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A rotary dryer is used to dry sand with the following specifications: - Wet sand at 30°C with 7% moisture is dried to 0.5% moisture at 115°C. - 20 metric tons of dried sand is produced per hour. - Bunker oil at 41870 kJ/kg HHV is used as fuel with an efficiency of 60%. Calculating the heat requirements and fuel consumption rate, 204 kg/hr of bunker oil is needed, equivalent to 227 liters/hr.

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Thermodynamics problems

Thermodynamics problems

Thermo problem set no. 2

Thermo problem set no. 2

3. Steady state heat transfer in a slab

3. Steady state heat transfer in a slab

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Thermodynamics problems

This document contains multiple problems involving ideal gas processes. The first problem describes a steady flow compressor handling nitrogen with known intake conditions and discharge pressure. It asks to determine the final temperature and work for two process types. The second problem involves air in a cylinder being compressed in a polytropic process with known initial and final pressures and temperatures. It asks to determine the work and heat transfer. The third problem describes a gas turbine expanding helium polytropically and asks to determine the final pressure, power produced, heat loss, and entropy change.

Thermo problem set no. 2

This document contains a 16 question multiple choice mechanical engineering review problem set. It covers topics including: specific weight calculations, changes in weight due to elevation, pressure and force calculations for scuba diving, determining height using barometer readings, properties of gas mixtures, heat transfer between materials, gas turbine processes, combustion calculations, and thermodynamic processes including changes in temperature, pressure, volume, entropy and heat/work.

3. Steady state heat transfer in a slab

This lecture discusses steady state heat transfer through composite slabs. It provides examples of calculating heat transfer rate, thermal resistances, and intermediate temperatures in multi-layer slabs. The examples solve for overall heat transfer coefficient and surface temperatures in furnace walls, double pane windows, and oven walls consisting of multiple materials and layers.

Refrigeration system 2

Refrigeration is the process of cooling a substance below the temperature of its surroundings. Major uses include air conditioning, food preservation, and industrial processes. A ton of refrigeration is the heat required to melt 1 ton of ice in 24 hours. The Carnot refrigeration cycle involves heat addition, heat rejection, and net work to transfer heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir. The vapor compression cycle uses the same processes as the Carnot cycle and is commonly used in refrigeration systems. It involves compression, condensation, expansion, and evaporation. Refrigerants are circulated through the system's main components: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. Multi-pressure and cascade systems

Design of condenser

A condenser is a heat exchanger that transfers vapors into a liquid state by removing latent heat with a coolant like water. This document provides design calculations for an 8 unit shell and tube condenser with 1030 tubes that uses cold water as the coolant to condense steam at a rate of 8060 kg/hr and 4343 kW of heat duty. Key specifications are provided, like a calculated overall heat transfer coefficient of 1100.97 W/m2C and pressure drops of 0.59 psi for the tube side and 0.109 psi for the shell side. References on condenser design are also listed.

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2. Fluid Statics

Introduction, Pressure specifications, Hydrostatic pressure distributions, Manometer, Hydrostatic Forces on plane surfaces, Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces, Buoyancy and Stability, Pressure variation with rigid body motion

Sheet 1 pressure measurments

The document contains 7 problems involving the use of manometers and pressure calculations:
1) Calculating pressure differences using the formula for pressure as a function of depth and density.
2) Finding the pressure at the bottom of a lake using atmospheric pressure and the lake depth.
3) Calculating a pressure difference using a U-tube manometer filled with water and connected between two points in a pipe carrying air.
4) Determining the additional pressure needed to raise the liquid interface in a complicated U-tube manometer system containing two liquids of different densities.
5) Using a U-tube manometer containing mercury to determine the pressure reading of a pressure gauge, given column heights of

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 7. Compressible flow

Introduction, Speed of sound, Steady flow, Flow with area change- Nozzles and Diffusers, Normal shock wave, Duct flow with friction

Cooling tower full report

This experiment studied the effects of cooling load and inlet water temperature on a cooling tower's performance. In experiment 1, cooling load was varied at 0.5 kW, 1 kW, and 1.5 kW while water flow rate and air flow were held constant. Higher cooling loads resulted in larger cooling ranges between inlet and outlet water temperatures. Experiment 2 varied water flow rate from 0.8 LPM to 1.6 LPM at a 1 kW cooling load. Higher water flow rates produced smaller cooling ranges and lower heat loads transferred. The results show that increasing cooling load or decreasing water flow rate improves a cooling tower's heat removal capabilities.

Thermo problem set no. 1

This document contains 20 multiple choice problems related to mechanical engineering. The problems cover topics such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and other mechanical engineering principles. They involve calculations related to things like tank volumes, pressure differences, flow rates, heat transfer between substances, and more. The questions provide relevant equations, known values, and ask the reader to determine unknown values or temperatures based on the given information.

Design of machine elements - DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

This document provides solutions to design problems involving the sizing of structural members based on their material properties and applied loads. Problem 1 involves sizing the cross-sectional dimensions of a steel link based on ultimate strength, yield strength, and allowable elongation. Problem 2 is similar but for a malleable iron link. Problem 3 considers a gray iron link. Subsequent problems involve sizing members made of various materials, including steel, cast steel, and bronze, based on factors like ultimate strength, yield strength, and applied tensile, compressive, and shear loads. Check problems 9-13 provide additional practice sizing members and calculating values like number of holes that can be punched or bearing length.

Hydro electric power plant

This document summarizes different types of hydroelectric power plants and turbines. It describes impulse and reaction turbines, including Pelton, Francis, and Kaplan turbines. It provides diagrams of hydroelectric and pump storage plants. Key concepts covered include gross and net heads, discharge, water power, brake power, efficiency, and speed. Fundamental equations for hydroelectric systems are given. Common terms are defined. Sample problems demonstrate calculations for hydroelectric plant design and performance analysis.

The psychrometric chart theory and application

The document discusses the psychrometric chart and various psychrometric processes involving moist air. It begins by identifying parts of the psychrometric chart and explaining how it can be used to determine moist air properties and analyze processes involving moist air. Several examples are then provided to illustrate key psychrometric processes including sensible heating/cooling, heating and humidifying, cooling and dehumidifying, adiabatic or evaporative cooling, and adiabatic mixing of moist air streams.

Effectiveness for Counterflow heat exchanger

1) The document discusses counter-flow heat exchangers and defines the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) for calculating heat transfer in counter-flow exchangers.
2) It then defines effectiveness as the ratio of actual heat transfer to maximum possible heat transfer and derives an equation for effectiveness in terms of the number of transfer units (NTU) and heat capacity ratio (R).
3) An example problem is then presented to calculate the mass flow rate of cooling water, effectiveness, and required heat exchange area for a given counter-flow exchanger problem.

group 2 problem set 7

The document discusses calculating the temperature at the boundary between a refractory brick layer and insulating material layer in a plane wall. Given information includes the thicknesses of each layer, thermal conductivities, and temperatures on both surfaces. The calculated temperature at the boundary is 867.75°C. Another example calculates the time to cool a glass sheet submerged in water from an initial to average final temperature. The calculated time is 130.21 hours.

Group 6-4ChEA

The document summarizes the solution to a heat transfer problem involving a slab of rubber initially at 20°C placed between steel plates at 140°C. It is calculated that:
1) The heating time for the rubber's midplane to reach 132°C is 10.81 seconds.
2) The temperature 0.65cm from the metal after this time is 117.8°C.
3) The time required for the temperature at this point to reach 132°C is 2.7 seconds.

Rankine cycle

This presentation discusses the Rankine cycle, which is used in 90% of power plants worldwide. It introduces William Rankine, who helped develop thermodynamics. The presentation covers the ideal Rankine cycle and modifications like reheat and regeneration cycles that improve efficiency. Reheat cycles add a second turbine, while regeneration cycles use extracted steam to preheat feedwater, improving heat transfer and efficiency. The document aims to explain these Rankine cycle variations and their advantages over the basic cycle.

Dimensionless number

The document defines and provides the significance of 20 dimensionless numbers used in fluid mechanics and heat transfer analyses. It states the variables and equations used to calculate each number, such as the Reynolds number being the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, the Froude number comparing inertia to gravity forces, and the Nusselt number relating convective to conductive heat transfer. The dimensionless numbers described are used to characterize different types of flows and analyze phenomena involving forces, heat and mass transfer, phase changes, lubrication, and more.

Calibration of Venturi and Orifice Meters

This experiment aims to calibrate venturi and orifice flow meters by plotting the coefficient of discharge against Reynolds number for each and measuring the pressure drop across them at various flow rates. A known volume of water is passed through the meters and the flow rate is calculated. For both meters, the coefficient of discharge increases as the Reynolds number decreases, and the pressure drop increases non-linearly with flow rate, with a greater pressure drop observed for the orifice meter.

Thermodynamics problems

Thermodynamics problems

Thermo problem set no. 2

Thermo problem set no. 2

3. Steady state heat transfer in a slab

3. Steady state heat transfer in a slab

Refrigeration system 2

Refrigeration system 2

Design of condenser

Design of condenser

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2. Fluid Statics

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2. Fluid Statics

Sheet 1 pressure measurments

Sheet 1 pressure measurments

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 7. Compressible flow

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 7. Compressible flow

Cooling tower full report

Cooling tower full report

Thermo problem set no. 1

Thermo problem set no. 1

Design of machine elements - DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design of machine elements - DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Hydro electric power plant

Hydro electric power plant

The psychrometric chart theory and application

The psychrometric chart theory and application

Effectiveness for Counterflow heat exchanger

Effectiveness for Counterflow heat exchanger

group 2 problem set 7

group 2 problem set 7

Group 6-4ChEA

Group 6-4ChEA

Rankine cycle

Rankine cycle

4cheagrp3

4cheagrp3

Dimensionless number

Dimensionless number

Calibration of Venturi and Orifice Meters

Calibration of Venturi and Orifice Meters

Design of Bagasse Dryer to Recover Energy of Water Tube Boiler in a Sugar Fac...

Design of Bagasse Dryer to Recover Energy of Water Tube Boiler in a Sugar Fac...International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

Drying bagasse by using flue gas which comes from air preheater to chimney is an optimum solution to enhance efficiency of boiler in sugar factory as bagasse has high calorific value but due to its moisture about 50% not able to use its full heat. The present work suggest to place Cylindrical shell type dryer, in between the air preheater and chimney, and flue gas pass from dryer’s one end and from another end bagasse by carriage, makes dryer to act as a counter flow heat exchanger where flue gas gives its heat at 190°C to the bagasse at 45°C this reduce moisture of bagasse from 50% to 46%, increased CV of bagasse around 784 KJ/kg which increases boiler efficiency from 79% to 81% in sugar industries.
HdhdPM3125_Lectures_16to17_Evaporation.ppt

This document summarizes the content of lectures on evaporation processes, including factors affecting evaporation, types of evaporators, and mathematical problems involving evaporation. It provides an example problem calculating requirements for a triple effect evaporator, including steam needs, heat transfer areas, evaporating temperatures in each effect, and steam economy. It also discusses optimizing the boiling time to maximize throughput or minimize costs by balancing heat transfer rate reductions from scale buildup with shutdown frequencies.

[W f stoecker]_refrigeration_and_a_ir_conditioning_(book_zz.org)

- The document describes thermal principles and psychrometric concepts.
- It provides solutions to example problems involving state changes of water, heat transfer calculations, psychrometric chart readings, and enthalpy/humidity ratio determinations.
- Key concepts covered include the use of steam tables, Bernoulli's equation, psychrometric equations, and heat transfer relationships for convection and radiation.

Psychrometry

The document discusses the psychrometric chart and various psychrometric processes involving moist air. It begins by identifying parts of the psychrometric chart and explaining how it can be used to determine moist air properties and analyze processes involving moist air. Several examples are then provided to illustrate key psychrometric processes including sensible heating/cooling, heating and humidifying, cooling and dehumidifying, adiabatic or evaporative cooling, and adiabatic mixing of moist air streams. Step-by-step workings are shown for each example to determine various moist air properties and mass transfer rates.

Psychrometric

This document discusses psychrometric processes and the psychrometric chart. It provides examples of how to use the chart to determine properties of moist air and analyze processes involving changes in temperature and humidity, including sensible heating and cooling, heating and humidifying, and cooling and dehumidifying. Step-by-step worked examples are provided to illustrate cooling and dehumidifying processes and calculating the refrigeration required. Adiabatic or evaporative cooling processes are also defined.

Agroklimatologi 7

This document discusses concepts related to atmospheric climate including:
1. It provides equations for calculating barometric pressure, temperature, and density at different heights above sea level.
2. It explains concepts like water vapor pressure, absolute humidity, mixing ratio, specific humidity, and relative humidity. Formulas are given for calculating each of these.
3. An example calculation is shown that determines values like vapor pressure, dew point temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, mixing ratio, and vapor pressure deficit based on measurements from a psychrometer.

Energy balance.pptx

1) A turbine operates with steam entering at 44 atm and 450°C and leaving at 360 m/s. It delivers 70 kW of shaft work and loses 10^4 kcal/h of heat. The specific enthalpy change is calculated as -6.50630*10^5 J/kg.
2) A textile dryer consuming 4 m3/h of natural gas with an efficiency of 47.46% is calculated based on drying 60 kg/h of cloth from 55% to 10% moisture content.
3) The standard heat of reaction is calculated to be -904 kJ/mole for the reaction 4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H

Production of 1-Tetradecene at 100 tons per year

This document summarizes a student project to produce 100 tons per year of 1-tetradecene. It outlines the goal, characteristics, manufacturing process, chemical reaction, mass and energy balances, design of equipment like heat exchangers and reactors, simulation results, and process economics. The overall feasibility study examines producing the unsaturated drying oil 1-tetradecene through acetylation of castor oil and determines the necessary feedstock, equipment, utilities, and costs to construct a plant capable of the desired annual production.

psychrometric chart & processes.pdf

The document discusses the psychrometric chart and its applications:
- It identifies key parts of the psychrometric chart and explains how to determine moist air properties and analyze processes involving moist air using the chart.
- It provides examples of common psychrometric processes including sensible heating/cooling, heating and humidifying, cooling and dehumidifying, adiabatic or evaporative cooling, and adiabatic mixing of moist air streams. Each example walks through calculating relevant properties at each state point using the chart.

MANUFACTURE OF CHLORINE - CAUSTIC SODA USING ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS (MEMBRANE C...

This document summarizes the process of manufacturing chlorine and caustic soda using electrolysis. It includes:
- A process flow diagram of the membrane cell process used to separate NaCl into NaOH, H2, and Cl2 via electrolysis.
- Material and energy balances calculations for each unit operation including the membrane cell, evaporator, and dryer. These calculate chemical reactions, flows, heating needs and efficiencies.
- The process achieves 70.28% conversion of NaCl and 27.37% yield of NaOH from the reacted NaCl. Waste streams and energy requirements are also quantified.

Lecture-1.pdf

Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an object or space to lower its temperature. One ton of refrigeration is defined as the ability to remove 12,000 British Thermal Units (BTU) of heat per hour from an object or space. Common units for measuring refrigeration include BTU, kilocalories, kilojoules, and kilowatts. The coefficient of performance is a measure of how efficiently a refrigeration or heat pump system operates, and is calculated as the ratio of heat removed or added to work input. The Carnot cycle represents the most efficient theoretical refrigeration cycle according to thermodynamic principles.

Cooling tower

A cooling tower uses fillings inside a shell to expose water to circulating air, cooling the water through evaporation. Hot water is pumped in and falls as spray, cooling in the fillings before collecting in the basin. The air picks up moisture, becoming partially saturated. Key equations calculate cooling range, efficiency, vapor pressure, enthalpy, and mass/energy balances to relate water and air temperatures, flows, and properties for tower design and operation.

Spinning calculations

This document provides information about measuring moisture in textile materials and various related calculations. It lists the standard moisture regain for different materials like cotton, wool, viscose, silk, and jute. It also defines terms like absolute humidity, relative humidity, original weight, dry weight, oven dry weight, correct invoice weight, regain, and moisture content. The document includes examples of calculations for moisture content, regain, conditioned count weight, blending and mixing of materials, and piping diameters.

q7.pdf

The document describes a heating and humidification process. Moist air at 40°F and 36°F wet bulb temperature enters the system at 235 lbda/min. It first passes over a heating coil, raising its temperature. Then a humidifier injects saturated steam at 230°F, adding moisture. The moist air exits the system at 90°F and 40% relative humidity. The rate of heat addition by the heating coil and rate of mass addition by the humidifier must be determined using a psychrometric chart and energy/mass balances.

Uslides2

This document summarizes key concepts in physics related to motion, forces, energy, and sound waves. It covers Newton's laws of motion, definitions of speed, velocity, and acceleration. It also discusses gravitational force, momentum, work, power, heat transfer, and the properties of sound waves including wavelength, frequency, and how the velocity of sound varies with temperature. Key figures discussed include Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, and their contributions to the study and understanding of motion and force.

Iaii 10 transferencia de calor en estado no estacionario ii - copia

This document discusses heat transfer in non-steady state conditions for foods. It covers concepts like thermal conductivity of foods, specific heat of foods, and thermal diffusivity of foods. Thermal conductivity relates a food's ability to conduct heat based on its composition, shape and size. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise 1°C of a food by 1 gram. Thermal diffusivity relates heat conduction and storage to calculate heat transfer rates in foods. Formulas are provided to calculate heat transfer based on these thermal properties. Examples are given to calculate heat transfer for various foods during cooling or storage.

Activity no.-2-airconditioning-engineering

This document contains 39 multiple choice questions related to thermodynamics concepts such as power, heat transfer, enthalpy, entropy, ideal gases, and thermodynamic processes. The questions assess understanding of key equations, properties of substances, and calculations involving changes in temperature, pressure, volume, and other thermodynamic variables.

11. pyschrometrics copy

This document provides information about psychrometric calculations including formulas for sensible heat, latent heat, total heat, and conversions between Celsius and Fahrenheit. It also includes 20 multiple choice questions testing understanding of these concepts. The questions cover topics like defining sensible heat vs latent heat vs total heat, converting between units of refrigeration and watts/kW, using psychrometric charts to find properties like enthalpy and humidity ratio, and calculating sensible heat, latent heat and total heat given air conditions.

Design and Simulation of Divided Wall Column - Material and Energy Balances

The document summarizes the design and simulation of a divided wall column for separating a reformate mixture containing benzene, toluene, and p-xylene. Material and energy balances are presented for the divided wall column, which operates at a capacity of 1 MMTPA. The column is able to achieve purities of 99% for benzene, 98% for toluene, and 97% for p-xylene. Simulation results show a distillate flow of 138 Kmol/hr, side stream of 551 Kmol/hr, and bottom flow of 611 Kmol/hr. Energy balances are also presented for the feed, distillate, bottom, side stream, condenser, and rebo

Calculation guidelines for Rotary Dryer.pdf

The document outlines the design procedure for a rotary dryer used to dry fertilizer from 5% to 1.5% moisture content. The key steps are:
1) Performing mass and heat balance calculations to determine moisture evaporated, dry solid mass, and total heat duty of 4.4 MJ/hr.
2) Sizing the dryer using the heat duty to calculate required air flow of 14.8 kg/hr, diameter of 2.3 m, volumetric heat transfer coefficient of 398 kJ/hr-m3-K, and length of 18 m.
3) Checking that the outlet air humidity is below saturation and selecting design parameters like number of flights based on sol

Design of Bagasse Dryer to Recover Energy of Water Tube Boiler in a Sugar Fac...

Design of Bagasse Dryer to Recover Energy of Water Tube Boiler in a Sugar Fac...

HdhdPM3125_Lectures_16to17_Evaporation.ppt

HdhdPM3125_Lectures_16to17_Evaporation.ppt

[W f stoecker]_refrigeration_and_a_ir_conditioning_(book_zz.org)

[W f stoecker]_refrigeration_and_a_ir_conditioning_(book_zz.org)

Psychrometry

Psychrometry

Psychrometric

Psychrometric

Agroklimatologi 7

Agroklimatologi 7

Energy balance.pptx

Energy balance.pptx

Production of 1-Tetradecene at 100 tons per year

Production of 1-Tetradecene at 100 tons per year

psychrometric chart & processes.pdf

psychrometric chart & processes.pdf

MANUFACTURE OF CHLORINE - CAUSTIC SODA USING ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS (MEMBRANE C...

MANUFACTURE OF CHLORINE - CAUSTIC SODA USING ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS (MEMBRANE C...

Lecture-1.pdf

Lecture-1.pdf

Cooling tower

Cooling tower

Spinning calculations

Spinning calculations

q7.pdf

q7.pdf

Uslides2

Uslides2

Iaii 10 transferencia de calor en estado no estacionario ii - copia

Iaii 10 transferencia de calor en estado no estacionario ii - copia

Activity no.-2-airconditioning-engineering

Activity no.-2-airconditioning-engineering

11. pyschrometrics copy

11. pyschrometrics copy

Design and Simulation of Divided Wall Column - Material and Energy Balances

Design and Simulation of Divided Wall Column - Material and Energy Balances

Calculation guidelines for Rotary Dryer.pdf

Calculation guidelines for Rotary Dryer.pdf

Airconditioning system (ppt)

This document discusses air conditioning systems. It begins with an introduction defining air conditioning and its goals of altering air properties like temperature and humidity for comfort or industrial processes. It then discusses the principles, types, and components of air conditioning systems. The main types are window units, split systems, centralised systems, and packaged systems. It also introduces new technologies like district cooling systems and chilled beam systems. Finally, it discusses the refrigeration cycle and common coolants used.

Fundamentals of heat transfer lecture notes

This document discusses various modes of heat transfer including conduction, convection, and radiation. It provides equations to calculate heat transfer via these different modes. For conduction, Fourier's law and its relation to electrical resistance is explained. For convection, Newton's law of cooling and relationships between heat transfer coefficients, temperature differences and surface areas are given. Stefan-Boltzmann law is described for radiation heat transfer between black and gray bodies. Methods to relate convection and radiation heat transfer are also presented. Several examples are provided to demonstrate calculations of heat transfer via different modes.

Module 10 (air standard cycle)

The document describes three common internal combustion engine cycles: the Otto, Diesel, and Dual cycles. It provides diagrams and equations to illustrate the thermodynamic processes involved in each cycle, including compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Key parameters like compression ratio, cut-off ratio, pressure ratio, and thermal efficiency are defined. The cycles are compared in terms of their heat addition processes, net work output, and thermal efficiency calculations.

Module 9 (second law & carnot cycle)

1. The document discusses the Carnot cycle, which includes the Carnot engine and Carnot refrigerator. It uses the principles of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
2. A Carnot engine operates between a high temperature TH and low temperature TL. Heat is added at TH and rejected at TL to produce net work. The efficiency depends only on TH and TL.
3. A Carnot refrigerator operates in reverse, absorbing heat at TL and rejecting it at TH, requiring net work. Its coefficient of performance depends only on TH and TL.

Module 8 (fuels and combustion)

This document discusses fuels and combustion. It defines a fuel as a substance that undergoes rapid chemical union with oxygen to produce combustion. Combustion is the rapid oxidation of an element that liberates heat. There are four main types of fuel: solid, liquid, gaseous, and nuclear. The main combustible elements are carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur. Hydrocarbons are the main components of fuels and can be paraffins, olefins, aromatics, or alcohols. Complete combustion occurs when all combustible elements are fully oxidized, while incomplete combustion occurs when some elements are not fully oxidized. Air is needed for combustion and is composed of oxygen and nitrogen. Theoretical air is the

Module 7 (processes of fluids)

An isobaric process is a constant pressure process where pressure (P) remains constant. Work (W) done is equal to pressure (P) times the change in volume (ΔV). For an ideal gas, the change in internal energy (ΔU) is equal to heat (Q) added.
An isometric process is a constant volume process where volume (V) remains constant. Work (W) done is zero since there is no change in volume. For any substance, the change in internal energy (ΔU) is equal to the heat (Q) added.
An isothermal process is a constant temperature process where temperature (T) remains constant. For an ideal gas, the ratio

Module 6 (ideal or perfect gas and gas mixture) 2021 2022

This document summarizes key concepts related to ideal gases. It defines the characteristic gas equation and gas constant. It describes Boyle's, Charles', Avogadro's, and combined gas laws. It also covers specific heats at constant pressure and volume, the ratio of specific heats, entropy change, non-ideal gas behavior, compressibility factor, and includes sample problems applying these concepts.

Module 5 (properties of pure substance)2021 2022

This document discusses properties of pure substances and steam. It defines key terms like saturation temperature, saturation pressure, subcooled liquid, compressed liquid, saturated mixture, and superheated vapor. It also describes temperature-specific volume, temperature-entropy, and enthalpy-entropy diagrams. Sample problems are provided to calculate properties like quality, enthalpy, specific volume, power output, and mass flow rate using steam tables and the concepts introduced.

Module 4 (first law of thermodynamics) 2021 2022

The document discusses the first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy. It states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. The first law is expressed mathematically as: Energy In - Energy Out = Change in Stored Energy. The document provides examples of applying the first law to closed and open systems, including deriving equations relating heat, work, internal energy, and other properties. It also includes examples solving thermodynamics problems for systems like turbines, compressors, and nozzles.

Module 2 (forms of energy) 2021 2022

1) The document defines various forms of energy including work, heat, internal energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, and enthalpy. It provides equations to calculate changes in these energy forms.
2) Two sample problems are included, one calculating potential energy change and velocity when a hammer is dropped, the other calculating drop height using given kinetic and potential energy changes.

Module 1 (terms and definition & properties of fluids)2021 2022

This document provides background information on important historical figures in the development of thermodynamics and related fields of physics and engineering. It discusses the contributions of scientists such as Archimedes, Daniel Bernoulli, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Amedeo Avogadro, John Dalton, Lord Kelvin, Gabriel Fahrenheit, Galileo, Isaac Newton, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Albert Einstein, and others to establishing foundational principles of thermodynamics, mechanics, gas laws, and more. It also outlines key learning outcomes for a course module on thermodynamics.

Me 312 module 1

Combustion involves the reaction of fossil fuels like natural gas, coal, and gasoline with oxygen to produce heat. Fossil fuels are primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen. The main products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water. There are solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels that can undergo combustion. Complete combustion fully oxidizes the combustible elements, while incomplete combustion leaves some elements unoxidized, producing soot or smoke. Air contains oxygen and nitrogen that support combustion reactions.

Fuels and Combustion

This document provides an overview of heat transfer topics covered in a module, including objectives, topics, and introductions. The key topics are the three modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation. Equations for calculating heat transfer via these three modes are presented, including Fourier's law of conduction, Newton's law of cooling for convection, and the Stefan-Boltzmann law for radiation. Examples of combined radiation and convection heat transfer are also discussed.

Fluid mechanics ( 2019 2020)

This course provides an introduction to fluid mechanics concepts including pressure, hydrostatics, buoyancy, momentum and mass conservation, and their applications to fluid systems analysis and design. Students will learn to calculate forces in static and flowing fluids, flow velocities, pressure losses, and dimensionless numbers. They will also learn the properties of laminar and turbulent boundary layers and how to apply Bernoulli's principle to fluid problems. The overall aim is for students to develop skills in solving practical fluid mechanics problems relevant to engineering.

AIR STANDARD CYCLE

This document provides information about various air standard cycles used in internal combustion engines, including the Otto, Diesel, and Dual cycles. It defines the key processes and equations for each cycle. The Otto cycle involves four processes: isentropic compression, constant volume heat addition, isentropic expansion, and constant volume heat rejection. The Diesel cycle involves: isentropic compression, constant pressure heat addition, isentropic expansion, and constant volume heat rejection. The Dual cycle combines aspects of the Otto and Diesel cycles, involving five processes. Thermodynamic relationships between pressure, volume, temperature and other variables are defined through equations for each cycle.

Me 12 quiz no. 3

1. The document contains 4 problems involving compressed gases and thermodynamic processes. Problem 1 involves determining the pressure reading of a manometer connected to a tank containing compressed air and oil. Problem 2 involves determining the air pressure in a storage tank using the pressure reading in a pipe containing a different fluid. Problem 3 involves calculating the work done and heat transferred during an isothermal expansion process of air in a piston cylinder device. Problem 4 involves sketching and analyzing an isothermal compression followed by a constant pressure compression process of air on PV and TS diagrams.

Chapter 7 Processes of Fluids

1. The document describes various thermodynamic processes including isobaric, isometric, isothermal, isentropic, and polytropic processes.
2. For isobaric processes in closed systems, work done is equal to pressure times change in volume. For open systems at constant pressure, work done is zero and heat absorbed is equal to enthalpy change.
3. For isentropic processes in closed systems, work done is equal to the negative change in internal energy, and for open systems work done is equal to the negative enthalpy change.

Chapter 6 Gas Mixture

This document outlines various laws and equations relating to gas mixtures, including:
1) Dalton's Law which states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components.
2) Amagat's Law which describes how the total volume of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the volumes the components would occupy individually at the same temperature and pressure.
3) Equations for determining the molecular weight, gas constant, and specific heat of a gas mixture based on the properties of its individual components.

Chapter 5 (ideal gas & gas mixture)

1. The document defines key concepts related to ideal gases including the ideal gas law, gas constant, Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, specific heat, ratio of specific heats, entropy change, gas mixtures, and processes involving gases.
2. It provides equations of state for ideal gases, gas mixtures, and non-ideal gases. Equations are given for properties of gas mixtures including volume, pressure, molecular weight, and specific heat.
3. Key thermodynamic processes involving gases are summarized including isobaric and isometric processes for both closed and open systems, with equations provided for heat, work, internal energy, and entropy changes.

Chapter 4 (propertiesof pure substance)

This document discusses the properties of pure substances during phase changes. It defines key terms like saturation temperature, saturation pressure, sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid, saturated vapor, and superheated vapor. The document explains that 100°C is the saturation temperature corresponding to a pressure of 101.325 kPa. It also provides diagrams to illustrate the different regions on a T-S and h-S chart during phase changes and defines concepts like quality.

Airconditioning system (ppt)

Airconditioning system (ppt)

Fundamentals of heat transfer lecture notes

Fundamentals of heat transfer lecture notes

Module 10 (air standard cycle)

Module 10 (air standard cycle)

Module 9 (second law & carnot cycle)

Module 9 (second law & carnot cycle)

Module 8 (fuels and combustion)

Module 8 (fuels and combustion)

Module 7 (processes of fluids)

Module 7 (processes of fluids)

Module 6 (ideal or perfect gas and gas mixture) 2021 2022

Module 6 (ideal or perfect gas and gas mixture) 2021 2022

Module 5 (properties of pure substance)2021 2022

Module 5 (properties of pure substance)2021 2022

Module 4 (first law of thermodynamics) 2021 2022

Module 4 (first law of thermodynamics) 2021 2022

Module 2 (forms of energy) 2021 2022

Module 2 (forms of energy) 2021 2022

Module 1 (terms and definition & properties of fluids)2021 2022

Module 1 (terms and definition & properties of fluids)2021 2022

Me 312 module 1

Me 312 module 1

Fuels and Combustion

Fuels and Combustion

Fluid mechanics ( 2019 2020)

Fluid mechanics ( 2019 2020)

AIR STANDARD CYCLE

AIR STANDARD CYCLE

Me 12 quiz no. 3

Me 12 quiz no. 3

Chapter 7 Processes of Fluids

Chapter 7 Processes of Fluids

Chapter 6 Gas Mixture

Chapter 6 Gas Mixture

Chapter 5 (ideal gas & gas mixture)

Chapter 5 (ideal gas & gas mixture)

Chapter 4 (propertiesof pure substance)

Chapter 4 (propertiesof pure substance)

- 1. DRYER Dryer - is an equipment used in removing moisture or solvents from a wet material or product. Hygroscopic Substance - a substance that can contained bound moisture and is variable in moisture content which they posses at different times. Weight of Moisture - amount of moisture present in the product at the start or at the end of the drying operation. Bone Dry Weight - it is the final constant weight reached by a hygroscopic material when it is completely dried out. It is the weight of the product without the presence of moisture. Gross Weight - it is the sum of the bone-dry weight of the product and the weight of moisture. Moisture Content - it is the amount of moisture expressed as a percentage of the gross weight or the bone dry weight of the product. A) Wet Basis - is the moisture content of the product in percent of the gross weight. B) Dry Basis 0r Regain - it is the moisture content of the product in percent of the bone dry weight.
- 2. Continuous Drying - is that type of drying operation in which the material to be dried is fed to and discharge from the dryer continuously. Batch Drying - is that type of drying operation in which the material to be dried is done in batches at definite interval of time. CLASSIFICATION OF DRYERS 1. Direct Dryers - conduction heat transfer 2. Indirect Dryers - convection heat transfer 3. Infra-red Dryers - radiation heat transfer PRODUCT SYMBOLS 1. GW = BDW + M 2. Xm = [M/GW] x 100% (wet basis) 3. Xm = [M/BDW] x 100% (dry basis or regain) where: GW - gross weight BDW - bone dry weight M - weight of moisture Xm - moisture content
- 3. HEAT REQUIREMENT BY THE PRODUCT Q = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q3 + Q 4 Q1 = (BDW)Cp(tB - tA) kg/hr Q2 = MBCpw(tB - tA) kg/hr Q2 = MB(hfB - hfA) kg/hr Q3 = (MA - MB)(hvB - hfA) kg/hr = MR(hvB - hfA) Q4 = heat loss Q1 - sensible heat of product, KJ/hr Q2 - sensible heat of moisture remaining in the product, KJ/hr Q3 - heat required to evaporate and superheat moisture removed from the product in KJ/hr Q4 - heat losses, KJ/hr A,B - conditions at the start or at the end of drying operation t - temperature in C hf - enthalpy of water at saturated liquid, KJ/kg hv - enthalpy of vapor, KJ/kg
- 4. Condition A Condition B GWA GWB MB MA BDW MR(moisture removed) BDW (weight of product without moisture)
- 5. It is desired to designed a drying plant to have a capacity of 680 kg/hr of product 3.5% moisture content from a wet feed containing 42% moisture. Fresh air at 27°C with 40% RH will be preheated to 93°C before entering the dryer and will leave the dryer with the same temperature but with a 60% RH. Find: a) the amount of air to dryer in m3/sec ( 0.25) b) the heat supplied to the preheater in KW (16) At 27 °C DB and 40% RH At 93° C and W = .0089 kgm/kgda W = .0089 kgm/kgda h = 117.22 KJ/kgda h = 49.8 KJ/kgda υ = 1.05 m3/kgda At 93 °C and 60% RH W = 0.54 kgm/kgda h = 1538.94 KJ/kgda
- 6. Q 0 Fresh air 1 heated air 2 exhaust air Dryer m m Air Preheater A GWA B GWB GW = BDW + M Given: GW = BDW + Xm(GW) GWB = 680 kg/hr BDW GW = XmB = 0.035 ; XmA = 0.42 (1 − X m ) W0 = 0.0089 ; h0 = 49.8 BDW = GW(1 − X m ) W1 = 0.0089 ; h1 = 117.22 ; v1 = 1.05 M = X m (GW) W2 = 0.54 ;h2 = 1538.94
- 7. h2 2 MB = 23.8 kg/hr h1 W2 h0 BDW = 656.2 kg/hr GWA = 1131.4 kg/hr W0 = W 1 MA = 475.2 kg/hr 0 1 By moisture balance on dryer By energy balance in the mW1 + MA = mW2 + MB preheater: M A − MB Q = m(h1 - h0) m= W2 − W1 Q = 16 KW m = 850 kg/hr Qa1 = 850(1.05) = 892.43 m3/hr Qa1 = 0.25 m3/sec
- 8. Raw cotton has been stored in a warehouse at 29°C and 50% relative humidity, with a regain of 6.6%. (a) the cotton goes through a mill and passes through the weaving room kept at 31°C and 70% relative humidity with a regain of 8.1%. What is the moisture in 200 kg of cotton? (b) for 200 kg of cotton from the warehouse, how many kilograms should appear in the woven cloth, neglecting lintage and thread losses? ANSWER: a) 12.4 kg ; b) 202.8 kg GW = BDW + M M = Xm(BDW) BDW = GW/(1+Xm) Given: XmA = 0.066 ; XmB = 0.081 GWA = 200 kg BDW = 187.61 kg MA = 12.4 kg MB = 15.2 kg GW = 202.8 kg
- 9. A 10 kg sample from a batch of material under test is found to have a BDW of 8.5 kg. This material is processed and is then found to have a regain (dry basis moisture content) of 20%. How much weight of product appears for each kilogram of original material. (1.02 kg/kg) Given: GWA = 10 kg ; BDW = 8.5 kg ; XmB = 0.20 (dry basis) M = GW - BDW MA = 1.5 kg MB = XmB(BDW) MB = 1.7 kg GW = BDW + M GWB = 10.2 kg GWB/GWA = 1.02
- 10. A rotary dryer is fired with bunker oil of 41 870 KJ/kg HHV is to produce 20 metric tons per hour of dried sand with 0.5% moisture from a wet feed containing 7% moisture, specific heat of sand is 0.879 KJ/kg-°C, temperature of wet feed is 30°C and temperature of dried product is 115°C. Calculate the L/hr of bunker oil consumed if the specific gravity of bunker oil is 0.90 and dryer efficiency of 60%. hf at 30°C = 125.79 KJ/kg hg at 101.325 KPa and 115°C = 2706.12 KJ/kg ut Wet Feed (sand) Gas o Flue Dried sand G as in Flue
- 11. Given: GWB = 20,000kg/hr; XmB = 0.005; XmA = 0.07 HHV =41,870 KJ/kg; Cp = 0.879 KJ/kg-C; tA = 30°C ; tB = 115°C S = 0.90; e = 60% GW = BDW + M ; GW = BDW/(1-Xm) M = Xm(GW) BDW = GW - M MB = 100 kg/hr ; e = Q/mf(HHV) BDW = 19,900 kg/hr mf = 204.2 kg/sec GWA = 21,398 kg/hr ; MA = 1498 kg/hr df = 900 kg/m3 MA - MB = MR ; MR = 1398 kg/hr Vf = 0.227 m3 Q1 = BDW(Cp)(tB - t=A) = 413 KW Vf = 227 Liters Q2 = MB(Cpw)(tB - tA) = 10 KW Q3 = MR(hg -hf) = 1002 KW Q4 = 0 Q = Q + Q + Q +Q = 1425 KW