the normative data was gathered from a Spanish-speaking population. For the purposes of making a determination on the selection of instruments, preferential treatment (or weigh) was given to the Spanish version of instruments which were standardized on this type of sample of children. Unfortunately, only three (3) instruments met these criteria. V. Reporting System (Friendly Recommendations) The fifth category of the matrix was tools with parent/teacher-friendly reporting systems. This category was critical because sometimes instruments which are child-friendly fail to provide usefulness to the parent or teacher. Given a) the young age of our preschool population and b) the current trend to work with the child before any referral can be made, the instruments with useful reporting systems were preferred over others. VI. Date Published The cut-off date of publication was 1990. Instruments that were developed before this time, though perhaps reviewed, were not even considered for the original list. The more recent instruments were preferred because since their norming samples were more current, they were generally more representative of the populations being tested today. VII. Examiner Characteristics This criterion was based on the examiner minimum qualifications as prescribed by the test publishers. The final eleven (11) instruments had examiner qualifications which ranged from that of a broad continuum (e.g., professional to paraprofessional) to being very narrow and specific in focus (e.g., licensed school psychologists only). There was no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. VIII. Administration This category had a specific cut-off point; specifically, +/-thirty minutes. Assessments with administration times less than thirty minutes - most of which were screeners - were given favorable ratings in the matrix; those with times over the thirty minutes were not given favorable ratings, unless the other criteria could justify doing so. Keeping this in mind, few tools with administration times over thirty minutes were able to meet criteria. The rationale for establishing this low cut-off point was to meet the intentions of the ELCMDM for 2007; in other words, to reduce the assessment time in order to increase the time in which to implement interventions.
  • 6. Assessment Tools 6 IX. Purpose This criteria was the most complicated to score. Principles and recommendations of the National Educational Goals Panel (NEGP) were used to operationalize the purposes of assessments - according to NEGP there are four: a) to support learning – P1, b) to screen for and/or identify special needs – P2, c) to meet program evaluation/monitoring objectives – P3, d) for high stakes accountability – P4. The original list was reviewed and scored in the matrix and the respective sub-grouping was chosen in the case of each instrument – P1, P2, P3, or P4. There was no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. However, the NEGP is clear about the risks of combining assessment purposes. The AP staff followed these recommendations when making final selection. X. Software This last criteria pertained to whether, or not, the tool had some type of computer program available, and if so, the extent to which the program would assist users (e.g., 1- just to enter data; 2- enter data & simple reporting system; 3- enter data, palm pilot program, plus all types of reports, including program evaluation, etc.). The instruments which had useful, better software were preferred, however, no tool was disqualified for poor or lack of software (e.g., this is a variable that can always be added or improved). XI. Other Considerations A. Type: Formal/ Informal This criteria was relevant to the extent that it is a dichotomous variable (e.g., categorizing the tool into an either/or sub-grouping). One sub-grouping is that of the formal assessments; the norm-referenced tools fall in this category. The other sub-grouping is that of the informal assessments; the criterion-referenced tools fall in this category. There was no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. B. Type: Domains-Multi/ Single This, too, is a dichotomous variable which categorizes tools according to the number of domains – whether multiple (e.g., assesses a number of different concepts/content areas) or single (e.g., assesses just one concept/content area). There was no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. XII. Summaries of Selected Instruments The following tables summarize the relevant information on each of the thirteen (13) final instruments chosen by the AP staff for the 2007 Assessment Task Force to review. Appendix A explains the coding scheme used in tables.
  • 7. Assessment Tools 7 Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analyses Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999 Diane Bricker, & Jane Squires, with assistance from Linda Mounts, LaWanda Potter, Robert Nickel, Elizabeth Twombly, et al Brookes Publishing Co. Contact: By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638- 3775 By FAX: 1-410-337-8539 By e-mail: custserv@brookespublishing.com  User’s Guide & (photocopiable) Questionnaires - $125.00  CD-ROM & User’s Guide - $125.00 English and Spanish versions are sold separately Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Multiple: Communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social (ea. domain is called a “questionnaire”) P2 – Identification of special needs Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multiple developmental skills 6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used for monitoring purposes) 10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental) Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Parent self-report 30-item Parents observe their child and complete simple questionnaires about their child's abilities (some activities prescribed) Visual Questionnaire Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Evaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box  Parents circle the appropriate item none Scoring: Scoring by professionals – Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are converted to 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child is considered to be competent (by parent completing questionnaires). Notes: Brookes Publishing offer ASQ Train-the-Trainer* programs with the test developers (or associate) at the following approximate costs: 1 day: $2200–$3575; 2 days: $4400–$4675 *These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees will vary.
  • 8. Assessment Tools 8 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002 Jane Squires, Diane Bricker, & Elizabeth Twombly, with assistance from Suzanne Yockelson, Maura Schoen Davis, & Younghee Kim Brookes Publishing Co. Contact: By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638- 3775 By FAX: 1-410-337-8539 By e-mail: custserv@brookespublishing.com  User’s Guide & (photocopiable) Questionnaires - $199  CD-ROM & User’s Guide - $199.00 English and Spanish versions are sold separately Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Single: Personal-social (self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people) P2 – Identification of special needs Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Social-emotional 6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used for monitoring purposes) 10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental) Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Parent self-report 32-item Parents are asked to respond to questions about their child’s social-emotional behaviors. Visual Questionnaire Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Evaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box  Parents circle the appropriate item none Scoring: Scoring by professionals – Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are converted to 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child is considered to be competent by the parent completing the questionnaire. Notes: Brookes Publishing offer ASQ: SE Train-the-Trainer* programs at the following approximate costs: 1 day: $1200–$1950 2 days: $1950–$2475 *These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees will vary.
  • 9. Assessment Tools 9 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2) Jean Newborg The Riverside Publishing Company  Kit w/manipulatives - $867.50  Complete kit plus software - $ 1,076.50  Screener Kit only – $171.50 Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Multi: Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication & Cognitive P1 – Support learning; P2 – Identification of special needs; P3 – Program evaluation/monitoring trends; and P4 – Accountability Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multiple developmental skills Birth to 8.0 years Individual Periodical  Full BDI-2: 1 to 2 hrs.  BDI-2 Screener: 10 to 30 minutes On-demand response Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Oral-Directed Varies Auditory Visual and mixed Multiple Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Child performance and oral response Scoring: Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software: the BDI-2 ScoringPro® software. Also available is the BDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application - Palm® Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions. Notes:
  • 10. Assessment Tools 10 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005 Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005 Albert H. Brigance Curriculum Associates®, Inc. Corporate Headquarters P.O. Box 2001 North Billerica, MA 01862-9914 info CAinc.com USA & Canada: Tel. (800) 225-0248 Fax (800) 366-1158 Order Desk: USA x – 432 Product Info: x - 62 Brigance® Manual with Building Blocks *  Early Preschool Screen II - $110.00  Preschool Screen II - $110.00 Brigance® Screens Scoring Software II with Technical Report Manual - $117.95 NOTE: *data sheets sold separately Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Multi: Fine and gross motor skills, receptive and expressive language, self-help skills, and social-emotional domains; assesses reading and math at older ages P1 – Support learning and P2 – Identification of special needs Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multiple developmental skills Age 2.0 to 4.0 Individual Periodical 10 to 15 minutes On-demand response Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Oral-Directed 44 skills Multi: Including personal data responses, block building, identifying objects by pointing, matching colors, naming objects from pictures, adding plural s’s and –ing endings, etc. Auditory, Visual and mixed Multiple Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Child performance and oral response Scoring: Correct responses are given credit based on examiner’s professional judgment plus directions in manual – either 1, 2 or 3 points. Notes: Also available are Class Summary Folders, Spanish Directions Booklets, and other Brigance® relevant materials
  • 11. Assessment Tools 11 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Child Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002 High/Scope Educational Research Foundation Tel. 1-800-40-PRESS press@highscope.org  Preschool Child Observation Record (COR), Second Edition - $174.95  Preschool Child Observation Record (COR) for CD-ROM, Second Edition - $199.95 (includes one user license) Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Multi: Initiative, Social Relations, Creative Representation, Movement & Music, Language & Literacy, Mathematics & Science P1 – Support learning Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi 2.6 to 6.0 years Individual Ongoing Ongoing Observational profile Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Running records Observational N/A N/A Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multiple - As occurring in natural environment Multiple Responses Multiple Responses Scoring: Score of 1 to 5 on 32 behaviors and skills with subscale scores for four broad categories Notes: For customized training contact High/Scope's Educational Services Division at 734/485-2000, ext. 218, or e-mail gavinh@highscope.org
  • 12. Assessment Tools 12 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005) Diane Trister Dodge, Laura Colker & Cate Heroman Teaching Strategies, Inc. P.O. Box 42243 Washington, DC 20015 Toll Free: 800-637-3652 Local: 202-362-7543 Fax: 202-364-7273 Complete Assessment System Kit - $89.95 (English & Spanish kits sold separately/same price) Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Multi: Includes social/emotional, physical, cognitive, & language developmental areas P1 – Support learning Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi Age 3.0 to 5.0 Ongoing 3 summary points per year recommended Ongoing Observational checklist Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Varies, includes observations, and oral- directed running records 11 interest areas ; multiple items in each area Observational N/A N/A Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multiple - As occurring in natural environment Multiple Responses Multiple Responses Scoring: Notes: The Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum for Ages 3-5 is a valid and reliable instrument which is the assessment component of The Creative Curriculum®
  • 13. Assessment Tools 13 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Third Edition(DIAL-3), 1998 Carol Mardell- Czudnowski & Dorothea S. Goldenberg AGS Publishing 4201 Woodland Road Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 phone 800.328.2560 / 651.287.7220 fax 800.471.8457 / 651.287.7223 customerservice@agsnet.com  Complete kit, inc. Speed DIAL (Eng./Spa.) – $469.99  Complete kit with ASSIST - $569.99 Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Domains - Physical, Cognitive, Communication, Social or Emotional, and Adaptive. Subtests - Motor - gross & fine motor development; Concepts – knowledge of basic concepts such as counting and colors; Language – receptive & expressive language; Self-Help Development – daily living skills in such areas as eating, drinking, & dressing, and; Social Development – skills in relating to others. (P2) - Developmental screening. DIAL-3 is an individually administered screening test designed to identify young children in need of further diagnostic assessment. Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi Age 3.0 - 6.11 Individual Periodic 20 -30 minutes; Speed DIAL (condensed version): 15 - 20 minutes Multiple: On-demand response from child; observational record; parent questionnaire Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Each item assesses unique behaviors. Some items consist of only one task (for example, catching), while other items include more than one task (for example, jumping, hopping, and skipping). Gross Motor items include catching, jumping, hopping, & skipping; Fine Motor items include building with blocks, cutting, copying shapes and letters, and writing, and a finger-touching task; Language items include answering simple personal questions, articulation, naming, or identifying objects and actions, plus phonemic awareness tasks; Concept items include pointing to named body parts, naming or identifying colors, rote counting, counting blocks & sorting shapes. Multiple Varies Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Depending on task, child's response could be oral/motor. Scoring: By hand or computer. Computerized scoring: ASSIST scoring software inc. optional report to parents, parent-child activities, and group reporting capabilities. Notes: Training options available. Optional 45-minute video is available in both languages to enhance training through visual examples of the screening situation and item administration.
  • 14. Assessment Tools 14 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit DECA Program, 1999 Paul A. Le Buffe & Jack A. Naglieri Kaplan Early Learning Company Tel.: 1-800-334-2014 or 336-766-7374 Fax: 1-800-7526 DECA Kit - $199.95 DECA rating form – approx. $1.00 ea. Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Protective Factors – Initiative, Attachment, Self-Control Behavioral Concerns (P2) Standardized assessment for protective factors; screener for behavior concerns Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Social-emotional Ages 2 through 5 Individual (parent & teacher) Periodic – 3 times p/year 10-15 minutes Observational record Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Questions to be rated (see scoring below) 37 Ea. item answers: “During the past 4 weeks, how often did the child...” Visual Rating Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Evaluation and decision-making (by parent & teacher, not child) checkmark none Scoring: Items are scored according to following Likert scale: Never (O); Rarely (1); Occasionally (2); Frequently (3); and Very Frequently (4) Notes: Contact Kaplan directly. A trainer can be contracted starting at approx. $1,200 + expenses per day/per trainer/Professional Development * (*Does not apply to Creative Curriculum Approach training). Keynote Address (if applicable) $3,000 + expenses Training fees are based on a maximum number of 35 participants Expenses include airfare or mileage, lodging, meals and training materials.
  • 15. Assessment Tools 15 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997 NOTE: ESI-R is a continuous protocol screener for children age 3 to 6 years old. ESI- P is for age 3 to 4 ½ while ESI-K is for children age 4 ½ to 6 years old. Samuel J. Meisels, Martha Stone Wiske, and Laura W. Henderson Pearson Early Learning Group 1185 Avenue of the Americas, 17th Floor New York, NY 10036 Tel.: 1.800.321.3106 Fax: 1.800.393.3156 ESI-P Kit, English version (Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50 ESI-P Kit, Spanish version (Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50 Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Developmental areas addressed: Score Sheet: Visual Motor/Adaptive, Language, and Cognition; (Social/Emotional is covered in the comments) Parent Questionnaire: Self- help skills (P2) - It identifies young children at risk for school failure — accurately, quickly, and cost effectively. Extensive research has shown the ESI-R to be both reliable and valid Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi Age 3 to 4 ½ Individual administered in home or center Periodic 15 to 20 minutes Multiple: On-demand response from child and observational Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Each item assesses unique behaviors. Some items consist of only one task while others items include more than one task along a continuum of development Some examples include: block building from imitation or from model, and cutting, copying shapes; catching, jumping, & skipping; Multiple Varies Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and processing involved Depending on task, child's response could be oral/motor Scoring: By hand or computer. Yields three scores: Refer, Re-screen and OK. - interpreted differently, depending on age group. For each item, the child receives from 0-3 points. Computerized scoring: ESI-Online (both ESI-P & ESI-K) scoring software includes downloadable user guides, data entry & automated scoring, printable score-sheets (Eng./Spa.) & parent questionnaires, class reports, report to parents, and tutorials.  Licensed annually at a cost of $2.95 p/child. Technical support available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EST, Mon. – Fri. For information on online products (including registration) call Leah Theodorou at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1775. Notes: Training videos demonstrating procedures and administration are sold separately; this is a recommended resource for every user. On-site training is available for a fee, plus expenses; to be able to negotiate better price and terms for training, (maybe a discount if included with the entire package), call company with the actual number of participants. For information on professional development and general product questions, call Dana Schmidek at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1763.
  • 16. Assessment Tools 16 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005 Nehring, Aubrey D.; Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni, John R., Jr.; Randolph, Patricia L.; Kaplan Press; Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman, Janet G.; Glover, M. Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L. Kaplan Early Learning Company 1-800-334-2014 (Mon. – Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST) mailto:info@kaplanco.com LAP-DIII Kit - $799.95 Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Four developmental areas: fine motor, gross motor, cognition, and language. Each area is contains two subscales. Language Naming & Language Comprehension; Fine Motor Manipulation & Fine Motor Writing; Gross Motor Body Movement & Gross Motor Object Movement, and; Cognitive Matching & Cognitive Counting (P1) & (P2) Results from the LAP-D can be used for developing IEP's and for classroom planning. Personal/Social and Self-Help Checklists are included, along with LAP-D Pupil/Teacher/Parent Planning Cards Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi 30-60 months individual Periodic Approx. 1 ½ hours (although this estimate does not take into account incidentals such as time to establish rapport with the child, bathroom breaks, rest periods, etc.) On-demand response, some items timed Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Each item assesses unique behavior Total 226 items but each subscale varies in # of items. Multi: including block building, from model or by imitation, identifying objects by pointing, matching colors, naming objects from pictures, to jumping, hopping, and skipping. Auditory, Visual and mixed Varies depending on item Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and processing involved Child performance and oral response Scoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot. The child reaches ceiling w/3 errors out of 5 consecutive items administered Notes: Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 17. Assessment Tools 17 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Learning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004 Kaplan Early Learning Company 1-800-334-2014 (Mon. – Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST) mailto:info@kaplanco.com Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Seven developmental domains, including: Gross Motor, Fine, Motor, Pre-Writing, Cognitive, Language, Self-Help, Personal/Social (P1) The purpose of the LAP 3 is to assist teachers plan instruction Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi Children functioning in the 36-72 month age range individual Periodic (at the beginning, middle, and end of the program year) or ongoing Approx. 1 ½ hours (although this estimate does not take into account incidentals such as time to establish rapport with the child, bathroom breaks, rest periods, etc.) On-demand response Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Each item assesses unique behavior Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Scoring: The LAP-3 neither assigns a diagnostic label nor yields statistically precise measures regarding a child’s level of functioning Notes: Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 18. Assessment Tools 18 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-D Screens-3 Yr. Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old) Nehring, Aubrey D.; Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni, John R., Jr.; Randolph, Patricia L.; Kaplan Press; Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman, Janet G.; Glover, M. Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L. Kaplan Early Learning Company 1-800-334-2014 (Mon. – Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST) mailto:info@kaplanco.com Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Four developmental domains inc. Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Cognitive & Language (P2) Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID Multi (“condensed” version of LAP-D) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children Individual, one-on-one only Periodic 12-15 minutes to administer On-demand response screen, some items timed Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit Each item assesses unique behavior 16 Multi: including block building, from model or by imitation, identifying objects by pointing, matching colors, naming objects from pictures, Auditory, Visual and mixed Varies depending on item Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Multi: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks and processing involved Child performance and oral response Scoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot. Results are divided into PASS (P) or REFER (R) Notes: Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 19. Assessment Tools 19 Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per Unit Work Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001 Pearson Early Learning Group 1185 Avenue of the Americas, 17th Floor New York, NY 10036 Tel.: 1.800.321.3106 Fax: 1.800.393.3156 Domains/Areas Assessed Overall Purpose Personal and social development; language and literacy; mathematical thinking; scientific thinking; social studies; the arts, and; physical development and health (P1) WSS is a curriculum-embedded assessment based on national and state standards which help teachers plan instruction. Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency of Administration Amount of time required to administer Assessment Model ID N/A Preschool - 6th grade N/A Ongoing N/A Observational record Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation Unit N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mental Processing Response Unit Student Response Children assessed in natural setting, in non-threatening- manner. N/A None specific Scoring: WSS does not involve point-in-time assessment scores, but rather, it charts the child's progress over time. Notes: Contact publishers for more information
  • 20. Assessment Tools 20 Using Assessment to Inform Teaching or to Identify Special Needs The following two options represent two different assessment models and the corresponding instruments which were reviewed. These assessment models are based on the NEGP principles and recommendations used to operationalize the purposes of assessments discussed above in Section IX.-Purpose. The FIU staff’s recommendation to the ELCMDM was to consider the use of two distinct types of instruments in their future planning, as follows: one instrument developed for instructional purposes, to help teachers plan their classroom activities to meet the children’s needs; another instrument developed along the lines of a diagnostic purpose, to screen for and identify special needs. The instruments are listed according to their corresponding purpose or function: (P1) Support Learning/Instructional Purpose: *Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2) *Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005 *Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005 Child Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002 Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005) *DECA Program, 1999 *Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005 *Learning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004 Work Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001 (P2) Screening Purpose: Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999 Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002 *Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2) *Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005 *Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005
  • 21. Assessment Tools 21 Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Third Edition(DIAL-3), 1998 *DECA Program, 1999 Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997 *Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005 *Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-D Screens-3 Yr. Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old) NOTE: *Instruments with more than one purpose.
  • 22. Assessment Tools 22 Spanish Versions of Instruments Reviewed Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®) ● Only Child Behavior Checklist (CBC) has a version in Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II) Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ ● Spanish adaptation/translation of WJ® III Battelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2) ● Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish) Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2) Bilingual Verval Ability Tests - Normative Update (BVAT-NU) Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised (BBCS-R) ● Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) Brigance K & 1 Screen II Child Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2) Creative Curriculum Developmental Continuum Assessment Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-R) Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3) Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP) Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K) Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P) Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D) Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old) Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-R Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised Work Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4) ● Some WSS-4 materials have been translated into Spanish
  • 23. Assessment Tools 23 Summary of Assessment Tools NOTE: Factors such as (a child's) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperience or failure to establish rapport may invalidate a child's test scores. Individual users may have different experiences. The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers of the assessments and/or drawn from the examiner's manuals or other sources. For the sake of brevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing these instruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult the respective publisher directly. AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of these these instruments and AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errors and/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes, errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
  • 24. Assessment Tools 24 NOTE: The following Information pertains to the Pre-School module of the comprehensive Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment which includes an integrated set of rating forms for ages 1.5 - 59+ THERE IS A SPANISH VERSION OF THE CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST Publisher ASEBA Date 2000 Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver- Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), revised in 2000, are a set of rating forms and profiles for the preschool-aged child. They replace the previous editions of CBCL/2-3 and C-TRF/2-5. ● CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST: parent report consisting of a 99- item child behavioral checklist (CBC) and a language development survey (LDS) that asks parents to provide the child's best multi- word phrases and words the child uses from a list of 310 words; the LSD indicates whether a child's vocabulary and word combinations are delayed relative to norms. ● CAREGIVER-TEACHER REPORT FORM: (CTR) a 99-item checklist similar to the CBC except 17 family-specific items have been replaced with group situation items. ● DSM-Oriented Scales: the 99 items in the CBC were organized into seven syndromes and two broader groupings of syndromes, while the 99 items in the CTR were organized into six of the CBC syndromes with two of the broader groupings: □ Internalizing: Emotionally reactive, Anxious/depressive, Somatic complaints, Withdrawn □ Externalizing: Attention problems, Aggressive behavior □ Ungrouped (CBC only): Sleep problem □ In the 2000 revision, the syndromes scored between forms are based on results of factor analyses □ DSM scales were constructed for the following categories: Affective Problems, Anxiety Problems, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Problems, Oppositional Defiant Problems, Pervasive Developmental Problems Uses or purpose of instrument ● Information collected from parents and caregivers/teachers is used to assess the behavioral, emotional, and social functioning (including language development) of young
  • 25. Assessment Tools 25 children between the ages of 1.5 and 5 years. ● To get a better understanding of how the child functions in different conditions, it is recommended that information be collected from more than one adult. ● The results can be used to structure interviews with parents, identify areas for intervention, and evaluate intervention outcomes; used in many setting including mental health clinics Age Range 1.5 to 5 years Administration Time 10 to 15 minutes to complete the forms (minimum 5th grade reading level) Examiner Parent/teacher self-report Scores ● The manual provides instructions for converting raw scores into T-scores; can be hand or computer scored with the Assessment Data Manager (ADM) software ● T-scores compare a child’s performance against other children & the scoring forms classify scores as normal (under 93%), borderline (93 to 97%), or clinical (over 97%); the authors recommend that the results be interpreted by someone with some graduate training. ● Respondents complete the CBC and CTR by circling one of three responses and the LDS by circling the words the child uses spontaneously. ● The behavioral raw scores are derived by summing the response item values (0, 1, or 2) for the syndrome scale, response syndrome groupings, and total score. ● The raw score for the language development survey is the total number of circled words. Language(s) CBC is in English, Spanish and French; other forms in English Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● CBCL/1.5-5 & C-TRF: re-normed as of 1999 □ LDS: Available norms for ages 18 to 35 months can indicate whether a child's expressive language is delayed relative to his chronological age Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic; at the discretion of the respective program Validity ● (1) Concurrent validity: The CBC correctly classified 84% of a sample of children (some of whom were diagnosed as having emotional/behavioral problems), and the CTR correctly classified 74% of the children. ● (2) Predictive validity: An 11-year longitudinal study found that children identified by the LDS to have language development
  • 26. Assessment Tools 26 problems were more likely to have weak verbal skills at age 13. Reliability ● (1) Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha): the CBC scales - ranged from .66 to .92 for the syndromes & .63 to .86 for the DSM-oriented scales: between .89 and .92 for the two broader groupings (internalizing & externalizing syndromes) & .95 for the total score; the CTR syndromes - ranged from .52 to .96 & for the the DSM-oriented scales from .68 to .93; and the internalizing and externalizing groupings - .89 and .96, respectively, and for the total score, .97. ● (2) Test-retest reliability (w/an 8-day interval between tests): the correlations were .85 and .76 for the CBC and CTR, respectively; studies on the LDS reported correlations greater or equal to .90. Uses Manipulative Materials N/A Adaptations for Special Needs None indicated OTHER: New Instrument Test Observation Form for Ages 2-18 (TOF) ● Empirically based & DSM-oriented assessment of behavioral & emotional problems during testing - documenting examiner's observations without written reports ● 125-items; separate norms for each gender; co-normed with Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 27. Assessment Tools 27 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher Brookes Publishing Company Date 1999 Domains/Areas Assessed ● Areas screened: Communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social ● There are 19 questionnaires (corresponding to 19 designated age intervals); each includes 30 developmental items to be completed by parents at designated age-intervals, assessing children in their natural environments with the goal of ensuring valid results. ● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the needs of diverse monitoring & screening programs: the entire Master set (all the age intervals) of questionnaires can be used or only some age intervals: at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and/or 60 months of age; using the Master set, screening programs may choose ASQ age intervals that fit their populations, program goals, & needs Uses or purpose of instrument ● Main Uses: 1) Comprehensive, first-level screening of large groups of infants and young children; 2) to monitor development of children who are at-risk for delays ● The forms are photocopiable which keeps costs low for preschools and, ultimately, parents ● Eight new questionnaires were added to this edition (since 1980) as a result of user feedback, extending the age-range of the system to create a more authentic means of measuring the rapidly developing skills of young children. ● Using parent-completed tools fulfills the spirit of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997, which calls for parents to be partners in their child's assessment and intervention activities. Age Range 4 to 60 months of age (5 years old) Administration Time Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to complete and approximately 3 minutes to score Examiner(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals; (in practice, the parents/caregivers complete the the questionnaires and the professionals score them; it can also
  • 28. Assessment Tools 28 be adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics) Scores ● Professionals convert parents' responses of yes, sometimes, and not yet to 10, 5, and 0, respectively — in just 2-3 minutes — to color-coded scoring sheets, enabling them to quickly determine a child's progress in each developmental area. ● A low total score is indicative of problems while a high score indicates the child is considered to be competent by the parent completing the questionnaire ● The User's Guide then offers clear guidelines for determining whether children are at high or low risk in the various domains. Language(s) English, Spanish, French and Korean; translations are in development in other languages including Mandarin and Arabic Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals) Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes, which is often) Validity ● Concurrent validity was studied by comparing the classifications of the child's performance based on parent questionnaire with that on professionally administered standardized tests; the instruments were: The Revised Gessell & Armatruda Developmental and Neurological Examination (1980); the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1969):; the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (1985); the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (1972); and the Battelle Developmental Inventory - BDI - (1984). □ A child was considered "identified" when his score fell below the cut-off point set at 2 standard deviations below the mean. ● Specificity (ability to correctly identify typically developing children) ranged from 81% to 92% with overall agreement of 86%; Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development) was lower, averaging 72%; according to publishers, in other studies it was as high as 96%. Reliability ● Test-retest reliability studies compared the results of questionnaires completed by parents in a two-week time period; the percentage of agreement based on the questionnaires was .94%; interobserver reliability compared questionnaires completed by parents with those completed by examiners; percentage of agreement was also .94% - in other words, 9 out of 10 times, there was agreement. ● Test-retest and interobserver reliability indicate that parents's perception of their children using the questionnaire were
  • 29. Assessment Tools 29 consistent over time; examiners's agreement with parental evaluations of children were consistently high ● Internal consistency analyses indicated a strong relationship across items and within areas on the questionnaires. Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environment Adaptations for Special Needs N/A; a however, subsample of children with disabilities was used to evaluate concurrent validity of questionnaires NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 30. Assessment Tools 30 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher Brookes Publishing Company Date 2002 Domains/Areas Assessed ● General areas screened: Personal-social (self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people) ● There are 8 questionnaires (corresponding to 8 designated age intervals); each includes 22 - 36 developmental items ● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the social-emotional needs of diverse monitoring & screening programs: the entire Master set of questionnaires can be used or only some of the age intervals, such as at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, and/or or 60 months of age; using the Master set, screening programs may choose ASQ-SE age intervals that fit their populations, program goals, and needs Uses or purpose of instrument ● The ASQ: SE is a series of 8 questionnaires designed to be completed by parents to address the emotional & social competence of young children. ● Created in response to feedback from Ages & Stages Questionnaires® - giving users an easy-to-use tool with a focus on children’s social-emotional behavior and all the advantages of ASQ — the opportunity for input (as the questionnaires are parent-completed) and the cost-effectiveness of the photocopiable forms; the instruments are research validated by professionals and also culturally sensitive. Age Range 6–60 months Administration Time ● Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to complete and approximately 3 minutes to score Examiner(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals; (in practice the parents/caregivers complete the the questionnaires and the professionals score them, & it can be adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics) Scores ● Professionals converted parents' responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely or never to 10, 5, and 0, &
  • 31. Assessment Tools 31 the total score, respectively — in just 2-3 minutes — to color- coded scoring sheets, enabling them to quickly determine a child's progress in each developmental area and total. ● Scoring pattern is opposite that of the ASQ - in the ASQ:SE a high total score is indicative of problems, while a low total score indicates the child is considered to be competent by the parent completing the questionnaire ● The User's Guide then offers clear guidelines for determining whether children are at high or low risk in the various domains. Language(s) Questionnaires in English and Spanish Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals) Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes - which is often) Validity ● Validity was studied by comparing the classification of questionnaires completed by parents with the classification of standardized assessments by trained examiners. Comparisons were made with the following instruments: □ the Child Behavior Checklist (1991, 1992); the Vineland Social-Emotional Early Childhood Scale (1998) ● Concurrent validity between the ASQ:SE & concurrent measures ranged from 81% to 95% with overall agreement of 93%; ● Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development) ranged from 71% to 85% with 78% overall sensitivity. ● Specificity (ability to screen correctly those children without delayed development) ranged from 90% to 98% with 95% overall specificity - supporting the usefulness of the ASQ:SE Reliability ● Investigated with over 3,000 children across the age intervals and their families. Test-retest reliability was 94% Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environment Adaptations for Special Needs N/A NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 32. Assessment Tools 32 Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company Date 2001 Domains/Areas Assessed The paper-pencil edition of BEAR is a suite of four criterion- referenced assessments of beginning reading and language arts skills, as follows: BEAR assesses progress toward developing four essential reading skills: Reading Basics, Language Arts, Comprehension, And Reading Fluency. There is a computer edition of BEAR which offers computer-assisted administration of the 4 subtests Uses or purpose of instrument To assess young students’ acquisition of the essential components of reading—phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading fluency. Age Range Grades: K through 3 rd Administration Time Un-timed, estimated administration: Initial-Skills Analysis 45-60 minutes total; Specific-Skills Analysis 30-40 minutes per content area; Oral Reading Fluency Assessment 15-30 minutes per passage or list; and Summative Assessment 30-40 minutes per content area. Examiner Professional or paraprofessional Scores ● Initial-Skills Analysis, Specific-Skill Analysis, and Summative Assessment via computer. program ● BEAR paper and pencil assessments help monitor student progress through-out the school-year Language(s) English Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referenced assessments Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing Validity & Reliability None described Uses Manipulative Materials Yes Adaptations for Special Needs N/A NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 33. Assessment Tools 33 THIS INSTRUMENT IS IN SPANISH The completely and newly revised Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ is a comprehensive set of tests that includes the Pruebas de habilidades cognitivas and Pruebas de aprovechamiento which are carefully adapted parallel Spanish versions of the Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ® III) - cognitive and achievement tests - and are also updated revisions of the Bateria-R. Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company Date 2005 Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Cognitive battery offers 6 major scales that yield a General Intellectual Ability (GIA) Score: □ Brief Scale □ Standard Scale □ Extended Scale □ Early Development Scale □ Bilingual scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement) □ Low verbal scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement) NOTE: □ A language-reduced General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score measures the intellectual ability of bilingual or multilingual individuals □ A Broad Cognitive-low Verbal score (BVC) identifies strengths in individuals with limited English skills ● The Achievement battery includes: □ Five tests of reading □ Four tests of oral language □ Four tests of mathematics □ Four tests of written language □ Five tests of academic language ● A Comparative Language Index (CLI) determines language dominance Uses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measurement of general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, oral language, and academic achievement ● Helps identify and diagnose leaning difficulties in Spanish- dominant individuals ● May be used with WJ® III to obtain a comparative language index to determine language dominance. ● Assesses specific cognitive abilities based on CHC theory ● Offers several options for brief as well as comprehensive Assessment Age Range 2.0 to 90.0+ years
  • 34. Assessment Tools 34 Administration Time Varies, approximately 5-10 minutes per test Examiner Professionals (commonly used by bilingual school psychologists in school settings ) ● Training required ● Practice sessions are recommended prior to "real" Administration Scores ● Scores obtained using Batería III: AE; GE; PR; SS; RPI; Instructional Ranges; Developmental Zones ● Optional scores offered for the Batería III: NCE; Z; Stanines; CALP ● Provides General Intellectual Ability (GIA) measurement, including a language-reduced Broad Cognitive Ability score as well as an early development GIA score ● Provides interpretive information from test and cluster scores that helps measure performance levels, determine educational progress, and identify individual strengths and weaknesses. ● Includes Compuscore® and Profiles Program - a computer scoring software which saves valuable professional time & significantly increases scoring accuracy □ Provides a brief summary report in both English and Spanish Language(s) Spanish Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - The norms are from the WJ III® - year 2000, which allows comparisons between an individual performance on the Batería III and the WJ III; includes co-normed cognitive and achievement batteries. Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic Validity Information not available at this time Reliability Information not available at this time Uses Manipulative Materials No Adaptations for Special Needs N/A NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 35. Assessment Tools 35 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company Date 2004 Domains/Areas Assessed ● Five (5) Domains: ● Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication & Cognitive Twenty-two (22) Subtests including, but not limited to the ● Expression of feelings, peer interaction, attention, personal responsibility, body coordination, fine motor, perceptual motor communication (receptive/expressive), perceptual discrimination, memory, conceptual development, reasoning & academic skills. Uses or purpose of instrument ● To assess and identify pre-k children w/disabilities ● To evaluate groups of pre-k children w/disabilities ● To assess the typically developing pre-k child ● To assess or screen for school readiness ● To use for program evaluation & accountability purposes ● The screening test consists of 96 of the 341 total items & identifies if there is a need for further examination ● The full BDI-2 provides useful information for eligibility or placement decisions ● Useful for Head Start mandates ● Matches all areas as required by IDEA Age Range Birth to 7 years/11 months Administration Time ● Complete BDI-2: 1 - 2 hours; ● Screening Test: 10 - 30 minutes Examiner(s) ● Can be administered by a team of professionals or by an experienced individual service provider Scores ● Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software: the BDI-2 ScoringPro software. Examiners can also use the BDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application - Palm® Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions ● Data is collected on electronic record forms. ● Examiners then hotsynch data to their local desktop & can use the scoring software
  • 36. Assessment Tools 36 ● Flexible web-based scoring options for use by team of professionals or single examiner ● Wide range of computerized reports to choose ● Scoring procedure for BDI-2 Screening are similar to those of the full BDI-2, but cut-off scores are provided to help identify children who need additional follow-up Language(s) ● English & Spanish ● The BDI-2 in Spanish can be administered entirely in Spanish in English, or both, in Spanish and English. The child is free to respond in either language. Flexibility paramount. Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced ● Normative data gathered nationally from over 2500 children between the ages of birth to 7 years 11 months - for the 2nd edition of instrument ● Sample closely matched the 2000 U.S. Census ● (The earlier version of the BDI-2 (BDI, 1985) was standardized nationally on approx. 800+/- subjects) Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic Validity Correlations are in the .79 to .94 range when compared to similar instruments - according to publishers &/or the related literature on the topic Reliability Test-Retest Reliability for the BDI Total was in the .90 to .99 range according to publishers &/or related literature Uses Manipulative Materials Yes Adaptations for Special Needs Yes SPANISH VERSION Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish) ● Translation/adaptation of the BDI-2 to be conducted in Spanish for use with non-English proficient children and caregivers; cut-off scores based on the BDI-2 standardization ● The BDI-2 Spanish may be either hand-scored or computer scored using the BDI-2 ScoringPro™ software. NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 37. Assessment Tools 37 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A SPANISH VERSION Publisher AGS Publishing Date 2005 Domains/Areas Assessed Overview: A comprehensive set of rating scales and forms including the Teacher Rating Scales (TRS), Parent Rating Scales (PRS), Self-Report of Personality (SRP), Student Observation System (SOS), and Structured Developmental History (SDH). ● By analyzing the child’s behavior from three perspectives— Self, Teacher, and Parent—one gets a more complete and balanced picture, as follows: □ Self Perspective - ○ Self-Report of Personality (SRP): provides insight into a child’s or adult’s thoughts and feelings. ○ Each form—child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12 to 21), college (ages 18 to 25)—includes validity scales for helping judge the quality of completed forms. ▪ A Spanish version is available for the child and adolescent forms. ○ The BASC-2 version includes an SRP-Interview (SRP-I) form for children 6-7 in which children provide simple yes-or-no responses to questions asked by examiner; responses are then recorded on a checklist - takes 20 minutes to complete. □ Teacher Perspectives - ○ Teacher Rating Scales (TRS): used to measure adaptive and problem behaviors in the preschool or school setting. ○ The forms describe specific behaviors that are rated on a four-point scale of frequency, ranging from “Never” to “Almost Always”; the TRS contains 100-139 items. ○ Student Observation System (SOS): used to code and record direct observations of a child’s behavior utilizing momentary time sampling—during 3-second intervals spaced 30 seconds apart for 15 minutes. ▪ SOS assesses both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, from positive peer interaction to repetitive motor movements ○ The SOS can also be used for the direct observation portion of a FBA (Functional Behavioral Assessment).
  • 38. Assessment Tools 38 ○ You can use the SOS on its own, or with other BASC-2 components. □ Parent Perspectives - ○ Parent Rating Scales (PRS): used to measure both adaptive and problem behaviors in the community and home setting. ○ The PRS contains 134-160 items and uses a four- choice response format. ○ Structured Developmental History (SDH): a 12-page history and background survey, helps when gathering crucial information for the diagnostic and treatment process. The SDH provides a thorough review of social, psychological, developmental, educational, and medical Information about a child. ○ You can use the SDH on its own, or with other BASC-2 Components. □ Activities of Daily Living, Adaptability, Aggression, Anxiety, Attention Problems, Atypicability, Conduct Problems, Depression, Functional Communication, Hyperactivity, Leadership, Learning Problems, Social Skills, Somatization, Study Skills, Withdrawal ● This revision of the BASC includes new scales: Functional Communication (TRS/PRS), Activities of Daily Living (PRS), Attention Problems (SRP), and Hyperactivity (SRP) Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BASC-2 is a multi-method, multi-dimensional system to evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of children young adults - it is multi-dimensional in that it has five components, which may be used individually, or in any combination, and that it measures numerous aspects of and personality, including positive (adaptive) as well as (clinical) dimensions ● BASC-2 is a well-established system for measuring behavior and emotions - together the comprehensive set of rating scales and forms will help you help understand the behaviors and emotions of children and adolescents. ● These scales measure areas important for both IDEA and DSM-IV classifications. In addition, the instrument is respected for its developmental sensitivity and provides the most extensive view of adaptive and maladaptive behavior. ● The uses of the basic BASC-2 tools are the following: □ To assess behavior patterns - Teacher Rating Scales (TRS); Parent Rating Scales (PRS); Student Observation System (SOS) □ To assess emotions and feelings - Self-Report of Personality (SRP) □ To gather background information - Structured
  • 39. Assessment Tools 39 Developmental History (SDH) ● A great benefit of the BASC-2 if that it differentiates between hyperactivity and attention problems. Age Range & Administration Time 2-0 through 21-11 (TRS and PRS) ● TRS: Teachers or other qualified observers can complete forms in about 10–20 minutes for each of the three age levels — preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), and adolescent (ages 12 to 21) ● PRS: Parents or caregivers can complete forms in about 10-20 minutes for each of the three age levels — preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), and adolescent (ages 12 to 21) ● 8-0 through college age (SRP) □ Each form takes about 30 minutes to complete for each of the three age levels - child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12 to 21), and college (ages 18 to 25) □ SRP-I (for ages 6 to 7) takes about 20 minutes to complete. Examiner ● Professionals - test users/examiners should have a Ph.D. in Psychology or be certified in School Psychology (applicable for administration of TRS, PRS, and SRP) ● Paraprofessionals with training and supervision - (applicable for administration of SOS and SDH) Scores ● T scores and percentiles, for a general population and clinical populations ● Parent Feedback Report: ○ Survey results are presented to parents by means of the Parent Feedback Report - the reports work with all age levels of the TRS, PRS, and SRP ○ Parents receive test results, interpretative information, definitions of behavior problems, an explanation of treatment approaches, and next steps ○ Includes a resource list. Language(s) English and Spanish ● BASC-2 test items on CD: For parents and students wh difficulty reading, test items are available on audio CD - and Spanish versions are offered for both the Parent Ra Scales and the Self-Report of Personality Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - Normed based on current U.S. Census population characteristics Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic Validity ● Concurrent: Groups of children with preexisting clinical diagnoses tend to have distinct BASC-2 profiles.
  • 40. Assessment Tools 40 ● Predictive: none ● Content: Item content came from teachers, parents, children, and psychologists, as well as from reference sources such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and other instruments. ● Instruments used in correlation studies: TRS - include Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form for Ages 1.5-5 (ASEBA) and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R; Conners, 1997). PRS - include ASEBA Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (ASEBA; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R; Conners, 1997) Reliability ● Internal consistency: TRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .87-.96 for Composites; and .75-.92 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5) within the range of .91-.96 for Composites; and .81-.93 for the Scales. PRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .85-.93 for Composites; and .77-.88 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5) within the range of .87-.93 for Composites; and (.70-.87) for the Scales. ● Test-retest: TRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .84-.87 for Composites; and .72-.87 for the Scales. PRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .81-.86 for Composites; and .72-.85 for the Scales. Uses Manipulative Materials No Adaptations for Special Needs N/A Software Programs ○ BASC-2 ASSIST™ PLUS: computer scoring and interpretation software which generates profiles, calculates validity indexes, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and computes multi-rater comparisons. ● Provides reports on all the optional content scales, target behaviors for intervention, and relationships to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria ▪ Because the content scales are optional, they are only available with the BASC-2 ASSIST Plus ▪ The optional seven TRS and PRS scales include anger control, bullying, developmental social disorders, emotional self-control, executive functioning, negative emotionality, and resiliency ▪ Form levels SRP-A and SRP-COL offer these four optional scales: anger control, ego strength, mania, and test anxiety
  • 41. Assessment Tools 41 ● Available for Windows and Macintosh. ○ BASC Portable Observation Program: lets users design their own template for observations in the classroom using their own desktop computer; they can then download the form onto their Personal Digital Assistant to record personal observations. Or, they can use their laptop computer to directly record their observations. Additional features of software program include: ● Streamline report-writing □ Electronic reports are archived as Portable Document Format (PDF) files □ Allows quickly retrieval of details needed to create in-depth, precise reports for IEP teams ● Track information over time ● Includes the detailed Student Observation System (SOS) □ Uses of the SOS are to: ▪ Collect diagnostic information ▪ Create focused treatment plans ▪ Monitor the effects of treatment NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 42. Assessment Tools 42 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher The Riverside Publishing Company Date 2006 - expected date Domains/Areas Assessed The Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests are comprised of three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Test of Cognitive Ability; Picture Vocabulary; Oral Vocabulary, and Verbal Analogies. ● These three subtests have been translated into eighteen languages, plus English. Uses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measure of overall verbal ability for bilingual individuals, or the unique combination of cognitive/academic language abilities possessed by bilingual individuals in English and another language. □ The need for this test is based in the reality that bilingual persons know some things in one language, some things in the other language, and some things in both languages - traditional procedures only allow the person's ability to be tested in the dominant language. ● The BVAT-NU can be used for a variety of purposes in bilingual education and clinical assessment; it can be used for entry and exit criteria for bilingual programs. It can be used to assess the academic potential of bilingual students through a comparison of his or her current level of English language proficiency to his or her bilingual verbal ability. ● The BVAT-NU can also be used in place of Tests 1 an 31 the WJ® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities to provide a general intellectual ability-bilingual (GIA-Bil) score. Age Range 5.0 to Adult Administration Time Varies. When using the BVAT-NU, the examiner administers the three subtests in English first. Any item that was missed is then administered in the native language. □ an estimate is approximately 30 minutes Examiner ● It may be administered either by one examiner who is fluent in the individual's two languages, or, alternatively, by a primary and ancillary examiner team when a bilingual examiner is not available.
  • 43. Assessment Tools 43 Scores ● Scores that can be generated by using the BVAT include: SS, PR, AE, GE, RPI, Instructional Ranges, CALP levels ● The BVAT-NU provides an overall score (BVA) which can be used to determine an individual's overall level of verbal ability. ● For comparative purposes, the BVAT-NU also provides a measure of English language proficiency. ● The BVAT yields an aptitude measure that can be used in conjunction with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement. ● A Scoring and Reporting Program is included with each test kit. This software program automates scoring procedures and provides a narrative report of the individual's bilingual verbal ability, English language proficiency, and language use and exposure. When used with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement, the achievement test results are scored and aptitude/ achievement discrepancies are calculated and interpreted. The program determines and explains whether any identified discrepancy is related to limitations of English language proficiency. Language(s) The languages available in BVAT -NU are: Arabic; Chinese Simplified; Chinese Traditional; French; German; Haitian-Creole; Hindi; Hmong; Italian; Japanese; Korean; Navajo; Polish; Portuguese; Russian; Spanish; Turkish; Vietnamese - plus English Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic Validity The construct validity of the BVA score was validated by comparing estimates of bilingual verbal ability obtained by two parallel, but independent, testing procedures. No further details were available, per results of search. Reliability According to the publishers, alternative form procedures reliabilities are provided for the BVA score. No further details were available, per results of search. Uses Manipulative Materials No Adaptations for Special Needs N/A NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 44. Assessment Tools 44 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH* NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual Publisher The Psychological Corporation Date Available Fall 2006 Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS:E is a new test meant to complement the Receptive Bracken instrument: The Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) detailed separately. The BBCS:E assesses important educational concepts such as: ● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes, direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, quality time/sequence Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS:E is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’s basic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’s understanding of basic concepts expressively. ● The purpose of the BBCS:E is to evaluate the acquisition of basic concepts of a child expressively, and to determine cognitive and language development for childhood academic achievement. ● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to the educational curriculum ● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined through Head Start and No Child left Behind Act Age Range 3:0 through 6:11 years Administration Time Individual; 30 minutes Examiner Professional and paraprofessional Scores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents ● Scoring Assistant software which quickly & accurately score test results, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, and create comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both the BBCS–3:R and BBCS:E. Language(s) English and Spanish Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
  • 45. Assessment Tools 45 Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manual Reliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manual Uses Manipulative Materials None described Adaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations including Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 46. Assessment Tools 46 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH* NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual Publisher The Psychological Corporation Date Available Fall 2006 Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-3:R is a revision of a test (including updated norms and new items) meant to complement the Expressive Bracken instrument: The Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) detailed separately. The BBCS-3:R assesses important educational concepts such as: ● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes, direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, quality, time/sequence Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS-3:R is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’s basic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’s (receptive) understanding of basic concepts. ● The purpose of the BBCS-3:R is to evaluate the acquisition of basic concepts of a child, and to determine cognitive and (receptive) language development for childhood academic achievement. ● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to the educational curriculum ● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined through Head Start and No Child left Behind Act Age Range 3:0 through 6:11 years Administration Time Individual; 30 to 45 minutes Examiner Professional and paraprofessional Scores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents ● Scoring Assistant software which quickly and accurately score test results, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, and create comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both the BBCS–3:R and BBCS:E. Language(s) English and Spanish Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
  • 47. Assessment Tools 47 Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manual Reliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manual Uses Manipulative Materials None described Adaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations including Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 48. Assessment Tools 48 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH* NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manual Publisher The Psychological Corporation Date 1998 Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-R consists of 308 items in 11 subtests assessing relevant educational concepts for this age group, as follows: ● Colors -identification of primary colors and basic color terms ● Letters - knowledge of upper and lower case letters ● Numbers/Counting - number recognition and counting abilities ● Sizes - understanding of one-, two- and three-dimensional sized concepts such as tall, short and thick ● Comparisons - matching or differentiating objects based on salient characteristics ● Shapes - knowledge of basic one-, two-, and three-dimensional shapes (e.g., line, square, cube), and abstract shape-related concepts (e.g., space) ● Direction/Position - understanding concepts such as behind, on, closed, left/right, and center ● Self-/Social-Awareness - understanding of emotions such as angry and tired; understanding of terms describing kinship, gender, relative ages, and social appropriateness ● Texture/Material - understanding terms of characteristics of an object such as heavy and sharp; knowledge of composition of objects, such as wood and glass ● Quantity - understanding of concepts involving relative quantities, such as a lot, full and triple ● Time/Sequence - understanding of concepts related to timing, duration and ordering of events, such as after and slow ● A School Readiness Composite (SRC) is constructed from the first six subtests: Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting, Sizes, Comparisons, and Shapes. A full battery score is created from the 11 subtests. Uses or purpose of instrument ● Designed to measure basic concept acquisition and receptive language skills in young children - and to determine how familiar children are with concepts that parents and teachers have taught them to prepare them for a formal education. ● The BBCS-R is a developmentally sensitive measure enabling you to assess important conceptual and receptive language abilities in children rather than only their knowledge of common vocabulary words
  • 49. Assessment Tools 49 ● This measure is achievement-oriented, focusing on constructs that children learn (or not learn) through instruction. ● The BBCS-R is designed to minimize verbal responses: responses are either pointing or short verbal responses ● Because the BBCS-R minimizes verbal responses it can be used as an ice-breaker exercise/warm-up before other assessments. It is useful for children who are shy or those that have any one of a variety of conditions that might limit their participation in other assessments (e.g., autism, phobias) ● The BBCS-R remediates deficiencies in concept acquisition with the Bracken Concept Development Program (BCDP) □ comprehensive instructional program featuring colorful materials for working with children experiencing gaps in concept development □ primarily a multi-sensory approach which encourages hands-on activities and experiences Age Range 2.6 to 8 years Administration Time The BBCS-R is un-timed so it varies (time for each subtest or full battery is not provided); however, the SRC composite takes approximately 30 minutes to administer (first 6 subtests) □ Individual administration only Examiner Professional Scores ● Subtest and Composite, Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores, and Concept Age Equivalents ● The BBCS-R uses basals and ceilings. □ basal is established when a child passes three consecutive items □ ceiling is established within each subtest when a child answers three items incorrectly □ for each of the first 6 subtests, assessment always starts with the first item of the respective scale □ stating point for the remaining subtests is determined by the child's SRC score Language(s) English and Spanish versions available Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● English version of the BBCS-R is norm-referenced, criterion- referenced, or curriculum-based assessment, depending on purpose to be used. The standardization sample was representative of the general U.S. population of children between the ages of 2.6 and 8.0 and was stratified by age, gender, race/ethnicity, region and parent education. Demographic percentages were based on 1995 U.S. census data. ● Spanish version of the BBCS-R is used as a criterion-referenced
  • 50. Assessment Tools 50 curriculum-based measure only. Spanish-language forms are designed for use with the English-language manual. □ Norms were established on a Latino sample of 293 children. Coefficient Alpha was used to assess internal consistency with r ranging from .93 to .99. Grade Level: PK - 4 Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress Validity ● Internal validity - intercorrelations among the SRC and subtests 7 to 11 for the full sample ranged from .58 to .72. In the full sample, intercorrelations between subtests 7 to 11 and Total test scores ranged from .79 to .87. The intercorrelations between SRC and Total Test was .85 indicating that the subtests and the SRC were reasonably consistent in their associations with the Total Test scores ● Concurrent validity - across studies correlations between the BBCS-R scale scores and other measures ranged from .34 to .89 (most being above .70) □ correlations between SRC scale scores and WPPSI-R ranged from .76 to .88 (highest correlation being with the WPPSI-R Full Scale IQ scores and lowest correlation being with the WPPSI-R Performance IQ scores) □ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and WPPSI-R scale scores ranged from .72 to .85 with the lowest being the correlation w/Performance IQ scores & the highest w/Full scale IQ scores □ correlations between SRC and DAS scale scores ranged between .69 and .79 (highest correlation being with DAS General Conceptual Ability scores & the lowest correlation being with the DAS Verbal Clusters scores □ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and DAS scale scores ranged from .74 to .88 with the lowest being the DAS Verbal Cluster scores and the highest being the DAS General Conceptual Ability scores ● The readers are encouraged to consult the manual for details on the specific correlations described in numerous validity studies as follows: □ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised - .73 between Boehm-R scores and SRC scores; and .89 between Boehm-R scores and BBCS-R full battery scores □ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of Basic Preschool Version - .34 between Boehm-Preschool scores & SRC scores; and .84 between Boehm-Preschool scores and BBCS-R full battery scores It should be noted that this large difference between correlations (.34 & .84) is difficult to interpret given that six scales making up the SRC are also part of the BBCS-R full battery. □ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Third Edition - .69 between PPVT-III scores and SRC; and .79 between PPVT-III scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores
  • 51. Assessment Tools 51 □ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Preschool Language Scale-3 -between SRC scores and PLS-3 scale scores ranging from .46 to .57; and between PLS-3 scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores, ranging from .74 to .84. ● Predictive Validity - SRC scores & scores on subtests 7 through 11 were found to be the strongest predictors of young children's academic growth; stronger than children's chronological age, social skills and perceptual motor skills. ● Discriminant validity - In study conducted with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children who were diagnosed with a language delay (with a receptive component), as detailed in manual, BBCS-R correctly classified children as to the presence or absence of a language disorder 74 % of the times. Reliability ● Split-half reliability - analyses were conducted using the SRC, subtests 7 to 11, and the full battery score. The average split-half reliability across ages 2 years to 7 years ranged from .91 for the to .98 the Total Test, with reliabilities estimates increasing slightly between ages 2 and 5. ● Test-retest reliability - SRC was .88 The test-retest reliabilities of subtests 7 to 11 were .78 for both Quantity and Time/Sequence, .80 for Texture and Material, and .82 for both Direction/Position, and Self-/Social Awareness. Test-rest reliability for Total Test was .94 Uses Manipulative Materials No Adaptations for Special Needs N/A - but provides clinical studies on specific populations including Developmental Delayed and Mental Retardation Related Instrument Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)- Non-verbal screener which helps determine if a child may have an underlying language disorder that requires further evaluation (published in 2002) ● Easy to administer; includes the first six subtests from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R): Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting, Sizes, Comparisons, and Shapes. ● Includes information on how to develop local norms based on your school or area population to be more reflective of your clients - this will also help in the process involved in establishing the criteria for identifying children at-risk (or not at-risk) for educational failure. ● The BSRA is administered in English and Spanish; however, national norms are provided for English only, but Spanish norms can be developed using your Spanish-speaking population. □ Scores - "(English) Composite Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores by Age, Descriptive Classification (Spanish) Percent Mastery" □ Administration Time: 10 - 15 minutes NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 52. Assessment Tools 52 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc. Date 2005 Domains/Areas Assessed ● In common with other Brigance® screens, the Preschool Screen II samples skills in the broad range of areas including: □ fine & gross motor □ general knowledge □ language □ pre-academic/academic □ graphomotor development ● Revision includes self-help and social emotional scales ● Preschool Screen II assesses: □ personal data & color recognition □ picture vocabulary including identifying use of objects □ visual & gross-motor skills □ identifying body parts □ block tower building, number concepts, & rote counting □ sentence repetition, prepositions, irregular plural nouns, syntax & fluency, and following verbal directions □ visual discrimination □ feeding/eating skills & dressing/undressing skills □ toileting skills □ work/help skills □ play skills & behaviors □ gets along with others Uses or Purpose of Instrument ● To record a sampling of children's language, motor, social- emotional, and early learning skills ● To identify at-risk or gifted students early on ● To offer a parental component to children's education ● To provide useful information for planning heterogeneous or homogeneous grouping ● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandated screening compliance, as well as to indicate developmental problems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - & to identify children with academic talent or intellectual giftedness Age Range 2.0 to 2.5 for the Brigance® Early Preschool Screen - II 3.0 to 4.0 for the Brigance® Preschool Screen - II
  • 53. Assessment Tools 53 Administration Time ● 10 - 15 minutes per child individually or in stations ● Screening can be done ● Some skills may be assessed in groups Examiner(s) ● Professionals - Widely used in educational settings Scores ● Age equivalents, standardized scores, growth indicators, at- risk cut-off scores,& percentile scores ● Online secure browser-based program manages data including: □ program-wide data analysis based on demographic factors □ customized reports, tables, & statistical bar graphs for district/program-wide analysis ● The Brigrance® online management system generates custom reports detailing age equivalents, growth indicators, at-risk cut-off scores, & evidence-based standardized scores Language(s) English & Spanish Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Depending on the information being sought, the Brigance® screens are both criterion-referenced & normed-referenced Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic Validity ● There is abundant support for the content validity of the Brigance screens & for the applicability of the screens in educational settings. Reliability ● Test-retest reliability in the lower grades - in the .85 range, & the inter-rater reliability (.97), alternative forms reliability, & internal consistency measures - also uniformly high (.80 - .97+/-), according to publishers & related literature Uses Manipulative Materials No Adaptations for Special Needs No NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or their website. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 54. Assessment Tools 54 THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH Publisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc. Date 2005 Domains/Areas Assessed ● The broad areas screened are the following: □ general knowledge & comprehension □ speech & language □ fine-motor & gross-motor skills □ pre-academic/academic □ social-emotional & self-help scales □ reading skills & manuscript writing ● Specific areas sampled include: □ personal data (response & in print) □ color recognition □ visual discrimination, visual motor & gross motor □ rote counting, number readiness, numerals in sequence □ body parts & draws-a-person □ syntax & fluency □ reads upper or lower case letters, recites alphabet □ auditory discrimination & listening vocabulary □ phonemic awareness, decoding & word recognition □ computation □ work/help skills & feeding/eating skills □ toileting skills □ play skills & behaviors □ gets along with others ● Supplemental assessments include uppercase letters dictated, lowercase letters dictated, verbal concepts, substitutes initial consonant sounds Uses or purpose of instrument ● To screen key developmental & early academic skills before entering kindergarten & first grade ● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandated screening compliance, as well as to indicate developmental problems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - & to identify children with academic talent or intellectual giftedness ● At-risk guidelines for use in prevention programs is included to identify children in need of prompt referral ● K & 1 Screen II correlates to Head Start Child Outcomes Framework; Parent questionnaires add valuable