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Climate Change Adaptation
and Mitigation with
Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems
Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda
Data analysis and findings
Citra Gilang
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Blue carbon have high rates of
carbon sequestration.
Mangrove TECS in
Indonesia: 1083 Mg ha-1).
High carbon stock in SE Asia alone
Mangrove carbon sequestration is greater than rainforests
Mangrove in climate change mitigation
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Mangove loss continues
Figure adapted from Nathan et al. 2017
Global mangrove loss continues raising
Southeast Asia showed 8.3% of global number tiles from 1999 – 2010 (Nathan et al. 2017)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Emission from mangrove loss
Global emissions from mangrove loss are projected to reach 2391 Tg CO2 eq by the
end of the century (2020–2100) (Adame et al. 2021)
Figure adapted from Adame et al. 2021
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
• Mangrove degradation contribute to 8%
to total emissions of forest loss in
Indonesia (MOEF, 2005-2016 emission
236.9 MtCOha-1).
• Disproportional to mangrove
existing 2.6% of the total forests of
Indonesia.
V. B. Arifanti et al. 2021. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 874 012006
Emission from mangrove loss in Indonesia
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
The NDC of Indonesia
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Mangrove restoration steps
Prepare for observation
Initial observation
Species selection
Quantity estimation
Seedling nursery Land preparation
Seedling loading
Maintenance
Plantation
(Taniguchi et al. 1999)
Species carbon dynamics
(carbon stocks and
sequestration ability)
What factors affect the
performances?
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Different zoning = different local
habitat characteristics
Figure adapted from Waycott et al. 2011
Successful
rehabilitation and
restoration program
Carbon seq. among
species
How environment affect mangrove carbon dynamics among species?
How latitude affects mangrove carbon storage?
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Project aim:
• To quantify the environmental assets, including carbon sequestration capacity and
associated ecosystem services, of various types of mangrove forests; and
• To identify promising mangrove species for coastal landscape restoration and carbon
sequestration and establish research and demonstration sites in Bali, Indonesia
CIFOR-ICRAF and NIFoS Jeju on mangrove carbon dynamics
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Research sites
Plots in Mertasari beach (8°42'35.53"S and 115°14'41.46"E)
and MIC Tahura Ngurah Rai (8°43'46.27"S and 115°11'34.69"E)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Observation
1. Carbon uptake → biomass and photosynthesis
rates
2. Vegetation → biodiversity of true- and semi-
mangroves, phenology.
3. Soil → structure, physical and chemical
compounds, GHG analysis.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Biodiversity
True-mangroves: 6 species
R.mucronata R.apiculata B.gymnorrhiza
S.alba X.granatum A.marina
Semi-mangroves: 3 species
H.tiliaceus
P.pinnata
G.sepium
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
AGB Biomass
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
2,9
6,2
7,6
8,0
9,0
9,8
10,0
10,8
11,2
12,0
12,8
14,0
16,6
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
Dbh (cm)
R.mucronata (only in site 1)
Kangkuso et al 2016
Imbert and Rollet 1989
Komiyama et al. 2005
Chave et al. 2005-1
Chave et al. 2005-2
0
50
100
150
200
250
3,5
5,41
6,37
7,01
8,6
8,6
8,8
9
9,8
9,8
10
12,8
13,38
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
Dbh (cm)
R.apiculata
Mertasari
Tahura
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
5,1 7,0 8,9 12,713,415,319,124,928,331,9
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
Dbh (cm)
S.alba
Chave et al. 2005 (Mert.)
Komiyama et al. 2005 (Mert.)
Chave et al. 2005 (Tah.)
Komiyama et al. 2005 (Tah.)
Tahura site has larger AGB on S.alba and
R.apiculata than Mertasari site
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Results: phenology observation (every two weeks)
• True-mangrove: productive the whole year
• Semi-mangroves: less productive
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Literature search (1980 – 2023)
Process Inclusion Exclusion
Literature search n = 496 (Scopus)
n = 425 (Web of Science)
n = 100 (Google Scholar)
Literature screening n = 62 (Title and abstract screening)
n = 31 (Full text screening)
n = 959 (irrelevant studies)
n = 31 (irrelevant studies)
Included literature n = 31 eligible for data extraction
mangrove* OR "coast* ecosystem*" OR Rhizophora OR Avicennia OR “coast* wetland*” OR “Intertidal wetland*” OR
“tidal wetland*” OR “estuarine wetland” OR carbon OR biomass OR dynamic* OR flux* OR emission* OR stock* OR
storage* OR respiration OR sequest* OR absorption OR photosynthe*
Low number of studies
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Study map distribution
INDONESIAN STUDY:
1.Komodo Nat. Park, NTT
2.TAHURA, Bali
3.Pejarakan, Bali
4.Joybar, Lombok
5.Demta bay, Papua
6.Rawo Aopa Watumohai Nat. Park,
Southeast Sulawesi
7.Tunda Island, Banten
8.Pancer cengkong, East Java
9.Peliat Island, Madura
10.Segara Anakan, Central Java
11.Cawan Island, Riau
Yandina
Wetland
Vypin
d
Island
Mekong
Delta
Sundarban
Mangrove
Forest
Kerala
State
Fukido
Mangrove
Forest
Maheshkali
Island
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
Queensland MF
n = 19 study sites in 6 countries
Soil pH vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha)
R² = 0,1707
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
R.apiculata
R² = 0,1527
0
20
40
60
80
100
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
S.alba
R² = 0,008
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
R.mucronata
R² = 0,0774
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
C.tagal
R² = 0,0496
0
20
40
60
80
100
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
A.marina
R² = 0,5546
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1
C
stock
(t/ha)
Soil pH
R.stylosa
C stock in B.gymnorrhiza
showed positive
correlation with soil pH
* Data is collected from various references
Water temperature vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha)
R² = 0,1781
0
50
100
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
B.gymnorrhiza
R² = 0,0864
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
R.apiculata
R² = 0,0232
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
R.mucronata
R² = 0,1287
0
2
4
6
8
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
C.tagal
R² = 0,056
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
A.marina
R² = 0,7607
0
2
4
6
8
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
R.stylosa
R² = 0,0437
0
20
40
60
80
100
25 26 27 28 29
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water T (°C)
S.alba
C stock in B.gymnorrhiza
showed positive
correlation with water T
* Data is collected from various references
Water salinity vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha)
R² = 0,2498
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
10 15 20 25
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
R.apiculata
R² = 0,0695
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 10 20 30
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
R.mucronata
R² = 0,0741
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 10 20 30
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
S.alba
R² = 0,0219
0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
C.tagal
R² = 0,0279
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 10 20 30
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
A.marina
R² = 0,2499
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 10 20 30
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
R.stylosa
C stock in R.apiculata and
R.stylosa showed positive
correlation with water salinity
R² = 0,4348
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
10 15 20 25
C
stock
(t/ha)
Water salinity (‰)
B.gymnorrhiza
* Data is collected from various references
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Summary
• Rhizoporaceae showed the highest carbon stock among all
dominant species in Asia – Pacific
• Soil pH and water temperature positively affect the carbon stock
capacity of B.gymnorrhiza but not to other species
• Water salinity positively affect the carbon stock capacity of
R.apiculata and R.stylosa but not to other species
How climate characteristics affect the pattern on mangrove carbon dynamics?
Figure adapated from Waycott et al. 2011
C seq and C stock positive with
Soil pH, water T, and water salinity
Front zone
Middle zone
Soil pH 6.9 - 7
Soil pH 6.5 – 6.8
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Another question to be considered
How does mangrove types affect the carbon storage?
Allometric equation on above-
ground biomass calculation.
Understanding biomass among
species in various types of
mangrove forests.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Study map distribution
* Data is extracted from various references
Mangrove types:
Dry: rainfall below
1,500mm/year.
Moist: rainfall 1,500-
3,500mm /year.
Wet: rainfall 3,500mm/year
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Species AGB
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
Dbh (cm)
R.apiculata
Dry
Moist (Fromad et al.)
Moist (Komiyama et al.)
Dry-Wet
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
DBH (cm)
R.mangle
Dry
Dry-moist
Dry-moist-wet
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
AGB
(Mg
ha-1)
DBH (cm)
A.marina
Dry
Dry-moist
Dry-moist-wet
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
SUMMARY
• Biophysical environmental condition affect the above-ground biomass (and carbon
stock) of mangrove species, which specific aspect need to be more elaborated within
species level.
• Different ability in carbon sequestration is a strong consideration of MULTI-CULTURAL
plantation strategy in restoration program.
CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes
to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss,
climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.

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Data analysis and findings

  • 1. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda Data analysis and findings Citra Gilang
  • 2. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Blue carbon have high rates of carbon sequestration. Mangrove TECS in Indonesia: 1083 Mg ha-1). High carbon stock in SE Asia alone Mangrove carbon sequestration is greater than rainforests Mangrove in climate change mitigation
  • 3. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Mangove loss continues Figure adapted from Nathan et al. 2017 Global mangrove loss continues raising Southeast Asia showed 8.3% of global number tiles from 1999 – 2010 (Nathan et al. 2017)
  • 4. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Emission from mangrove loss Global emissions from mangrove loss are projected to reach 2391 Tg CO2 eq by the end of the century (2020–2100) (Adame et al. 2021) Figure adapted from Adame et al. 2021
  • 5. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR • Mangrove degradation contribute to 8% to total emissions of forest loss in Indonesia (MOEF, 2005-2016 emission 236.9 MtCOha-1). • Disproportional to mangrove existing 2.6% of the total forests of Indonesia. V. B. Arifanti et al. 2021. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 874 012006 Emission from mangrove loss in Indonesia
  • 6. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR The NDC of Indonesia
  • 7. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Mangrove restoration steps Prepare for observation Initial observation Species selection Quantity estimation Seedling nursery Land preparation Seedling loading Maintenance Plantation (Taniguchi et al. 1999) Species carbon dynamics (carbon stocks and sequestration ability) What factors affect the performances?
  • 8. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Different zoning = different local habitat characteristics Figure adapted from Waycott et al. 2011 Successful rehabilitation and restoration program Carbon seq. among species How environment affect mangrove carbon dynamics among species? How latitude affects mangrove carbon storage?
  • 9. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Project aim: • To quantify the environmental assets, including carbon sequestration capacity and associated ecosystem services, of various types of mangrove forests; and • To identify promising mangrove species for coastal landscape restoration and carbon sequestration and establish research and demonstration sites in Bali, Indonesia CIFOR-ICRAF and NIFoS Jeju on mangrove carbon dynamics
  • 10. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Research sites Plots in Mertasari beach (8°42'35.53"S and 115°14'41.46"E) and MIC Tahura Ngurah Rai (8°43'46.27"S and 115°11'34.69"E)
  • 11. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Observation 1. Carbon uptake → biomass and photosynthesis rates 2. Vegetation → biodiversity of true- and semi- mangroves, phenology. 3. Soil → structure, physical and chemical compounds, GHG analysis.
  • 12. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Biodiversity True-mangroves: 6 species R.mucronata R.apiculata B.gymnorrhiza S.alba X.granatum A.marina Semi-mangroves: 3 species H.tiliaceus P.pinnata G.sepium
  • 13. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR AGB Biomass 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 2,9 6,2 7,6 8,0 9,0 9,8 10,0 10,8 11,2 12,0 12,8 14,0 16,6 AGB (Mg ha-1) Dbh (cm) R.mucronata (only in site 1) Kangkuso et al 2016 Imbert and Rollet 1989 Komiyama et al. 2005 Chave et al. 2005-1 Chave et al. 2005-2 0 50 100 150 200 250 3,5 5,41 6,37 7,01 8,6 8,6 8,8 9 9,8 9,8 10 12,8 13,38 AGB (Mg ha-1) Dbh (cm) R.apiculata Mertasari Tahura 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 5,1 7,0 8,9 12,713,415,319,124,928,331,9 AGB (Mg ha-1) Dbh (cm) S.alba Chave et al. 2005 (Mert.) Komiyama et al. 2005 (Mert.) Chave et al. 2005 (Tah.) Komiyama et al. 2005 (Tah.) Tahura site has larger AGB on S.alba and R.apiculata than Mertasari site
  • 14. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Results: phenology observation (every two weeks) • True-mangrove: productive the whole year • Semi-mangroves: less productive
  • 15. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Literature search (1980 – 2023) Process Inclusion Exclusion Literature search n = 496 (Scopus) n = 425 (Web of Science) n = 100 (Google Scholar) Literature screening n = 62 (Title and abstract screening) n = 31 (Full text screening) n = 959 (irrelevant studies) n = 31 (irrelevant studies) Included literature n = 31 eligible for data extraction mangrove* OR "coast* ecosystem*" OR Rhizophora OR Avicennia OR “coast* wetland*” OR “Intertidal wetland*” OR “tidal wetland*” OR “estuarine wetland” OR carbon OR biomass OR dynamic* OR flux* OR emission* OR stock* OR storage* OR respiration OR sequest* OR absorption OR photosynthe* Low number of studies
  • 16. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Study map distribution INDONESIAN STUDY: 1.Komodo Nat. Park, NTT 2.TAHURA, Bali 3.Pejarakan, Bali 4.Joybar, Lombok 5.Demta bay, Papua 6.Rawo Aopa Watumohai Nat. Park, Southeast Sulawesi 7.Tunda Island, Banten 8.Pancer cengkong, East Java 9.Peliat Island, Madura 10.Segara Anakan, Central Java 11.Cawan Island, Riau Yandina Wetland Vypin d Island Mekong Delta Sundarban Mangrove Forest Kerala State Fukido Mangrove Forest Maheshkali Island 1 2 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 Queensland MF n = 19 study sites in 6 countries
  • 17. Soil pH vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha) R² = 0,1707 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH R.apiculata R² = 0,1527 0 20 40 60 80 100 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH S.alba R² = 0,008 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH R.mucronata R² = 0,0774 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH C.tagal R² = 0,0496 0 20 40 60 80 100 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH A.marina R² = 0,5546 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 7,1 C stock (t/ha) Soil pH R.stylosa C stock in B.gymnorrhiza showed positive correlation with soil pH * Data is collected from various references
  • 18. Water temperature vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha) R² = 0,1781 0 50 100 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) B.gymnorrhiza R² = 0,0864 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 25 26 27 28 29 C stock(t/ha) Water T (°C) R.apiculata R² = 0,0232 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) R.mucronata R² = 0,1287 0 2 4 6 8 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) C.tagal R² = 0,056 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) A.marina R² = 0,7607 0 2 4 6 8 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) R.stylosa R² = 0,0437 0 20 40 60 80 100 25 26 27 28 29 C stock (t/ha) Water T (°C) S.alba C stock in B.gymnorrhiza showed positive correlation with water T * Data is collected from various references
  • 19. Water salinity vs ABG carbon stock (t/ha) R² = 0,2498 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 10 15 20 25 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) R.apiculata R² = 0,0695 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 10 20 30 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) R.mucronata R² = 0,0741 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 10 20 30 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) S.alba R² = 0,0219 0 2 4 6 8 0 10 20 30 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) C.tagal R² = 0,0279 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) A.marina R² = 0,2499 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 10 20 30 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) R.stylosa C stock in R.apiculata and R.stylosa showed positive correlation with water salinity R² = 0,4348 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 10 15 20 25 C stock (t/ha) Water salinity (‰) B.gymnorrhiza * Data is collected from various references
  • 20. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Summary • Rhizoporaceae showed the highest carbon stock among all dominant species in Asia – Pacific • Soil pH and water temperature positively affect the carbon stock capacity of B.gymnorrhiza but not to other species • Water salinity positively affect the carbon stock capacity of R.apiculata and R.stylosa but not to other species
  • 21. How climate characteristics affect the pattern on mangrove carbon dynamics? Figure adapated from Waycott et al. 2011 C seq and C stock positive with Soil pH, water T, and water salinity Front zone Middle zone Soil pH 6.9 - 7 Soil pH 6.5 – 6.8
  • 22. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Another question to be considered How does mangrove types affect the carbon storage? Allometric equation on above- ground biomass calculation. Understanding biomass among species in various types of mangrove forests.
  • 23. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Study map distribution * Data is extracted from various references Mangrove types: Dry: rainfall below 1,500mm/year. Moist: rainfall 1,500- 3,500mm /year. Wet: rainfall 3,500mm/year
  • 24. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Species AGB 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AGB (Mg ha-1) Dbh (cm) R.apiculata Dry Moist (Fromad et al.) Moist (Komiyama et al.) Dry-Wet 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AGB (Mg ha-1) DBH (cm) R.mangle Dry Dry-moist Dry-moist-wet 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AGB (Mg ha-1) DBH (cm) A.marina Dry Dry-moist Dry-moist-wet
  • 25. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR SUMMARY • Biophysical environmental condition affect the above-ground biomass (and carbon stock) of mangrove species, which specific aspect need to be more elaborated within species level. • Different ability in carbon sequestration is a strong consideration of MULTI-CULTURAL plantation strategy in restoration program.
  • 26. CIFOR-ICRAF CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss, climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.