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Climate Change Adaptation
and Mitigation with
Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems
Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda
Milkah Royna, Trialaksita Sari Priska Ardhani,
Phidju Marrin Sagala, Daniel Murdiyarso, and
Sigit D. Sasmito
Carbon Stock Assessment in
Banten Province and
Demak, Central Java,
Indonesia
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Indonesia has a numerous study on blue carbon especially mangroves
However, soil carbon stock assessment still needs improvement
Source: Milica et al. (2023)
What is the current gap?
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Variation in soil carbon stock assessment:
1. Methodology and C analysis
2. Soil depth
Source: Milica et al. (2023) and Kauffman and Donato (2012)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
The total ecosystem carbon
stock assessment:
1) Aboveground
2) Belowground
3) Woody debris or
necromass
4) Soil
Murdiyarso et al. (2024) Murdiyarso et al. (2017) Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
(Degraded Mangrove)
(Conserved Mangrove)
Study sites
1. Sawah Luhur, Banten
- Fringe mangrove
- Interior mangrove
- Dense-silvofishery pond
- Sparse-silvofishery pond
- Non-silvofishery pond
2. Sayung & Wedung, Demak
- Mangrove forest
- Working pond
- Abandoned pond
Source: Sagala et al. (2024)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
FM: Fringe mangrove
IM: Interior mangrove
DSP: Dense-silvofishery pond
SSP: Sparse-silvofishery pond
NSP: Non-silvofishery pond
Royna et al. (2024)
Banten Demak (Ardhani et al. Under prep.)
Dominated by Avicennia marina
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Soil carbon stock & properties loss in Banten
Royna et al. (2024)
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Soil carbon stock & properties loss in Demak
(Ardhani et al. Under prep.)
Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF
Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Key messages
• Conservation gain more carbon stock than rehabilitation. However, development
such as diverse species mangrove planting should be considered
• Degraded mangrove in storing carbon could be enhanced by permeable barrier.
However, mangrove rehabilitation provide more sustain solution
Conservation over rehabilitation!
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Bit.ly/BantenBC
M.royna@cifor-icraf.org
CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes
to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss,
climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.
Thank you

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Carbon Stock Assessment in Banten Province and Demak, Central Java, Indonesia

  • 1. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda Milkah Royna, Trialaksita Sari Priska Ardhani, Phidju Marrin Sagala, Daniel Murdiyarso, and Sigit D. Sasmito Carbon Stock Assessment in Banten Province and Demak, Central Java, Indonesia
  • 2. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Indonesia has a numerous study on blue carbon especially mangroves However, soil carbon stock assessment still needs improvement Source: Milica et al. (2023) What is the current gap?
  • 3. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Variation in soil carbon stock assessment: 1. Methodology and C analysis 2. Soil depth Source: Milica et al. (2023) and Kauffman and Donato (2012)
  • 4. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR The total ecosystem carbon stock assessment: 1) Aboveground 2) Belowground 3) Woody debris or necromass 4) Soil Murdiyarso et al. (2024) Murdiyarso et al. (2017) Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF
  • 5. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR (Degraded Mangrove) (Conserved Mangrove) Study sites 1. Sawah Luhur, Banten - Fringe mangrove - Interior mangrove - Dense-silvofishery pond - Sparse-silvofishery pond - Non-silvofishery pond 2. Sayung & Wedung, Demak - Mangrove forest - Working pond - Abandoned pond Source: Sagala et al. (2024)
  • 6. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR FM: Fringe mangrove IM: Interior mangrove DSP: Dense-silvofishery pond SSP: Sparse-silvofishery pond NSP: Non-silvofishery pond Royna et al. (2024) Banten Demak (Ardhani et al. Under prep.) Dominated by Avicennia marina
  • 7. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Soil carbon stock & properties loss in Banten Royna et al. (2024)
  • 8. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Soil carbon stock & properties loss in Demak (Ardhani et al. Under prep.) Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF Photo by Aulia Erlangga/CIFOR-ICRAF
  • 9. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Key messages • Conservation gain more carbon stock than rehabilitation. However, development such as diverse species mangrove planting should be considered • Degraded mangrove in storing carbon could be enhanced by permeable barrier. However, mangrove rehabilitation provide more sustain solution Conservation over rehabilitation!
  • 10. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Bit.ly/BantenBC M.royna@cifor-icraf.org
  • 11. CIFOR-ICRAF CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss, climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity. Thank you