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Climate Change Adaptation
and Mitigation with
Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems
Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda
Beni Okarda, Sonya Dyah, Herry Purnomo & team
Sungsang Mangrove
Restoration and Ecotourism
(SMART):
A participatory action research for
community-based mangrove
restoration and business model
development
Contents
1)About SMART project
2)Main approach: PAR
3)Progress of project activities
4)Lesson learned
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
SMART
(Sungsang Mangrove Restoration and Ecotourism)
• A 5 years research project funded by the
Temasek Foundation, Singapore.
• In collaboration with University of Sriwijaya and
South Sumatra Watershed Forum for the
implementation.
• Main goal:
To develop and implement mangrove restoration
and community-based business model that is
locally accepted, ecologically feasible and deliver
benefit for local communities while contribute to
existing program and initiatives.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Project location
• Sungsang, Banyuasin District, South Sumatra
• Why in Sungsang and Banyuasin?
• Half of remaining mangrove of South Sumatra is in
Banyuasin and existing mangrove outside national park
is mostly located in Sungsang area,
• Sungsang mangroves is still on threat (agriculture
expansion, infrastructure development) despite its slow
deforestation rate,
• Another key issue: poverty of coastal community
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Main approach: PAR (Participatory Action Research)
Purnomo dan Puspitaloka, 2020
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Project Activities
Work Package 1
Participatory Action Research
(mangrove restoration and
business model development)
Work Package 2
Local Policy
Work Package 3
National and international
platform
Work Package 4
Project management
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Key achievements in 2023
WP1 – PAR
(In partnership with Unsri)
WP2 - LOCAL POLICY
(In partnership with Fordas Sumsel)
WP3 – NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
PLATFORM
• ~15 ha of mangrove in four action arenas
has been planted. This comprises of
38,425 mangrove seedling and > 100 kg of
crab seed in silvofishery pond.
• Community-based mangrove monitoring
system has been developed and piloted
• Business models on mangrove nursery,
mangrove tree adoption, edu-ecotourism
and silvofishery of mangrove crab has been
developed and is currently
tested/implemented
• Policy workshops on sustainable mangrove
management at the village, district and
provincial level have been
organized/conducted
• Village regulation to manage mangrove
sustainably has been developed
• First workshop to initiate task force for
mangrove management at district (KKMD –
Kelompok Kerja Mangrove Daerah) has
been carried out
• Co-learning workshop at the national level
with community-based mangrove
management actors have been conducted.
Lessons learned will be published as a co-
learning book.
• Dissemination on an international scientific
conference and several national forums.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Community-based
mangrove nursery
• Capacity more than >50,000 seedlings
produced and managed by community,
supervised by research team,
• Communities trained to produce,
maintain, handle and document the
seedlings in the nursery.
• 29,950 seedlings are now maintained in
the nursery from six different species
(K. candel, R. apiculata, R. mucronata,
B. gymnorhiza, A.alba, S. caseolaris)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Action arena Action
Arena
Location Size Objective
Action arena for mangrove restoration
#1 Greenbelt Sungsang IV 1.70 ha Tree adoption and edu-ecotourism
#2
Pasir timbul Sungsang
IV
6.16 ha Tree adoption and edu-ecotourism
#3
Ex-coconut plantation
Sungsang IV
7.70 ha Rehabilitation
#4
Ex-coconut plantation
Marga Sungsang
5.80 ha Mangrove crab silvofishery
Action arena for mangrove protection
#5
Village forest Sungsang
IV
524 ha Mangrove protection
Action arena #6 in Sungsang I village is in preparation stage for
implementation. Community in Sungsang I Village (Teluk Macan) plan to do
planting with tree species in the river side for ~4km and MPTS planting in the
home garden of 237 households.
Planting in AA1
Planting in AA2
Planting in AA3
Planting in AA4
Nursery with capacity >50,000 seedlings
Aerial view of Sungsang IV nursery
REVEGETATION ACTIVITIES IN ACTION ARENA
AM : Avicennia marina
BG : Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
KC : Kandelia candel
RA : Rhizopora apiculata
RM : Rhizophora mucronata
RS : Rhizophora stylosa
SA : Sonneratia alba
SC : Sonneratia caseolaris
Bamboo-casing
Mesh-fence
Bamboo stake Four-stake bamboo
Lokasi Jenis 1st phase 2nd phase Total
AA1 BG 1,782 1,782
1.7 Ha RA 20 20
SA 1,093 1,093
SC 20 20
AA2 AM 80 80
0.08 Ha RS 80 80
SA 150 150
SC 40 40
AA3 BG 2,520 2,543 5,063
7.7 Ha KC 2,700 2,691 5,391
RA 3,060 2,574 5,634
RM 2,680 2,223 4,903
AA4 RM 351 351
5.8 KC 351 351
BG 3,549 3,549
RA 9,918 9,918
15.2 Ha 14,225 24,200 38,425
MANGROVE PLANTING PROGRESS
Monitoring methods:
Grid monitoring using CBRMS application. The monitoring employs with monthly census for survival rate and
sampling every three months for growth monitoring
AA-1 AA-2 AA-3 AA4
± 1.7 ha planted
41 grids monitoring
± 0.08 ha planted
(experimental)
2 grids monitoring
± 7.7 ha planted
177 grids monitoring
± 5.8 ha planted
122 grids monitoring
https://data.cifor.org/cbrms/sites/SS
Monitoring dashboard (CBRMS)
COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING SYSTEM
Survival Rate
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24
Action Arena 3 - Phase 1
BG KC RA RM
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24
Action Arena 3 - Phase 2
BG KC RA RM
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24
Action Arena 4 - Phase 2
BG KC RA RM
BG : Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
KC : Kandelia candel
RA : Rhizopora apiculata
RM : Rhizopora mucronata
A. marina; 33,0
B. gymnorrhiza; 47,6
K. candel; 93,0
R. apiculata; 51,8
R. mucronata; 72,8
R. stylosa; 78,0
S. alba; 84,0
S. caseolaris; 61,7
0
20
40
60
80
100
Jul-23 Oct-23 Jan-24
Average
height
(cm)
A. marina B. gymnorrhiza K. candel R. apiculata R. mucronata R. stylosa S. alba S. caseolaris
*Average height from three action arenas
Species Growth Monitoring
Findings from CBRMS
As of April 2024
Kandelia candel Rhizopora apiculata
Rhizophora mucronata Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
Business Model Canvas (BMC)
for participative planning at villages
Business model canvas (BMC) is a tool to assist the process of creating,
capturing, and delivering value with a focus on economic aspects of business
model (Ostewalder and Pigneur, 2013 at Purnomo et al., 2023)
Sungsang
• Mangrove ecotourism in the action arena and in the whole
village of Sungsang as point of attraction
Village level
• Mangrove-based micro and small enterprise (MSE) and
fishery processing, especially the women and youth group
• Mangrove nursery (Sungsang IV).
Action arena
• Mangrove tree adoption (AA1, AA2)
• Silvofishery of mangrove crab (AA4)
COMMUNITY-BASED BUSINESS MODEL
AA-2
(Sand bank
island)
AA-1
Arboretum
and nursery
ACTION ARENA AS ATTRACTION FOR MANGROVE ECOTOURISM
More than 1,000 visitors in 2023
Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy visit to
Sungsang IV nursery
University student fieldtrip University student research
MANGROVE ECO-EDU-TOURISM
SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MICRO COMMUNITY ENTREPRISES
• Support and capacity building
for marketing and business
management for mangrove-
based products by youth
(soap and candy/dodol),
shrimp cake (pempek),
shrimp paste (terasi)
• Linking with regional
development bank of South
Sumatra (Bank Sumsel Babel).
CRAB SILVOFISHERY (ACTION ARENA 4)
Feb-24 ± 100 gr. Apr-24 ± 210 gr.
LOCAL POLICY ENGAGEMENT
• Field visit with key stakeholders
at regency and province level,
• Local policy workshops,
• Facilitate the development of
village’s regulation (PERDES)
related to mangroves,
• Facilitation on establishment of
district task force for mangrove
(KKMD)
COLLABORATION WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS
Supporting mangrove seedling and collaborative planting with local stakeholders, participation in local event organized by
district/province government, close coordination with Forest Agency at South Sumatra Province and Bank Sumsel Babel (regional
development bank), and support community to seek potential and develop collaboration with private sectors e.g., PT Pertamina,
PT Hutama Karya Infrastruktur.
KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
Knowledge sharing with local and national academicians/students,
national and international stakeholders (e.g., online co-learning
workshops with >40 CBMR practitioners in Indonesia, guest lecture in
UNSRI, training civil servants from Bappenas Indonesia, visit from
Bangladesh civil servants, meeting with the Tropical Landscapes Grant
Fund), participation in Blue Carbon Dialogue, etc.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Key lesson learned to date
At community level:
• PAR approach contributes to improved capacity and behavior change of the involved community,
• In mangrove restoration, community need technical support especially in developing best practices
and monitoring system as in general community has initial knowledge about mangrove management
and restoration,
• By developing business model, it can develop sense of belonging community to the mangrove
management and restoration activities, as well as provide direct benefit e.g., alternative income
Beyond community level:
• PAR approach helps in promoting evidence-based decision making for local/national policy
engagement.
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Challenges and opportunities
Challenges:
• Maintaining community’s social capital to implement the business model
• Provides continue direct benefit from restoration project
• Natural factors influencing the mangrove restoration
Opportunities:
• Strong will from local leaders and communities
• Momentum of global and national policy on mangrove restoration, blue carbon, carbon trade etc
• Stakeholder interests to participate in mangrove restoration at Sungsang, e.g. PT Hutama Karya
Infrastruktur
• Community’s knowledges on mangrove planting are being utilized to participate in planting in
another private sector-funded and government restoration activities (e.g., Pertamina, MoEF)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Closing
• For community-based mangrove restoration, PAR approach is useful to bridging science-policy-
practice interface.
• Science can support in recommending appropriate technique and best practices that is locally
acceptable and feasible for mangrove restoration and monitoring as well as mangrove management.
• Business model development is key for sustainability of the capacity building and community
empowerment.
• Evidence on the ground is important for promoting evidence-based decision-making process in
science-policy interface.
CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes
to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss,
climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.

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Sungsang Mangrove Restoration and Ecotourism (SMART): A participatory action research for community-based mangrove restoration and business model development

  • 1. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda Beni Okarda, Sonya Dyah, Herry Purnomo & team Sungsang Mangrove Restoration and Ecotourism (SMART): A participatory action research for community-based mangrove restoration and business model development
  • 2. Contents 1)About SMART project 2)Main approach: PAR 3)Progress of project activities 4)Lesson learned
  • 3. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR SMART (Sungsang Mangrove Restoration and Ecotourism) • A 5 years research project funded by the Temasek Foundation, Singapore. • In collaboration with University of Sriwijaya and South Sumatra Watershed Forum for the implementation. • Main goal: To develop and implement mangrove restoration and community-based business model that is locally accepted, ecologically feasible and deliver benefit for local communities while contribute to existing program and initiatives.
  • 4. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Project location • Sungsang, Banyuasin District, South Sumatra • Why in Sungsang and Banyuasin? • Half of remaining mangrove of South Sumatra is in Banyuasin and existing mangrove outside national park is mostly located in Sungsang area, • Sungsang mangroves is still on threat (agriculture expansion, infrastructure development) despite its slow deforestation rate, • Another key issue: poverty of coastal community
  • 5. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Main approach: PAR (Participatory Action Research) Purnomo dan Puspitaloka, 2020
  • 6. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Project Activities Work Package 1 Participatory Action Research (mangrove restoration and business model development) Work Package 2 Local Policy Work Package 3 National and international platform Work Package 4 Project management
  • 7. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Key achievements in 2023 WP1 – PAR (In partnership with Unsri) WP2 - LOCAL POLICY (In partnership with Fordas Sumsel) WP3 – NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PLATFORM • ~15 ha of mangrove in four action arenas has been planted. This comprises of 38,425 mangrove seedling and > 100 kg of crab seed in silvofishery pond. • Community-based mangrove monitoring system has been developed and piloted • Business models on mangrove nursery, mangrove tree adoption, edu-ecotourism and silvofishery of mangrove crab has been developed and is currently tested/implemented • Policy workshops on sustainable mangrove management at the village, district and provincial level have been organized/conducted • Village regulation to manage mangrove sustainably has been developed • First workshop to initiate task force for mangrove management at district (KKMD – Kelompok Kerja Mangrove Daerah) has been carried out • Co-learning workshop at the national level with community-based mangrove management actors have been conducted. Lessons learned will be published as a co- learning book. • Dissemination on an international scientific conference and several national forums.
  • 8. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Community-based mangrove nursery • Capacity more than >50,000 seedlings produced and managed by community, supervised by research team, • Communities trained to produce, maintain, handle and document the seedlings in the nursery. • 29,950 seedlings are now maintained in the nursery from six different species (K. candel, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, B. gymnorhiza, A.alba, S. caseolaris)
  • 9. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Action arena Action Arena Location Size Objective Action arena for mangrove restoration #1 Greenbelt Sungsang IV 1.70 ha Tree adoption and edu-ecotourism #2 Pasir timbul Sungsang IV 6.16 ha Tree adoption and edu-ecotourism #3 Ex-coconut plantation Sungsang IV 7.70 ha Rehabilitation #4 Ex-coconut plantation Marga Sungsang 5.80 ha Mangrove crab silvofishery Action arena for mangrove protection #5 Village forest Sungsang IV 524 ha Mangrove protection Action arena #6 in Sungsang I village is in preparation stage for implementation. Community in Sungsang I Village (Teluk Macan) plan to do planting with tree species in the river side for ~4km and MPTS planting in the home garden of 237 households.
  • 10. Planting in AA1 Planting in AA2 Planting in AA3 Planting in AA4 Nursery with capacity >50,000 seedlings Aerial view of Sungsang IV nursery REVEGETATION ACTIVITIES IN ACTION ARENA
  • 11. AM : Avicennia marina BG : Bruguiera gymnorrhiza KC : Kandelia candel RA : Rhizopora apiculata RM : Rhizophora mucronata RS : Rhizophora stylosa SA : Sonneratia alba SC : Sonneratia caseolaris Bamboo-casing Mesh-fence Bamboo stake Four-stake bamboo Lokasi Jenis 1st phase 2nd phase Total AA1 BG 1,782 1,782 1.7 Ha RA 20 20 SA 1,093 1,093 SC 20 20 AA2 AM 80 80 0.08 Ha RS 80 80 SA 150 150 SC 40 40 AA3 BG 2,520 2,543 5,063 7.7 Ha KC 2,700 2,691 5,391 RA 3,060 2,574 5,634 RM 2,680 2,223 4,903 AA4 RM 351 351 5.8 KC 351 351 BG 3,549 3,549 RA 9,918 9,918 15.2 Ha 14,225 24,200 38,425 MANGROVE PLANTING PROGRESS
  • 12. Monitoring methods: Grid monitoring using CBRMS application. The monitoring employs with monthly census for survival rate and sampling every three months for growth monitoring AA-1 AA-2 AA-3 AA4 ± 1.7 ha planted 41 grids monitoring ± 0.08 ha planted (experimental) 2 grids monitoring ± 7.7 ha planted 177 grids monitoring ± 5.8 ha planted 122 grids monitoring
  • 14. Survival Rate 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24 Action Arena 3 - Phase 1 BG KC RA RM 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24 Action Arena 3 - Phase 2 BG KC RA RM 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Dec-23 Jan-24 Feb-24 Action Arena 4 - Phase 2 BG KC RA RM BG : Bruguiera gymnorrhiza KC : Kandelia candel RA : Rhizopora apiculata RM : Rhizopora mucronata
  • 15. A. marina; 33,0 B. gymnorrhiza; 47,6 K. candel; 93,0 R. apiculata; 51,8 R. mucronata; 72,8 R. stylosa; 78,0 S. alba; 84,0 S. caseolaris; 61,7 0 20 40 60 80 100 Jul-23 Oct-23 Jan-24 Average height (cm) A. marina B. gymnorrhiza K. candel R. apiculata R. mucronata R. stylosa S. alba S. caseolaris *Average height from three action arenas Species Growth Monitoring Findings from CBRMS
  • 16. As of April 2024 Kandelia candel Rhizopora apiculata Rhizophora mucronata Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
  • 17. Business Model Canvas (BMC) for participative planning at villages Business model canvas (BMC) is a tool to assist the process of creating, capturing, and delivering value with a focus on economic aspects of business model (Ostewalder and Pigneur, 2013 at Purnomo et al., 2023)
  • 18. Sungsang • Mangrove ecotourism in the action arena and in the whole village of Sungsang as point of attraction Village level • Mangrove-based micro and small enterprise (MSE) and fishery processing, especially the women and youth group • Mangrove nursery (Sungsang IV). Action arena • Mangrove tree adoption (AA1, AA2) • Silvofishery of mangrove crab (AA4) COMMUNITY-BASED BUSINESS MODEL
  • 19. AA-2 (Sand bank island) AA-1 Arboretum and nursery ACTION ARENA AS ATTRACTION FOR MANGROVE ECOTOURISM
  • 20. More than 1,000 visitors in 2023 Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy visit to Sungsang IV nursery University student fieldtrip University student research MANGROVE ECO-EDU-TOURISM
  • 21. SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MICRO COMMUNITY ENTREPRISES • Support and capacity building for marketing and business management for mangrove- based products by youth (soap and candy/dodol), shrimp cake (pempek), shrimp paste (terasi) • Linking with regional development bank of South Sumatra (Bank Sumsel Babel).
  • 22. CRAB SILVOFISHERY (ACTION ARENA 4) Feb-24 ± 100 gr. Apr-24 ± 210 gr.
  • 23. LOCAL POLICY ENGAGEMENT • Field visit with key stakeholders at regency and province level, • Local policy workshops, • Facilitate the development of village’s regulation (PERDES) related to mangroves, • Facilitation on establishment of district task force for mangrove (KKMD)
  • 24. COLLABORATION WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS Supporting mangrove seedling and collaborative planting with local stakeholders, participation in local event organized by district/province government, close coordination with Forest Agency at South Sumatra Province and Bank Sumsel Babel (regional development bank), and support community to seek potential and develop collaboration with private sectors e.g., PT Pertamina, PT Hutama Karya Infrastruktur.
  • 25. KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES Knowledge sharing with local and national academicians/students, national and international stakeholders (e.g., online co-learning workshops with >40 CBMR practitioners in Indonesia, guest lecture in UNSRI, training civil servants from Bappenas Indonesia, visit from Bangladesh civil servants, meeting with the Tropical Landscapes Grant Fund), participation in Blue Carbon Dialogue, etc.
  • 26. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Key lesson learned to date At community level: • PAR approach contributes to improved capacity and behavior change of the involved community, • In mangrove restoration, community need technical support especially in developing best practices and monitoring system as in general community has initial knowledge about mangrove management and restoration, • By developing business model, it can develop sense of belonging community to the mangrove management and restoration activities, as well as provide direct benefit e.g., alternative income Beyond community level: • PAR approach helps in promoting evidence-based decision making for local/national policy engagement.
  • 27. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Challenges and opportunities Challenges: • Maintaining community’s social capital to implement the business model • Provides continue direct benefit from restoration project • Natural factors influencing the mangrove restoration Opportunities: • Strong will from local leaders and communities • Momentum of global and national policy on mangrove restoration, blue carbon, carbon trade etc • Stakeholder interests to participate in mangrove restoration at Sungsang, e.g. PT Hutama Karya Infrastruktur • Community’s knowledges on mangrove planting are being utilized to participate in planting in another private sector-funded and government restoration activities (e.g., Pertamina, MoEF)
  • 28. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Closing • For community-based mangrove restoration, PAR approach is useful to bridging science-policy- practice interface. • Science can support in recommending appropriate technique and best practices that is locally acceptable and feasible for mangrove restoration and monitoring as well as mangrove management. • Business model development is key for sustainability of the capacity building and community empowerment. • Evidence on the ground is important for promoting evidence-based decision-making process in science-policy interface.
  • 29. CIFOR-ICRAF CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss, climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.