SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Design Science and Solution
Architecture
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
Topics
• Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research
(DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems
(DSR-IS), Evidence-Based Design
• Problem and Solution Knowledge
• Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design
• Solution Architecture and Design Science
• Solution Design Process
• Architecture Patterns
October 7, 2018 2
Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design
Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS), Evidence-Based
Design
October 7, 2018 3
Science
• Science is not
• Science is the process whereby knowledge is formally
acquired or generated, validated, accumulated and revised
and updated through observation, investigation,
experience, research and analysis
− Scientific method is the application of this process
• The resulting knowledge needs to be acted-on and applied
in a systematic manner
October 7, 2018 4
Theory
• The output from science and the scientific method are
theories
− These are the current best explanations consistent with the
currently available knowledge
October 7, 2018 5
Design Science (DS)
• Design Science is the structured and systematic process for
creating designs that resolve problems
• It is the application of formal design processes
• Design Science is also the process for developing the associated
systematic process
• Design Science is concerned with the structured process for the
acquisition and application of knowledge in relation to the
problems to the resolved and the solution knowledge to be
applied
− Problem Knowledge – how known is the problem or how much
knowledge must be acquired on the problem to understand it
− Solution Knowledge – how much existing solution knowledge can be
applied and how much new knowledge is required
October 7, 2018 6
Design
Theory
Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR),
Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS)
Context
October 7, 2018 7
Design
Science
Research
In
Information
Systems
Systematised
Approach to
Design In
General
Outcome-Based
Research
Approach and
Methodology
DSR Applied
to
Information
System
Design
Process
Design
Research
Development of
Theoretical Basis of
Principles
Knowledge and
Practice of Design
Design
Research
Design
Science
Research
Design
Science
Design Science Research (DSR)
• Design Science Research is the approach and methodology
for developing Design Science within research-type
endeavours
− Research is at best a semi-structured activity that can be difficult
to formalise
• Design Science Research is concerned with the creation
and improvement of artefacts
• Intended to be have a practical approach and application
rather than pure research
October 7, 2018 8
Design Science Research Framework
October 7, 2018 9
Knowledge Design Process Outputs
Awareness Of The
Problem
Suggestion
Development of
Design
Evaluation of Design
Conclusion
Knowledge
Contribution
Cognitive Process
Problem Statement
and Resolution
Proposal
Indicative Solution
Design
Artefacts
Performance
Measurement
Results
Design Science
Knowledge
Abduction
Deduction
Reflection and
Abstraction
Circumscription
Circumscription
• Discovery of constraint knowledge about explanation
gained through detection and analysis of contraindications
when things do not work according to previously defined
expectations
October 7, 2018 10
Suggestion
• Suggestion is the application of creativity where new
functionality is conceived of based on a novel
configuration of either existing or new and existing
solution components
• Creativity is difficult to define in a rigorous way and its
consistent repeatability cannot be guaranteed
October 7, 2018 11
Abduction
• Derive a simple, plausible and reasonable explanation
based on observations and knowledge acquired
• The explanation may be plausible and is supported by the
facts but is not certain
• The explanation derived through abduction is the most
likely and best available but not absolutely provable
October 7, 2018 12
Deduction
• Derive a completely certain and accurate explanation
based on observations, knowledge acquired and the
application of logic and rules
• Deductions expands on the explanations produced during
the abduction phase
October 7, 2018 13
Outputs From Design Science Research
Type Description
Constructs The conceptual vocabulary of the problem area: concepts, terms,
ideas
Models Sets of propositions or statements expressing relationships between
constructs
Frameworks Real or conceptual guides to serve as support or guide
Architectures High-level structures of systems
Design Principles Core principles and concepts to guide solution design
Methods Sets of steps used to perform tasks
Instantiations Material artefact that realises a construct, model or method
Design Theories A defined set of statements on how to perform actions to achieve a
defined objective
October 7, 2018 14
DSR Artefacts
• Artefacts within DSR are intended to contain knowledge
− This knowledge ranges from the design logic, construction methods and
tool to assumptions about the context in which the artefact is intended
to function
• DSR artefacts can include any of:
− Models
− Methods
− Constructs
− Instantiations (creation of an concrete example or instance) and design
theories
− Innovations
− New or previously unknown properties of informational resources
− New explanatory theories
− New design and developments models and implementation processes
or methods
October 7, 2018 15
Design Science Research in Information Systems
(DSR-IS)
• Information systems research that uses the design and
construction of artefacts to generate new knowledge and
insights into a class of problems
• The use of artefacts embodies the principle of learning
through building
• There are three general activities to DSR-IS
1. Construction of artefacts where the construction is informed
and guided by either by practice-based insight or theory
2. Gathering and evaluating of data on the functional
performance of the artefact
3. Reflection on the construction process and on the implications
the gathered data
October 7, 2018 16
Iteration Between Development Of
Design And Evaluation Of Design
• In DSR-IS, the process iterates between the development
of design and the evaluation of design phases rather than
flowing sequentially from one phase to the next
• This iteration is a major difference between design science
research and other science research projects
− Science projects flow sequentially from the design of experiments
that yield results that are analysed to generate knowledge
October 7, 2018 17
Outputs From DSR-IS
• Artefacts
• Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT)
• Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory (DREPT)
October 7, 2018 18
Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT)
• Detailed descriptions how artefacts should behave and
how they can be constructed
• These are design principles
• ISDT defines the how artefact is constructed
October 7, 2018 19
Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory
(DREPT)
• This contains explanatory information explaining formally
why artefact has the effects it does
• The captures the knowledge about the artefacts
• These are refinements to refinements to theories that
contributed to the initial design
• Defines the how and the why the artefacts’ features have
the specified effects
October 7, 2018 20
Evidence-Based Design And Solution Architecture
• Create optimum solution designs by using knowledge and evidence
derived from research using a rigorous and repeatable approach
− Clarification of the problem and definition of the problem statement
− Identification of and analysis of information available on the problem and
clarification of problem to be resolved
− Identification of and analysis of information available on the possible solutions
to the problem
− Analysis of the solution options in terms of resolving the problem
− Determine and eliminate various forms of bias in the problem statement and
the solution options
− Analysis of risks in the solution options
• Risk of doing the wrong thing
• Risk of doing it in the wrong way
• Risk of underestimating complexity and scope of work
• Risk of higher than expected cost of operation and maintenance
• Risk of underestimating organisation change impact and organisation resistance
• Risk through uncertainty and unpredictability
− Validate that the solution will resolve the problem
October 7, 2018 21
What Is A Solution?
October 7, 2018 22
Need For Solution Exists Because …
• I have a problem
• I want to be able to do what I am currently unable to do
• I cannot do what I want
• I need to be able to do something
• A solution is a Resolver, a Provider or an Enabler
• An originator will identify the need for a solution
• The IT function must work with the originator to provide a
usable answer to the solution need
07 October 2018 23
Solution Definition Journey Stages
October 7, 2018 24
WHY?
WHAT?
HOW?
Why, What And How
• WHY?
− Why is the solution being looked for: a problem, an opportunity, an obligation?
− Why has the situation requiring a solution arisen?
− Why are we here?
− Why do it?
− Why not do it?
• WHAT
− What are the options?
− What can be done?
− What is being looked for?
− What must it do?
• HOW
− How should it be done?
− How should it operate?
− How can it be delivered?
October 7, 2018 25
The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than
Just …
• … Just a bunch of software
• Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to
operate the associated business processes
• Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these
components and that the components are properly designed
and implemented
• Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience
of the usage of the components
• Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed
solutions
• Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the
overall solution design from the start
October 7, 2018 26
Scope Of Complete Solution
October 7, 2018 27
Changes to Existing
Systems
New Custom
Developed
Applications Information Storage
Facilities
System
Integrations/Data
Transfers/Exchanges
Changes to Existing
Business Processes
Organisational
Changes
Existing Data
Conversions/
Migrations
New Data Loads
Training and
Documentation
Central, Distributed
and Communications
Infrastructure
Sets of Installation
and Implementation
Services
Cutover/Transfer to
Production
Operational
Functions and
Processes
Parallel Runs
New Business
Processes
Reporting and
Analysis Facilities
Sets of Maintenance,
Service Management
and Support Services
Application Hosting
and Management
Services
Acquired and
Customised Software
Products
Any Complete Solution Consists of:
• Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems}
• + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications}
• + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities}
• + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products}
• + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges}
• + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes}
• + Zero or more of {New Business Processes}
• + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes}
• + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities}
• + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations}
• + Zero or more of {New Data Loads}
• + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation}
• + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure}
• + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services}
• + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production}
• + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes}
• + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs}
• + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services}
• + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services}
October 7, 2018 28
Aspects Of Solution Design
October 7, 2018 29
Solution Design
Getting Work
Done, Making
The Solution
Work Appearance,
Utility,
Experience
Development,
Configuration,
Implementation,
Migration
People and
Organisation,
Operating
Landscape
How the Solution,
Appears, Is Accessed,
Used, Navigated
Who Uses The Solution,
How the Solution
Interacts With Other
Components
Simplified Organisation Context Of Solution Design
October 7, 2018 30
Organisation Strategy
Organisation
Information
Technology and
Systems Strategy
Organisation
Structure And
Processes
Set Of Solutions That
Comprise The
Organisation Solution
Landscape
Alignment
Between
Strategies
Solution
Design
Alignment
Between
Solutions
And
Organisation
Organisation
Design
External
Factors
Constraints,
Standards,
Limitations
Business
Objectives
Business
Operational
Model
Enterprise
Architecture
Solution
Implementation
and
Delivery
Management
And
Operations
Business
Processes
Required
Operational
Business
Systems
Business
Strategy
Business
Solution
Analysis
and Design/
Selection
Business IT
Strategy
IT Function
Strategy
Required
Operational
and Support
Processes
Required
Business
Support
Systems
Support
Solution
Analysis
and Design/
Selection
Organisation Context Of Solution Design
October 7, 2018 31
Problem and Solution Knowledge
October 7, 2018 32
Solution Architecture And Knowledge
• The amount of
already known
knowledge and
the amount of
knowledge that
must be acquired
governs the
complexity of the
solution design
process
• The solution
design process
acquires and uses
knowledge about
the problem and
the solution to
create one or
more
implementable
and usable
solution options
October 7, 2018 33
Problem Knowledge Solution Knowledge
Solution
Design
Process
Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain
• Combination of options based on existing knowledge
about problem and knowledge of solution options that can
be applied to the problem
October 7, 2018 34
Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain - Problems
October 7, 2018 35
New Or
Unquantified
Problem/No
Problem
Knowledge Where
Existing Solution
Knowledge Can Be
Adapted
Known Or
Quantified
Problem With
Existing Solution
Knowledge
New Or
Unquantified
Problem/No
Problem
Knowledge With
No Existing
Solution
Knowledge
Known Or
Quantified
Problem With No
Existing Solution
Knowledge
Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The
Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem
Amount Of
Solution
Knowledge
That Can Be
Applied To
The Solution
or Amount
Of Solution
Knowledge
Known
HIGH
LOW
LOW HIGH
Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain – Solution
Approach
October 7, 2018 36
Adapt Or Apply
Existing
Solutions or
Knowledge For
New Problem
Adapt Or Apply
Existing
Solutions or
Knowledge For
Known Problem
Invent or Derive
New Knowledge
To Create New
Solution For New
Problem
Develop New
Knowledge To
Create New
Solution For
Known Problem
Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The
Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem
Amount Of
Solution
Knowledge
That Can Be
Applied To
The Solution
or Amount
Of Solution
Knowledge
Known
HIGH
LOW
LOW HIGH
Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain -
Complexity
October 7, 2018 37
Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The
Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem
Amount Of
Solution
Knowledge That
Can Be Applied
To The Solution
or Amount Of
Solution
Knowledge
Already Known
HIGH
LOW
LOW HIGH
Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain
October 7, 2018 38
Adapt Or Apply
Existing
Solutions or
Knowledge For
New Problem
Adapt Or Apply
Existing
Solutions or
Knowledge For
Known Problem
Invent or Derive
New Knowledge
To Create New
Solution For New
Problem
Develop New
Knowledge To
Create New
Solution For
Known Problem
New Or
Unquantified
Problem/No
Problem
Knowledge Where
Existing Solution
Knowledge Can Be
Adapted
Known Or
Quantified
Problem With
Existing Solution
Knowledge
New Or
Unquantified
Problem/No
Problem
Knowledge With
No Existing
Solution
Knowledge
Known Or
Quantified
Problem With No
Existing Solution
Knowledge
Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential
Solution
• Solution unkowns
are the source of
potential problems
during solution
delivery
• The goal of solution
design is no
surprises
• Remove the
uncertainty from
the solution design
as much as possible
07 October 2018 39
What Can Be Known
Known Unknown
What We
Know
Known
Here Be Dragons
Unknown
Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential
Solution
07 October 2018 40
Known Knowns
Known
Unknowns
Unknown
Unknowns
• The more that is
known about the
solution design the
fewer the problems
relating to scope and
changes and
associated cost, time
and resource
increase will occur
later in solution
implementation
Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution
Mapping
• Solution has functional (and other) requirements that it
must have in order to be deemed to be operating correctly
− Solutions can be delivered without some of the functional
requirements – manual work
• Solution design process is concerned with mapping the
requirements to the functions of the solution
• Solution requirements identified will never include the full
scope of the solution
− Requirements identified during any requirements elicitation
process will only ever be a sparse and fragmented representation
of what the full set of solution requirements that constitute a
complete solution
October 7, 2018 41
Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution
Mapping
October 7, 2018 42
Sparse Functional Requirements
Identified
Complete Solution Functionality
Implemented
= Functional Requirements Identified
= Solution Functionality Implemented But Not Explicitly Identified
= Functional Requirements Identified But Not Implemented
Solution Need To
Solution Design
Mapping
Requirements Space And Solution Space
• Minimise Solution Space while maximising size of
Requirements Space encompassed
• You do not deliver requirements
• You deliver solutions that encompass multiple interoperating
elements that enable business processes that allow
requirements to be complied with
• Solution Space maximises the requirements complied with
while minimising its scope and complexity and therefore its
cost, delivery time and risk
• Solution design is concerned with finding an optimal Solution
Space
• There may be many Solution Space options – solution design
needs to focus on finding the most viable ones quickly and the
deciding on the one(s) to pursue
October 7, 2018 43
Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design
October 7, 2018 44
Solution Architecture And Design
• Solution architecture and design is concerned with
designing new (IT) solutions
• These can be standard solutions where the knowledge
required to create the design is known and available or
new and innovative where there are knowledge gaps that
must be identified and completed
• Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of
technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience,
analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition
applied in a structured manner
October 7, 2018 45
Objective Of Solution Architecture
• The central objective of solution architecture is to create a design
• The design is a specification of an IT-oriented solution whose
purpose is to realise a defined set of end states and generate a set of
outputs
• The design is intended to operate in a defined environment
• The design is based on a set of basic components
• The design satisfies a set of requirements and meet a set of
expectations
• The design is subject to a variety of environment-specific constraints
and limitations
• Solution architecture is the process for creating designs
• The purpose of the design specification is to enable the
implementation and subsequent operation and use of the solution
October 7, 2018 46
Scope Of Solution Design
• There are differing views of the scope of the solution
design effort and of the solution design itself
− Narrow rather than broad
• Narrow - the design should cover just the core functional elements
• Broad - the design should include details on the wider solution operation
such as data migration and transition to service
• The solution design should encompass all elements
required to ensure that the solution can be implemented,
operated, used and supported
• This means the solution design should describe all the
solution design and implementation components
October 7, 2018 47
Solution Design Scope
October 7, 2018 48
Changes to
Existing Systems
New Custom
Developed
Applications Information
Storage
Facilities
System
Integrations/
Data Transfers/
Exchanges
Changes to
Existing
Business
Processes
Organisational
Changes
Existing Data
Conversions/
Migrations
New Data Loads
Training and
Documentation
Central,
Distributed and
Network
Infrastructure
Sets of
Installation and
Implementation
Services
Cutover/
Transfer to
Production
Operational
Functions and
Processes
Parallel Runs
New Business
Processes
Reporting and
Analysis
Facilities
Maintenance,
Service
Management
and Support
Services
Application
Hosting and
Management
Services
Acquired and
Customised
Software
Products
Solution Implementation Stages
October 7, 2018 49
Idea or
Business
Concept
Initial
Discovery
Requirements
Elicitation
Outline
Solution
Design
Decision to
Proceed
Design
Review And
Approval
Development
Organisation
Change
Detailed
Solution
Design Initiate
Implementation
Implementation
Planning
Deployment
Planning
Data
Migration
Testing
Transition
To Support
Parallel Run
Hypercare
Interval
Documentation
and Training
Process
Definition
and Changes
Cutover To
Production
Operation
and Use
Evolve and
Change
Component
Procurement/
Acquisition
Infrastructure
Commissioning
Journey From Solution Idea To Operation And Use
• The solution implementation journey from initial concept
to operation and use is never simple
October 7, 2018 50
Compromise
Options
Strategy
Exploration
Workaround
Concession
Operation
And UseIdea
Implementation
Transition
to
Production
Training
Solution Design Scope
October 7, 2018 51
What
Should the
Scope of
the Design
Be?
Scope
Scope
Scope
OR
OR
Solution Implementation Stages
• What should the solution design encompass?
• What should the solution design included to ensure that
the solution will be implementable, operable and usable?
• Knowing the actual solution scope means being able to
estimate effectively and accurately and know the cost,
time, resources and risks in implementing the solution
October 7, 2018 52
Mapping The Solution Scope To The Solution
Implementation Stages
October 7, 2018 53
What Should the Solution Scope Be
To Achieve the Required Solution
Implementation?
Solution
Implementation
Stages
Solution
Scope
Solution Design Scope
October 7, 2018 54
This Is What The
Implementation of the
Solution Will
Ultimately Cost
The Solution Design
Should Include All The
Elements Needed To
Accurately Quantify
The Solution
Implementation Costs,
Resources and Time
Solution Design Scope
• Likely scope of complete solution • If elements of the solution scope
are omitted then the solution
design will not be complete
October 7, 2018 55
New Business
Processes
Sets of Installation
and
Implementation
Services
Sets of
Maintenance,
Service
Management and
Support Services
New Data Loads
Parallel Runs
Acquired and
Customised Software
Products
Existing Data
Conversions/
Migrations
Central,
Distributed and
Communications
Infrastructure
Cutover/ Transfer to
Production
Application Hosting
and Management
Services
Changes to Existing
Business Processes
Reporting and
Analysis Facilities
Information
Storage Facilities
New Custom
Developed
Applications
System Integrations/
Data Transfers/
Exchanges
Changes to Existing Systems
Training and Documentation
Operational Functions and
Processes
Organisational Changes
New Business
Processes
Sets of Installation
and
Implementation
Services
Sets of
Maintenance,
Service
Management and
Support Services
New Data Loads
Parallel Runs
Acquired and
Customised Software
Products
Existing Data
Conversions/
Migrations
Central,
Distributed and
Communications
Infrastructure
Cutover/ Transfer to
Production
Application Hosting
and Management
Services
Changes to Existing
Business Processes
Reporting and
Analysis Facilities
Information
Storage Facilities
New Custom
Developed
Applications
System Integrations/
Data Transfers/
Exchanges
Changes to Existing Systems
Training and Documentation
Operational Functions and
Processes
Organisational Changes
Solution Delivery Costs – Cost Committed And Cost
Incurred
• Most solution
delivery costs are
embedded and
committed after
the solution
design has been
completed
• The embedded
costs will just be
incurred during
subsequent
delivery stages
• If the solution
design is not
accurate and
complete then
the costs will not
be understood or
represented
correctly
October 7, 2018 56
Solution Architecture and Design Science
October 7, 2018 57
Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key
Questions
• Can design science principles be applied to solution
architecture in a commercial context?
• Is there a commercial and business benefit to applying
design science in a business environment
• Can the rigour of an academic-derived process be used in
a business environment?
• Can it be adapted to suit the required flexibility and
dynamism outside the academic world?
• Can the business and commercial environment adopt the
required rigour of a design science process?
October 7, 2018 58
Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key
Questions
• Using a rigorous scientific approach add cost to the
solution design process but improves solution quality
• The application of DSR-IS must be a means to an end –
better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an
incentive for the design function is to become large
• A large design function can create work for itself to justify
its size and existence and so the potential value-adding
benefits of DSR-IS can be lost
− Need to avoid the problems of Conway’s Law -
https://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/conways-law-
cognitive-diversity-organisation-transformation-and-solution-
design-66522207
October 7, 2018 59
Types Of Solution Design Activities
• Two broad types of solution design activities:
1. Design of commercial products for sale and supply to customers
2. Design of solutions within organisations
• While design science approach and principles can be
applied to both types of design activities, it is particularly
applicable to the design of commercial solutions
• Internal organisation solutions include commercial
products
October 7, 2018 60
Design Science And Solution Architecture
• Solution architecture involves creativity during the solution
design process
• Creativity is difficult to define and apply rigorously
• There are tools and approaches to channel and direct
creativity
October 7, 2018 61
Problems With Solution Design
• Soft organisational information can be difficult to identify and
thus incorporate into the solution design
• Any solution operates in an organisational context
− Understanding this context is important to ensure the success of the
solution
• Soft information can include the way information
− Many solutions do not meet user needs, especially as these change over
time
− Many solutions require additional external manual workarounds to
operate successfully
− Many solutions are difficult to maintain and evolve to incorporate
changes
− Many solutions are difficult to reuse
− Many solutions are hard to integrate with other systems
October 7, 2018 62
Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and
Successes
October 7, 2018 63
Complete Solution
Success:
On-time, On-budget And
Delivering Specified
Benefits
Solution Delivery
Late And/Or Over
Budget
More Expensive to
Operate And Support
Than Planned Or
Expected
Performance And/Or
Operational Problems
Functionality Delivered
Does Not Meet
Business Requirements
Significant Rework
Or Replacement
Required
Solution Largely
Unused And/Or
Unusable
Complete Solution
Failure: Cancelled,
Unused, Rejected
Not What Is
Wanted Or What
Was Required/
Envisaged
Not All Specified
Business Benefits
and Savings Not
Delivered
Solution Has
Reduced
Functionality
Requiring
Workarounds
Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and
Successes
• Solution delivery success and failure are not binary options:
there is a spectrum of outcomes between complete success
and complete failure
• Complete solution delivery success is as infrequent as complete
failure
• Getting the architecture and design right puts the solution
delivery project on a solid foundation and maximises the
likelihood of success
• Getting the architecture and design wrong puts the solution
delivery project on an unstable foundation and negatively
impacts on the deliverability of the solution
• The discipline of design science can improve the quality of
solution designs
October 7, 2018 64
Design Science And Solution Architecture
• A key element of the application and use of Design Science
is the management of knowledge – problem knowledge
and solution knowledge
− This allows knowledge to be reused
• This means that the solution architecture function must
incorporate effective knowledge management –
knowledge storage, sharing, use and constant
maintenance
• This requires good management of the solution
architecture function
October 7, 2018 65
Being Good At Solution Design Means …
• Solutions are defined, designed and delivered in a reliable,
stable and innovative way to ensure that cost, time,
required functionality and quality are constantly optimised
to meet the needs of the business
• Good solution design means being aware of all the options
and selecting the most appropriate one subject to all
constraints
• Good solution design means avoiding all the conscious and
unconscious biases that lead to bad solutions
• Doing the right things and doing them the right way
October 7, 2018 66
Solution Design Process
October 7, 2018 67
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/
Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection and
Specification
Solution Architecture Design and
Specification
Elicit Stakeholder Requirements
Formalise Stakeholder
Requirements
Define Solution Requirements Analyse Solution Requirements
Define Solution Architecture and
Design
Analyse, Evaluate and Refine
Solution Architecture
Implementation Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Solution Design Process
• Each stage uses the output
from the previous stage as
an input
• Detail is refined, extended
and elaborated on in
successive stages
October 7, 2018 68
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/
Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection and
Specification
Solution Architecture Design and
Specification
Implementation Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Solution Design Process
Stage Scope
Initial Concept Of Need/
Goal/ Objective
The business have an idea for a solution based on an apparent need to solve a problem, to
do what is currently not possible, to react or respond to an external demand or to be able
to achieve a new objective.
Formal Statement Of
Need/ Goal/ Objective
This formalises the initial concept to introduce greater consistency and detail. It serves to
understand the business, objectives, purposes and potential organisational impacts. It
describes what the ideal solution will do. It also identifies the high-level potential system
impacts.
Initial Architecture Review
and Options
This uses the formal statement of need to create an initial high-level view of the overall
solution, its new and existing systems and applications components, the required
functionality, their interfaces, the required processes and the business functions impacted.
This provides a container for the requirements and a vision for the solution.
Stakeholder Requirements
Collection and
Specification
This uses this initial architectural review output in a structured way to elicit and formalise
the set of stakeholder requirements across the dimensions of functionality and processes.
Solution Requirements
Collection and
Specification
The solution requirements specification is a fuller, more detailed and elaborated set of
solution requirements encompassing all the solution components. This includes the
requirements explicitly identified by stakeholders and the implied requirements.
Solution Architecture
Design and Specification
This is the detailed solution specification derived from the stakeholder and solution
requirements.
Implementation Project This uses the detailed solution specification to act as an input to project definition and to
create a realistic implementation plan, schedule, set of costs and required resources.
October 7, 2018 69
Solution Design Process
• There is a decision
point after each
stage where a
decision is made if
it is worthwhile to
proceed to the
next stage
October 7, 2018 70
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/
Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection and
Specification
Solution Architecture Design and
Specification
Implementation Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Decision Points
Solution Design Process
• Not all concepts make
it all the way to
implementation
• Process needs to
accommodate this
• Do as little as possible
to achieve as much as
possible to make an
informed decision on
whether and how to
proceed to the next
stage in the solution
journey
October 7, 2018 71
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Architecture Design
and Specification
Implementation
Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Solution Design Process - Iterations
• Solution design process is
not necessarily linear
• Stages can be iterated a
number of times to
different levels of detail
October 7, 2018 72
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/
Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection and
Specification
Solution Architecture Design and
Specification
Implementation Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process
October 7, 2018 73
Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective
Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/
Objective
Stakeholder Requirements Collection
and Specification
Solution Requirements Collection and
Specification
Solution Architecture Design and
Specification
Implementation Project
Initial Architecture Review and Options
Awareness Of The
Problem
Suggestion
Development of
Design
Evaluation of Design
Conclusion
Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process
• The DSR process can be applied standard solution design
process
• What works in an academic environment can be applied,
with care, to a commercial setting
October 7, 2018 74
Architectural Patterns And Research Techniques
October 7, 2018 75
Architectural Patterns
• Architectural patterns are template solutions to recurring
types of problems
− Not all problems are they same but there can be sufficient
similarity to allow knowledge reuse
• The pattern describes the problem and the core of the
solution to that problem
• Patterns demonstrate and communicate short-cuts
solution models
• Patterns do not contain detailed implementation-specifics
• The use of patterns can reduce design effort
October 7, 2018 76
Solution Design Techniques
• If you are stuck at any stage in the solution analysis and design
process, use brainstorming to create a new solution concept by first
creating a large number of ideas that are then evaluated on their
usefulness
• If conventional thinking is not yielding results, consider alternative or
unusual ideas or a combination of ideas
• Redefine the problem scope and statement after an initial review
• Conduct a rigorous cost-benefit analyst to determine if the
envisioned expenditure justifies the expected benefits
• Analyse existing solutions to determine if they can be applied when
the problem becomes more complex or whether different solutions
are required
• Restructure ill-structured problems by identifying and prioritising the
key problem objectives and clarifying any constraints. Restate the
problem in formal and precise terms
October 7, 2018 77
Solution Design Techniques
• Break down the complex problem into smaller constituent problems
to create manageable problems that can be worked on individually
• Develop the solution to a complex problem in an incremental and
iterative manner
• Identify tools and techniques applicable to the problem based on
analysis of existing documentation
• Look at the problem from different and unorthodox perspectives in
order to identify new dimensions to the solution
• Create a library of ideas generated over multiple solution design
exercises so they can be reviewed to determine their suitability for
future exercises
• Examine the possibility that a solution or solution approach to a
problem in one problem area can be applied or adapted or
extrapolated to a different problem
October 7, 2018 78
Solution Design Techniques
• Start with an simple solution first and then expand its
complexity
• Detail the desired end solution state (end state) and the start
problem state (start state) and analyse the differences
between the two states. Look for methods that can be
employed in narrowing the difference between the two states
• Understand and predict the behaviour of the designed solution
without having to build it. Explore alternative designs for the
solution. The behaviour of complex solutions may be difficult to
understand.
• Identify problems that are similar to the current problem.
Understand the solution approaches, concepts and principles
used for solving these similar problems and apply this
knowledge to the solution of current problem
October 7, 2018 79
Solution Design Techniques
• Explore the option that a solution or solution approach to a
problem in one discipline or domain can be applied in or
adapted to the current problem
• Divide the given complex solution design into smaller problems
that can form the building blocks for solving the original
problem
• Identify and carry out the next feasible task that can contribute
to the solution of the problem resolution and solution design
and let the succeeding tasks emerge
• Find and combine partial solutions to parts of the research
problem to form the entire solution
• Develop a solution to the problem through iterations of system
development, observation and refinement
October 7, 2018 80
Solution Design Techniques
• Demonstrate that the solution is implementable and valid.
Creating a prototype of a solution for a problem can be
used to show that the solution is implementable. Testing
of the solution can demonstrate the validity of the solution
• Use simulation to evaluate and validate the solution to the
problem
October 7, 2018 81
Summary
• Design Science principles can be applied to the solution
design process within solution architecture to improve the
rigour and accuracy of solution designs
• The application of Design Science must be a means to an
end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an
incentive for the design function is to become large
• Knowledge management – problem knowledge and
solution knowledge – is at the core of the application of
design science principles
• Knowledge management requires good management of
the solution architecture function
October 7, 2018 82
October 7, 2018 83
More Information
Alan McSweeney
http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney

More Related Content

What's hot

Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
Solution Architecture And User And Customer ExperienceSolution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
Alan McSweeney
 
Structured Approach to Solution Architecture
Structured Approach to Solution ArchitectureStructured Approach to Solution Architecture
Structured Approach to Solution Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 
Agile Solution Architecture and Design
Agile Solution Architecture and DesignAgile Solution Architecture and Design
Agile Solution Architecture and Design
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Architecture And Solution Security
Solution Architecture And Solution SecuritySolution Architecture And Solution Security
Solution Architecture And Solution Security
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Architecture Concept Workshop
Solution Architecture Concept WorkshopSolution Architecture Concept Workshop
Solution Architecture Concept Workshop
Alan McSweeney
 
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairatEA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
Software Park Thailand
 
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement ModelIntegrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJSSolution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
Bill Whalen, CDIA+
 
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
Nathaniel Palmer
 
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Alan McSweeney
 
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution ArchitectureWhy Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital TransformationEnterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
Riaz A. Khan, OpenCA, TOGAF
 
Architecture governance
Architecture governanceArchitecture governance
Architecture governance
AnoushiravanGhamsari
 
IT architecture and architects
IT architecture and architectsIT architecture and architects
IT architecture and architects
Andre Dovgal
 
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT ArchitectureShadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And DesignThe Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
Alan McSweeney
 
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeksHow to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
Leo Barella
 
Solution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
Solution Architecture Centre Of ExcellenceSolution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
Solution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
Alan McSweeney
 
Creating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
Creating Enterprise Value from Business ArchitectureCreating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
Creating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
iasaglobal
 
Digital Transformation And Solution Architecture
Digital Transformation And Solution ArchitectureDigital Transformation And Solution Architecture
Digital Transformation And Solution Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 

What's hot (20)

Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
Solution Architecture And User And Customer ExperienceSolution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience
 
Structured Approach to Solution Architecture
Structured Approach to Solution ArchitectureStructured Approach to Solution Architecture
Structured Approach to Solution Architecture
 
Agile Solution Architecture and Design
Agile Solution Architecture and DesignAgile Solution Architecture and Design
Agile Solution Architecture and Design
 
Solution Architecture And Solution Security
Solution Architecture And Solution SecuritySolution Architecture And Solution Security
Solution Architecture And Solution Security
 
Solution Architecture Concept Workshop
Solution Architecture Concept WorkshopSolution Architecture Concept Workshop
Solution Architecture Concept Workshop
 
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairatEA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
EA Intensive Course "Building Enterprise Architecture" by mr.danairat
 
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement ModelIntegrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
Integrated Project and Solution Delivery And Business Engagement Model
 
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJSSolution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
Solution Design Overview - HelpSystems RJS
 
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
Understanding and Applying The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
 
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
Introduction to Business Architecture - Part 2
 
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution ArchitectureWhy Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
Why Solutions Fail and the Business Value of Solution Architecture
 
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital TransformationEnterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
Enterprise Architecture, Project Management & Digital Transformation
 
Architecture governance
Architecture governanceArchitecture governance
Architecture governance
 
IT architecture and architects
IT architecture and architectsIT architecture and architects
IT architecture and architects
 
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT ArchitectureShadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
Shadow IT And The Failure Of IT Architecture
 
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And DesignThe Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
The Need For Effective Early Engagement In Solution Architecture And Design
 
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeksHow to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
How to develop and govern a Technology Strategy in 10 weeks
 
Solution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
Solution Architecture Centre Of ExcellenceSolution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
Solution Architecture Centre Of Excellence
 
Creating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
Creating Enterprise Value from Business ArchitectureCreating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
Creating Enterprise Value from Business Architecture
 
Digital Transformation And Solution Architecture
Digital Transformation And Solution ArchitectureDigital Transformation And Solution Architecture
Digital Transformation And Solution Architecture
 

Similar to Design Science and Solution Architecture

Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdfLecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
Jeffreys Togelang
 
Design process2013
Design process2013Design process2013
Design process2013
Chris Usaty
 
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design ProcessCreativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
AisyahRehan1
 
Design Science Research
Design Science ResearchDesign Science Research
Design Science Research
Angela Fessl
 
Pti01 industrial engineering definition
Pti01 industrial engineering definitionPti01 industrial engineering definition
Pti01 industrial engineering definition
Arif Rahman
 
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
datkumari
 
Data Science Training and Placement
Data Science Training and PlacementData Science Training and Placement
Data Science Training and Placement
AkhilGGM
 
pp.pptx professional practice presentation
pp.pptx professional practice presentationpp.pptx professional practice presentation
pp.pptx professional practice presentation
Informationtechnolog328908
 
Which institute is best for data science?
Which institute is best for data science?Which institute is best for data science?
Which institute is best for data science?
DIGITALSAI1
 
Best Selenium certification course
Best Selenium certification courseBest Selenium certification course
Best Selenium certification course
KumarNaik21
 
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
SayyedYusufali
 
Data science training institute in hyderabad
Data science training institute in hyderabadData science training institute in hyderabad
Data science training institute in hyderabad
VamsiNihal
 
Data science training in Hyderabad
Data science  training in HyderabadData science  training in Hyderabad
Data science training in Hyderabad
saitejavella
 
Data science training Hyderabad
Data science training HyderabadData science training Hyderabad
Data science training Hyderabad
Nithinsunil1
 
Data science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabadData science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabad
VamsiNihal
 
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
SayyedYusufali
 
data science training and placement
data science training and placementdata science training and placement
data science training and placement
SaiprasadVella
 
online data science training
online data science trainingonline data science training
online data science training
DIGITALSAI1
 
Data science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabadData science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabad
VamsiNihal
 
data science online training in hyderabad
data science online training in hyderabaddata science online training in hyderabad
data science online training in hyderabad
VamsiNihal
 

Similar to Design Science and Solution Architecture (20)

Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdfLecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
Lecture_1_-_Research_Methods_-_Introduction.pdf
 
Design process2013
Design process2013Design process2013
Design process2013
 
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design ProcessCreativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
Creativity and Innovation: Engineering Design Process
 
Design Science Research
Design Science ResearchDesign Science Research
Design Science Research
 
Pti01 industrial engineering definition
Pti01 industrial engineering definitionPti01 industrial engineering definition
Pti01 industrial engineering definition
 
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
Research methodology in finance l2(2020)
 
Data Science Training and Placement
Data Science Training and PlacementData Science Training and Placement
Data Science Training and Placement
 
pp.pptx professional practice presentation
pp.pptx professional practice presentationpp.pptx professional practice presentation
pp.pptx professional practice presentation
 
Which institute is best for data science?
Which institute is best for data science?Which institute is best for data science?
Which institute is best for data science?
 
Best Selenium certification course
Best Selenium certification courseBest Selenium certification course
Best Selenium certification course
 
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
 
Data science training institute in hyderabad
Data science training institute in hyderabadData science training institute in hyderabad
Data science training institute in hyderabad
 
Data science training in Hyderabad
Data science  training in HyderabadData science  training in Hyderabad
Data science training in Hyderabad
 
Data science training Hyderabad
Data science training HyderabadData science training Hyderabad
Data science training Hyderabad
 
Data science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabadData science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabad
 
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
Data science training in hyd ppt (1)
 
data science training and placement
data science training and placementdata science training and placement
data science training and placement
 
online data science training
online data science trainingonline data science training
online data science training
 
Data science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabadData science online training in hyderabad
Data science online training in hyderabad
 
data science online training in hyderabad
data science online training in hyderabaddata science online training in hyderabad
data science online training in hyderabad
 

More from Alan McSweeney

Data Architecture for Solutions.pdf
Data Architecture for Solutions.pdfData Architecture for Solutions.pdf
Data Architecture for Solutions.pdf
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdfSolution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
Alan McSweeney
 
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
Alan McSweeney
 
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
Alan McSweeney
 
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Alan McSweeney
 
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation SolutionsSolution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
Alan McSweeney
 
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata HarmonisationData Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
Alan McSweeney
 
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
Alan McSweeney
 
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
Alan McSweeney
 
Operational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
Operational Risk Management Data Validation ArchitectureOperational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
Operational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
Alan McSweeney
 
Ireland 2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
Ireland   2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual ChartsIreland   2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
Ireland 2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
Alan McSweeney
 
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
Alan McSweeney
 
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In DataIreland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
Alan McSweeney
 
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference ArchitectureCritical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
Alan McSweeney
 
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
Alan McSweeney
 
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology StrategyCreating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
Alan McSweeney
 
Describing the Organisation Data Landscape
Describing the Organisation Data LandscapeDescribing the Organisation Data Landscape
Describing the Organisation Data Landscape
Alan McSweeney
 
Solution Architecture and Solution Complexity
Solution Architecture and Solution ComplexitySolution Architecture and Solution Complexity
Solution Architecture and Solution Complexity
Alan McSweeney
 

More from Alan McSweeney (20)

Data Architecture for Solutions.pdf
Data Architecture for Solutions.pdfData Architecture for Solutions.pdf
Data Architecture for Solutions.pdf
 
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdfSolution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
Solution Architecture and Solution Estimation.pdf
 
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
Validating COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – March ...
 
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
Analysis of the Numbers of Catholic Clergy and Members of Religious in Irelan...
 
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
 
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
Data Privatisation, Data Anonymisation, Data Pseudonymisation and Differentia...
 
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation SolutionsSolution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
Solution Architecture And (Robotic) Process Automation Solutions
 
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata HarmonisationData Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
Data Profiling, Data Catalogs and Metadata Harmonisation
 
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
Comparison of COVID-19 Mortality Data and Deaths for Ireland March 2020 – Mar...
 
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
Analysis of Decentralised, Distributed Decision-Making For Optimising Domesti...
 
Operational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
Operational Risk Management Data Validation ArchitectureOperational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
Operational Risk Management Data Validation Architecture
 
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
Data Integration, Access, Flow, Exchange, Transfer, Load And Extract Architec...
 
Ireland 2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
Ireland   2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual ChartsIreland   2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
Ireland 2019 and 2020 Compared - Individual Charts
 
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
Analysis of Irish Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2014-2020
 
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In DataIreland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
Ireland – 2019 And 2020 Compared In Data
 
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference ArchitectureCritical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
Critical Review of Open Group IT4IT Reference Architecture
 
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
Analysis of Possible Excess COVID-19 Deaths in Ireland From Jan 2020 to Jun 2020
 
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology StrategyCreating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
Creating A Business Focussed Information Technology Strategy
 
Describing the Organisation Data Landscape
Describing the Organisation Data LandscapeDescribing the Organisation Data Landscape
Describing the Organisation Data Landscape
 
Solution Architecture and Solution Complexity
Solution Architecture and Solution ComplexitySolution Architecture and Solution Complexity
Solution Architecture and Solution Complexity
 

Recently uploaded

Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
margaretblush
 
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
maigasapphire
 
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
pranjalgarg474
 
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdfEN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
ivanparu86
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
Rupasingh82
 
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
tjcomstrang
 
Business Model Canvas for Successful Business
Business Model Canvas for Successful BusinessBusiness Model Canvas for Successful Business
Business Model Canvas for Successful Business
SuganthiPrakash1
 
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological StyleZodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
my Pandit
 
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
kevinkariuki227
 
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining CompaniesCorporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
James AH Campbell
 
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for ObservabilityNetwork Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
GauriKale30
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
emmanuelpulido003
 
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdfWAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
Western Alaska Minerals Corp.
 
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptxAI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
Brian Frerichs
 
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
grouphirani24
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Divyanshu56740
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
Newman George Leech
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
NZSG
 
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
Katsuya Shiratori
 
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 ReportChief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Compliance Vision
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdfEN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
 
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
 
Business Model Canvas for Successful Business
Business Model Canvas for Successful BusinessBusiness Model Canvas for Successful Business
Business Model Canvas for Successful Business
 
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological StyleZodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
 
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
TEST BANK For Auditing & Assurance Services A Systematic Approach, 12th Editi...
 
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining CompaniesCorporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
 
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for ObservabilityNetwork Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
 
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdfWAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation July 2024.pdf
 
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptxAI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
AI and Best Use Cases for Your Personal Life.pptx
 
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
 
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
 
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 ReportChief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
 

Design Science and Solution Architecture

  • 1. Design Science and Solution Architecture Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
  • 2. Topics • Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS), Evidence-Based Design • Problem and Solution Knowledge • Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design • Solution Architecture and Design Science • Solution Design Process • Architecture Patterns October 7, 2018 2
  • 3. Science, Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS), Evidence-Based Design October 7, 2018 3
  • 4. Science • Science is not • Science is the process whereby knowledge is formally acquired or generated, validated, accumulated and revised and updated through observation, investigation, experience, research and analysis − Scientific method is the application of this process • The resulting knowledge needs to be acted-on and applied in a systematic manner October 7, 2018 4
  • 5. Theory • The output from science and the scientific method are theories − These are the current best explanations consistent with the currently available knowledge October 7, 2018 5
  • 6. Design Science (DS) • Design Science is the structured and systematic process for creating designs that resolve problems • It is the application of formal design processes • Design Science is also the process for developing the associated systematic process • Design Science is concerned with the structured process for the acquisition and application of knowledge in relation to the problems to the resolved and the solution knowledge to be applied − Problem Knowledge – how known is the problem or how much knowledge must be acquired on the problem to understand it − Solution Knowledge – how much existing solution knowledge can be applied and how much new knowledge is required October 7, 2018 6
  • 7. Design Theory Design Science (DS), Design Science Research (DSR), Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS) Context October 7, 2018 7 Design Science Research In Information Systems Systematised Approach to Design In General Outcome-Based Research Approach and Methodology DSR Applied to Information System Design Process Design Research Development of Theoretical Basis of Principles Knowledge and Practice of Design Design Research Design Science Research Design Science
  • 8. Design Science Research (DSR) • Design Science Research is the approach and methodology for developing Design Science within research-type endeavours − Research is at best a semi-structured activity that can be difficult to formalise • Design Science Research is concerned with the creation and improvement of artefacts • Intended to be have a practical approach and application rather than pure research October 7, 2018 8
  • 9. Design Science Research Framework October 7, 2018 9 Knowledge Design Process Outputs Awareness Of The Problem Suggestion Development of Design Evaluation of Design Conclusion Knowledge Contribution Cognitive Process Problem Statement and Resolution Proposal Indicative Solution Design Artefacts Performance Measurement Results Design Science Knowledge Abduction Deduction Reflection and Abstraction Circumscription
  • 10. Circumscription • Discovery of constraint knowledge about explanation gained through detection and analysis of contraindications when things do not work according to previously defined expectations October 7, 2018 10
  • 11. Suggestion • Suggestion is the application of creativity where new functionality is conceived of based on a novel configuration of either existing or new and existing solution components • Creativity is difficult to define in a rigorous way and its consistent repeatability cannot be guaranteed October 7, 2018 11
  • 12. Abduction • Derive a simple, plausible and reasonable explanation based on observations and knowledge acquired • The explanation may be plausible and is supported by the facts but is not certain • The explanation derived through abduction is the most likely and best available but not absolutely provable October 7, 2018 12
  • 13. Deduction • Derive a completely certain and accurate explanation based on observations, knowledge acquired and the application of logic and rules • Deductions expands on the explanations produced during the abduction phase October 7, 2018 13
  • 14. Outputs From Design Science Research Type Description Constructs The conceptual vocabulary of the problem area: concepts, terms, ideas Models Sets of propositions or statements expressing relationships between constructs Frameworks Real or conceptual guides to serve as support or guide Architectures High-level structures of systems Design Principles Core principles and concepts to guide solution design Methods Sets of steps used to perform tasks Instantiations Material artefact that realises a construct, model or method Design Theories A defined set of statements on how to perform actions to achieve a defined objective October 7, 2018 14
  • 15. DSR Artefacts • Artefacts within DSR are intended to contain knowledge − This knowledge ranges from the design logic, construction methods and tool to assumptions about the context in which the artefact is intended to function • DSR artefacts can include any of: − Models − Methods − Constructs − Instantiations (creation of an concrete example or instance) and design theories − Innovations − New or previously unknown properties of informational resources − New explanatory theories − New design and developments models and implementation processes or methods October 7, 2018 15
  • 16. Design Science Research in Information Systems (DSR-IS) • Information systems research that uses the design and construction of artefacts to generate new knowledge and insights into a class of problems • The use of artefacts embodies the principle of learning through building • There are three general activities to DSR-IS 1. Construction of artefacts where the construction is informed and guided by either by practice-based insight or theory 2. Gathering and evaluating of data on the functional performance of the artefact 3. Reflection on the construction process and on the implications the gathered data October 7, 2018 16
  • 17. Iteration Between Development Of Design And Evaluation Of Design • In DSR-IS, the process iterates between the development of design and the evaluation of design phases rather than flowing sequentially from one phase to the next • This iteration is a major difference between design science research and other science research projects − Science projects flow sequentially from the design of experiments that yield results that are analysed to generate knowledge October 7, 2018 17
  • 18. Outputs From DSR-IS • Artefacts • Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT) • Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory (DREPT) October 7, 2018 18
  • 19. Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT) • Detailed descriptions how artefacts should behave and how they can be constructed • These are design principles • ISDT defines the how artefact is constructed October 7, 2018 19
  • 20. Design-Related Explanatory/Predictive Theory (DREPT) • This contains explanatory information explaining formally why artefact has the effects it does • The captures the knowledge about the artefacts • These are refinements to refinements to theories that contributed to the initial design • Defines the how and the why the artefacts’ features have the specified effects October 7, 2018 20
  • 21. Evidence-Based Design And Solution Architecture • Create optimum solution designs by using knowledge and evidence derived from research using a rigorous and repeatable approach − Clarification of the problem and definition of the problem statement − Identification of and analysis of information available on the problem and clarification of problem to be resolved − Identification of and analysis of information available on the possible solutions to the problem − Analysis of the solution options in terms of resolving the problem − Determine and eliminate various forms of bias in the problem statement and the solution options − Analysis of risks in the solution options • Risk of doing the wrong thing • Risk of doing it in the wrong way • Risk of underestimating complexity and scope of work • Risk of higher than expected cost of operation and maintenance • Risk of underestimating organisation change impact and organisation resistance • Risk through uncertainty and unpredictability − Validate that the solution will resolve the problem October 7, 2018 21
  • 22. What Is A Solution? October 7, 2018 22
  • 23. Need For Solution Exists Because … • I have a problem • I want to be able to do what I am currently unable to do • I cannot do what I want • I need to be able to do something • A solution is a Resolver, a Provider or an Enabler • An originator will identify the need for a solution • The IT function must work with the originator to provide a usable answer to the solution need 07 October 2018 23
  • 24. Solution Definition Journey Stages October 7, 2018 24 WHY? WHAT? HOW?
  • 25. Why, What And How • WHY? − Why is the solution being looked for: a problem, an opportunity, an obligation? − Why has the situation requiring a solution arisen? − Why are we here? − Why do it? − Why not do it? • WHAT − What are the options? − What can be done? − What is being looked for? − What must it do? • HOW − How should it be done? − How should it operate? − How can it be delivered? October 7, 2018 25
  • 26. The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than Just … • … Just a bunch of software • Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to operate the associated business processes • Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these components and that the components are properly designed and implemented • Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience of the usage of the components • Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions • Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start October 7, 2018 26
  • 27. Scope Of Complete Solution October 7, 2018 27 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  • 28. Any Complete Solution Consists of: • Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems} • + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications} • + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products} • + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges} • + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {New Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes} • + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations} • + Zero or more of {New Data Loads} • + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation} • + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services} • + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production} • + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes} • + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services} • + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services} October 7, 2018 28
  • 29. Aspects Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 29 Solution Design Getting Work Done, Making The Solution Work Appearance, Utility, Experience Development, Configuration, Implementation, Migration People and Organisation, Operating Landscape How the Solution, Appears, Is Accessed, Used, Navigated Who Uses The Solution, How the Solution Interacts With Other Components
  • 30. Simplified Organisation Context Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 30 Organisation Strategy Organisation Information Technology and Systems Strategy Organisation Structure And Processes Set Of Solutions That Comprise The Organisation Solution Landscape Alignment Between Strategies Solution Design Alignment Between Solutions And Organisation Organisation Design External Factors Constraints, Standards, Limitations
  • 31. Business Objectives Business Operational Model Enterprise Architecture Solution Implementation and Delivery Management And Operations Business Processes Required Operational Business Systems Business Strategy Business Solution Analysis and Design/ Selection Business IT Strategy IT Function Strategy Required Operational and Support Processes Required Business Support Systems Support Solution Analysis and Design/ Selection Organisation Context Of Solution Design October 7, 2018 31
  • 32. Problem and Solution Knowledge October 7, 2018 32
  • 33. Solution Architecture And Knowledge • The amount of already known knowledge and the amount of knowledge that must be acquired governs the complexity of the solution design process • The solution design process acquires and uses knowledge about the problem and the solution to create one or more implementable and usable solution options October 7, 2018 33 Problem Knowledge Solution Knowledge Solution Design Process
  • 34. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain • Combination of options based on existing knowledge about problem and knowledge of solution options that can be applied to the problem October 7, 2018 34
  • 35. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain - Problems October 7, 2018 35 New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge Where Existing Solution Knowledge Can Be Adapted Known Or Quantified Problem With Existing Solution Knowledge New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge With No Existing Solution Knowledge Known Or Quantified Problem With No Existing Solution Knowledge Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  • 36. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain – Solution Approach October 7, 2018 36 Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For New Problem Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For Known Problem Invent or Derive New Knowledge To Create New Solution For New Problem Develop New Knowledge To Create New Solution For Known Problem Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  • 37. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain - Complexity October 7, 2018 37 Amount Of Existing Knowledge That Is Known About The Problem Or Novelty Of The Problem Amount Of Solution Knowledge That Can Be Applied To The Solution or Amount Of Solution Knowledge Already Known HIGH LOW LOW HIGH
  • 38. Mapping The Problem/Solution Domain October 7, 2018 38 Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For New Problem Adapt Or Apply Existing Solutions or Knowledge For Known Problem Invent or Derive New Knowledge To Create New Solution For New Problem Develop New Knowledge To Create New Solution For Known Problem New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge Where Existing Solution Knowledge Can Be Adapted Known Or Quantified Problem With Existing Solution Knowledge New Or Unquantified Problem/No Problem Knowledge With No Existing Solution Knowledge Known Or Quantified Problem With No Existing Solution Knowledge
  • 39. Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential Solution • Solution unkowns are the source of potential problems during solution delivery • The goal of solution design is no surprises • Remove the uncertainty from the solution design as much as possible 07 October 2018 39 What Can Be Known Known Unknown What We Know Known Here Be Dragons Unknown
  • 40. Maximise The Known Knowns Of The Potential Solution 07 October 2018 40 Known Knowns Known Unknowns Unknown Unknowns • The more that is known about the solution design the fewer the problems relating to scope and changes and associated cost, time and resource increase will occur later in solution implementation
  • 41. Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution Mapping • Solution has functional (and other) requirements that it must have in order to be deemed to be operating correctly − Solutions can be delivered without some of the functional requirements – manual work • Solution design process is concerned with mapping the requirements to the functions of the solution • Solution requirements identified will never include the full scope of the solution − Requirements identified during any requirements elicitation process will only ever be a sparse and fragmented representation of what the full set of solution requirements that constitute a complete solution October 7, 2018 41
  • 42. Solution Design Process – Requirements To Solution Mapping October 7, 2018 42 Sparse Functional Requirements Identified Complete Solution Functionality Implemented = Functional Requirements Identified = Solution Functionality Implemented But Not Explicitly Identified = Functional Requirements Identified But Not Implemented Solution Need To Solution Design Mapping
  • 43. Requirements Space And Solution Space • Minimise Solution Space while maximising size of Requirements Space encompassed • You do not deliver requirements • You deliver solutions that encompass multiple interoperating elements that enable business processes that allow requirements to be complied with • Solution Space maximises the requirements complied with while minimising its scope and complexity and therefore its cost, delivery time and risk • Solution design is concerned with finding an optimal Solution Space • There may be many Solution Space options – solution design needs to focus on finding the most viable ones quickly and the deciding on the one(s) to pursue October 7, 2018 43
  • 44. Purpose, Objective and Scope of Solution Design October 7, 2018 44
  • 45. Solution Architecture And Design • Solution architecture and design is concerned with designing new (IT) solutions • These can be standard solutions where the knowledge required to create the design is known and available or new and innovative where there are knowledge gaps that must be identified and completed • Solution architecture requires a (changing) combination of technical, leadership, interpersonal skills, experience, analysis, appropriate creativity, reflection and intuition applied in a structured manner October 7, 2018 45
  • 46. Objective Of Solution Architecture • The central objective of solution architecture is to create a design • The design is a specification of an IT-oriented solution whose purpose is to realise a defined set of end states and generate a set of outputs • The design is intended to operate in a defined environment • The design is based on a set of basic components • The design satisfies a set of requirements and meet a set of expectations • The design is subject to a variety of environment-specific constraints and limitations • Solution architecture is the process for creating designs • The purpose of the design specification is to enable the implementation and subsequent operation and use of the solution October 7, 2018 46
  • 47. Scope Of Solution Design • There are differing views of the scope of the solution design effort and of the solution design itself − Narrow rather than broad • Narrow - the design should cover just the core functional elements • Broad - the design should include details on the wider solution operation such as data migration and transition to service • The solution design should encompass all elements required to ensure that the solution can be implemented, operated, used and supported • This means the solution design should describe all the solution design and implementation components October 7, 2018 47
  • 48. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 48 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Network Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/ Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  • 49. Solution Implementation Stages October 7, 2018 49 Idea or Business Concept Initial Discovery Requirements Elicitation Outline Solution Design Decision to Proceed Design Review And Approval Development Organisation Change Detailed Solution Design Initiate Implementation Implementation Planning Deployment Planning Data Migration Testing Transition To Support Parallel Run Hypercare Interval Documentation and Training Process Definition and Changes Cutover To Production Operation and Use Evolve and Change Component Procurement/ Acquisition Infrastructure Commissioning
  • 50. Journey From Solution Idea To Operation And Use • The solution implementation journey from initial concept to operation and use is never simple October 7, 2018 50 Compromise Options Strategy Exploration Workaround Concession Operation And UseIdea Implementation Transition to Production Training
  • 51. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 51 What Should the Scope of the Design Be? Scope Scope Scope OR OR
  • 52. Solution Implementation Stages • What should the solution design encompass? • What should the solution design included to ensure that the solution will be implementable, operable and usable? • Knowing the actual solution scope means being able to estimate effectively and accurately and know the cost, time, resources and risks in implementing the solution October 7, 2018 52
  • 53. Mapping The Solution Scope To The Solution Implementation Stages October 7, 2018 53 What Should the Solution Scope Be To Achieve the Required Solution Implementation? Solution Implementation Stages Solution Scope
  • 54. Solution Design Scope October 7, 2018 54 This Is What The Implementation of the Solution Will Ultimately Cost The Solution Design Should Include All The Elements Needed To Accurately Quantify The Solution Implementation Costs, Resources and Time
  • 55. Solution Design Scope • Likely scope of complete solution • If elements of the solution scope are omitted then the solution design will not be complete October 7, 2018 55 New Business Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services New Data Loads Parallel Runs Acquired and Customised Software Products Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Cutover/ Transfer to Production Application Hosting and Management Services Changes to Existing Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Information Storage Facilities New Custom Developed Applications System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Systems Training and Documentation Operational Functions and Processes Organisational Changes New Business Processes Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services New Data Loads Parallel Runs Acquired and Customised Software Products Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Cutover/ Transfer to Production Application Hosting and Management Services Changes to Existing Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Information Storage Facilities New Custom Developed Applications System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Systems Training and Documentation Operational Functions and Processes Organisational Changes
  • 56. Solution Delivery Costs – Cost Committed And Cost Incurred • Most solution delivery costs are embedded and committed after the solution design has been completed • The embedded costs will just be incurred during subsequent delivery stages • If the solution design is not accurate and complete then the costs will not be understood or represented correctly October 7, 2018 56
  • 57. Solution Architecture and Design Science October 7, 2018 57
  • 58. Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key Questions • Can design science principles be applied to solution architecture in a commercial context? • Is there a commercial and business benefit to applying design science in a business environment • Can the rigour of an academic-derived process be used in a business environment? • Can it be adapted to suit the required flexibility and dynamism outside the academic world? • Can the business and commercial environment adopt the required rigour of a design science process? October 7, 2018 58
  • 59. Design Science And Solution Architecture – Key Questions • Using a rigorous scientific approach add cost to the solution design process but improves solution quality • The application of DSR-IS must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large • A large design function can create work for itself to justify its size and existence and so the potential value-adding benefits of DSR-IS can be lost − Need to avoid the problems of Conway’s Law - https://www.slideshare.net/alanmcsweeney/conways-law- cognitive-diversity-organisation-transformation-and-solution- design-66522207 October 7, 2018 59
  • 60. Types Of Solution Design Activities • Two broad types of solution design activities: 1. Design of commercial products for sale and supply to customers 2. Design of solutions within organisations • While design science approach and principles can be applied to both types of design activities, it is particularly applicable to the design of commercial solutions • Internal organisation solutions include commercial products October 7, 2018 60
  • 61. Design Science And Solution Architecture • Solution architecture involves creativity during the solution design process • Creativity is difficult to define and apply rigorously • There are tools and approaches to channel and direct creativity October 7, 2018 61
  • 62. Problems With Solution Design • Soft organisational information can be difficult to identify and thus incorporate into the solution design • Any solution operates in an organisational context − Understanding this context is important to ensure the success of the solution • Soft information can include the way information − Many solutions do not meet user needs, especially as these change over time − Many solutions require additional external manual workarounds to operate successfully − Many solutions are difficult to maintain and evolve to incorporate changes − Many solutions are difficult to reuse − Many solutions are hard to integrate with other systems October 7, 2018 62
  • 63. Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and Successes October 7, 2018 63 Complete Solution Success: On-time, On-budget And Delivering Specified Benefits Solution Delivery Late And/Or Over Budget More Expensive to Operate And Support Than Planned Or Expected Performance And/Or Operational Problems Functionality Delivered Does Not Meet Business Requirements Significant Rework Or Replacement Required Solution Largely Unused And/Or Unusable Complete Solution Failure: Cancelled, Unused, Rejected Not What Is Wanted Or What Was Required/ Envisaged Not All Specified Business Benefits and Savings Not Delivered Solution Has Reduced Functionality Requiring Workarounds
  • 64. Spectrum of Solution Delivery Failures and Successes • Solution delivery success and failure are not binary options: there is a spectrum of outcomes between complete success and complete failure • Complete solution delivery success is as infrequent as complete failure • Getting the architecture and design right puts the solution delivery project on a solid foundation and maximises the likelihood of success • Getting the architecture and design wrong puts the solution delivery project on an unstable foundation and negatively impacts on the deliverability of the solution • The discipline of design science can improve the quality of solution designs October 7, 2018 64
  • 65. Design Science And Solution Architecture • A key element of the application and use of Design Science is the management of knowledge – problem knowledge and solution knowledge − This allows knowledge to be reused • This means that the solution architecture function must incorporate effective knowledge management – knowledge storage, sharing, use and constant maintenance • This requires good management of the solution architecture function October 7, 2018 65
  • 66. Being Good At Solution Design Means … • Solutions are defined, designed and delivered in a reliable, stable and innovative way to ensure that cost, time, required functionality and quality are constantly optimised to meet the needs of the business • Good solution design means being aware of all the options and selecting the most appropriate one subject to all constraints • Good solution design means avoiding all the conscious and unconscious biases that lead to bad solutions • Doing the right things and doing them the right way October 7, 2018 66
  • 67. Solution Design Process October 7, 2018 67 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Elicit Stakeholder Requirements Formalise Stakeholder Requirements Define Solution Requirements Analyse Solution Requirements Define Solution Architecture and Design Analyse, Evaluate and Refine Solution Architecture Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  • 68. Solution Design Process • Each stage uses the output from the previous stage as an input • Detail is refined, extended and elaborated on in successive stages October 7, 2018 68 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  • 69. Solution Design Process Stage Scope Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective The business have an idea for a solution based on an apparent need to solve a problem, to do what is currently not possible, to react or respond to an external demand or to be able to achieve a new objective. Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective This formalises the initial concept to introduce greater consistency and detail. It serves to understand the business, objectives, purposes and potential organisational impacts. It describes what the ideal solution will do. It also identifies the high-level potential system impacts. Initial Architecture Review and Options This uses the formal statement of need to create an initial high-level view of the overall solution, its new and existing systems and applications components, the required functionality, their interfaces, the required processes and the business functions impacted. This provides a container for the requirements and a vision for the solution. Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification This uses this initial architectural review output in a structured way to elicit and formalise the set of stakeholder requirements across the dimensions of functionality and processes. Solution Requirements Collection and Specification The solution requirements specification is a fuller, more detailed and elaborated set of solution requirements encompassing all the solution components. This includes the requirements explicitly identified by stakeholders and the implied requirements. Solution Architecture Design and Specification This is the detailed solution specification derived from the stakeholder and solution requirements. Implementation Project This uses the detailed solution specification to act as an input to project definition and to create a realistic implementation plan, schedule, set of costs and required resources. October 7, 2018 69
  • 70. Solution Design Process • There is a decision point after each stage where a decision is made if it is worthwhile to proceed to the next stage October 7, 2018 70 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options Decision Points
  • 71. Solution Design Process • Not all concepts make it all the way to implementation • Process needs to accommodate this • Do as little as possible to achieve as much as possible to make an informed decision on whether and how to proceed to the next stage in the solution journey October 7, 2018 71 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  • 72. Solution Design Process - Iterations • Solution design process is not necessarily linear • Stages can be iterated a number of times to different levels of detail October 7, 2018 72 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options
  • 73. Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process October 7, 2018 73 Initial Concept Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Formal Statement Of Need/ Goal/ Objective Stakeholder Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Requirements Collection and Specification Solution Architecture Design and Specification Implementation Project Initial Architecture Review and Options Awareness Of The Problem Suggestion Development of Design Evaluation of Design Conclusion
  • 74. Mapping Solution Design Process to DSR-IS Process • The DSR process can be applied standard solution design process • What works in an academic environment can be applied, with care, to a commercial setting October 7, 2018 74
  • 75. Architectural Patterns And Research Techniques October 7, 2018 75
  • 76. Architectural Patterns • Architectural patterns are template solutions to recurring types of problems − Not all problems are they same but there can be sufficient similarity to allow knowledge reuse • The pattern describes the problem and the core of the solution to that problem • Patterns demonstrate and communicate short-cuts solution models • Patterns do not contain detailed implementation-specifics • The use of patterns can reduce design effort October 7, 2018 76
  • 77. Solution Design Techniques • If you are stuck at any stage in the solution analysis and design process, use brainstorming to create a new solution concept by first creating a large number of ideas that are then evaluated on their usefulness • If conventional thinking is not yielding results, consider alternative or unusual ideas or a combination of ideas • Redefine the problem scope and statement after an initial review • Conduct a rigorous cost-benefit analyst to determine if the envisioned expenditure justifies the expected benefits • Analyse existing solutions to determine if they can be applied when the problem becomes more complex or whether different solutions are required • Restructure ill-structured problems by identifying and prioritising the key problem objectives and clarifying any constraints. Restate the problem in formal and precise terms October 7, 2018 77
  • 78. Solution Design Techniques • Break down the complex problem into smaller constituent problems to create manageable problems that can be worked on individually • Develop the solution to a complex problem in an incremental and iterative manner • Identify tools and techniques applicable to the problem based on analysis of existing documentation • Look at the problem from different and unorthodox perspectives in order to identify new dimensions to the solution • Create a library of ideas generated over multiple solution design exercises so they can be reviewed to determine their suitability for future exercises • Examine the possibility that a solution or solution approach to a problem in one problem area can be applied or adapted or extrapolated to a different problem October 7, 2018 78
  • 79. Solution Design Techniques • Start with an simple solution first and then expand its complexity • Detail the desired end solution state (end state) and the start problem state (start state) and analyse the differences between the two states. Look for methods that can be employed in narrowing the difference between the two states • Understand and predict the behaviour of the designed solution without having to build it. Explore alternative designs for the solution. The behaviour of complex solutions may be difficult to understand. • Identify problems that are similar to the current problem. Understand the solution approaches, concepts and principles used for solving these similar problems and apply this knowledge to the solution of current problem October 7, 2018 79
  • 80. Solution Design Techniques • Explore the option that a solution or solution approach to a problem in one discipline or domain can be applied in or adapted to the current problem • Divide the given complex solution design into smaller problems that can form the building blocks for solving the original problem • Identify and carry out the next feasible task that can contribute to the solution of the problem resolution and solution design and let the succeeding tasks emerge • Find and combine partial solutions to parts of the research problem to form the entire solution • Develop a solution to the problem through iterations of system development, observation and refinement October 7, 2018 80
  • 81. Solution Design Techniques • Demonstrate that the solution is implementable and valid. Creating a prototype of a solution for a problem can be used to show that the solution is implementable. Testing of the solution can demonstrate the validity of the solution • Use simulation to evaluate and validate the solution to the problem October 7, 2018 81
  • 82. Summary • Design Science principles can be applied to the solution design process within solution architecture to improve the rigour and accuracy of solution designs • The application of Design Science must be a means to an end – better solution quality – and not an end in itself – an incentive for the design function is to become large • Knowledge management – problem knowledge and solution knowledge – is at the core of the application of design science principles • Knowledge management requires good management of the solution architecture function October 7, 2018 82
  • 83. October 7, 2018 83 More Information Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney