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Climate Change Adaptation
and Mitigation with
Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems
Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda
Phidju M. Sagala, Rupesh K. Bhomia, Daniel Murdiyarso
Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment
In the Northern Coast of Java, Indonesia
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
What is coastal adaptation?
Coastal adaptation involves adjusting our practices in response to
current climate impacts as well as future predictions.
Anthropogenic factors (logging for aquaculture,
mangrove conversion to oil palm, etc) are the main
causes of the global decline in mangrove areas
(Richards & Friess, 2016).
Estimated annual mangrove loss rates were 0.26% - 0.66%
from 2000 to 2012, with Indonesia having one of the highest
mangrove loss rates (Hamilton & Casey, 2016).
Why are we evaluating the coast?
Efforts to reduce climate change impact while addressing
underlying causes (Islam et al., 2016)
Photo by: Phidju M. Sagala
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Our objectives
• Predefine the extent to which
each variable contributes to
the vulnerability index in the
study area, and
• Provide an overall coastal
and mangrove vulnerability
outcome
Banten
Demak
Banyuwangi
: 19.95 km (42 grids)
: 102.94 km (78 grids)
: 37.03 km (35 grids)
Each research location has different
coastal area characteristics based on
the parameters observed.
Sagala et al., 2024
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Conceptual Framework
The equation for calculating the vulnerability index
coastal and mangrove (Islam et al., 2016;
Mahmood et al., 2020)
CVI = √(a*b*c*d*e*f*g)/n (1)
MVI = √(a*b*c*d*e*f*g*h)/n (2)
CVI: Coastal Vulnerability Index | MVI: Mangrove Vulnerability Index
Sagala et al., 2024
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
The results – Each physical parameters
Banten
-2.21 m/yr
Demak
-8.96 m/yr
Banyuwangi
+0.36 m/yr
Shoreline changes rate
Sagala et al., 2024
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
The results - CVI
Sagala et al., 2024
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
The results - MVI
Sagala et al., 2024
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
What are the adaptive
measures at each site?
Adaptation strategy (Western et al., 2011)
• Avoid
• Hold the line
• Managed retreat
• Accommodate
• Loss acceptance
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Banten Demak Banyuwangi
Photo by: Phidju M. Sagala
Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems
Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium
29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia
Background
Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and
estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical
regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis.
Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are
categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non-
exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates).
True mangroves excel in saline environments, with
specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen
Climate change adaptation
and mitigation with
mangrove ecosystems
— particularly on Jeju Island, w
and range expanding incremen
adaptable to both intertidal zon
lack the typical mangrove traits
seed germination. Despite this,
for carbon absorption and clima
A recent predictive study demo
expansion of the distribution of
Asia, including the possible est
in Korea, owing to climate chan
Beyond green carbon: 3rd
international symposium 2024
Introducing mangrove ecosystems
strategies to the climate change agenda
29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR
Key Message
• In order (very vulnerable – very low
vulnerable), the results obtained
are:
• Mangroves have an important role
in the survival of humans and
nature.
Demak – Banten - Banyuwangi.
CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes
to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss,
climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity.
Thank you!
p.sagala@cifor-icraf.org

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Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, Indonesia

  • 1. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Introducing Mangrove Ecosystems Strategies to the Climate Change Agenda Phidju M. Sagala, Rupesh K. Bhomia, Daniel Murdiyarso Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, Indonesia
  • 2. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR What is coastal adaptation? Coastal adaptation involves adjusting our practices in response to current climate impacts as well as future predictions. Anthropogenic factors (logging for aquaculture, mangrove conversion to oil palm, etc) are the main causes of the global decline in mangrove areas (Richards & Friess, 2016). Estimated annual mangrove loss rates were 0.26% - 0.66% from 2000 to 2012, with Indonesia having one of the highest mangrove loss rates (Hamilton & Casey, 2016). Why are we evaluating the coast? Efforts to reduce climate change impact while addressing underlying causes (Islam et al., 2016) Photo by: Phidju M. Sagala
  • 3. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Our objectives • Predefine the extent to which each variable contributes to the vulnerability index in the study area, and • Provide an overall coastal and mangrove vulnerability outcome Banten Demak Banyuwangi : 19.95 km (42 grids) : 102.94 km (78 grids) : 37.03 km (35 grids) Each research location has different coastal area characteristics based on the parameters observed. Sagala et al., 2024
  • 4. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Conceptual Framework The equation for calculating the vulnerability index coastal and mangrove (Islam et al., 2016; Mahmood et al., 2020) CVI = √(a*b*c*d*e*f*g)/n (1) MVI = √(a*b*c*d*e*f*g*h)/n (2) CVI: Coastal Vulnerability Index | MVI: Mangrove Vulnerability Index Sagala et al., 2024
  • 5. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia The results – Each physical parameters Banten -2.21 m/yr Demak -8.96 m/yr Banyuwangi +0.36 m/yr Shoreline changes rate Sagala et al., 2024
  • 6. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia The results - CVI Sagala et al., 2024
  • 7. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia The results - MVI Sagala et al., 2024
  • 8. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia What are the adaptive measures at each site? Adaptation strategy (Western et al., 2011) • Avoid • Hold the line • Managed retreat • Accommodate • Loss acceptance
  • 9. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Banten Demak Banyuwangi Photo by: Phidju M. Sagala
  • 10. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Mangrove Ecosystems Beyond Green Carbon: The 3rd International Symposium 29 April 2024 | CIFOR-ICRAF Headquarters, Bogor, Indonesia Background Mangroves, which are distinct forests in coastal and estuarine saline wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions, are pivotal in addressing the climate crisis. Comprising various species, these ecosyst ems are categorized into ‘exclusive’ (true mangroves) and ‘non- exclusive’ (semi-mangroves or mangrove associates). True mangroves excel in saline environments, with specialized adaptations like aerial roots for oxygen Climate change adaptation and mitigation with mangrove ecosystems — particularly on Jeju Island, w and range expanding incremen adaptable to both intertidal zon lack the typical mangrove traits seed germination. Despite this, for carbon absorption and clima A recent predictive study demo expansion of the distribution of Asia, including the possible est in Korea, owing to climate chan Beyond green carbon: 3rd international symposium 2024 Introducing mangrove ecosystems strategies to the climate change agenda 29 April 2024, 09:00 AM –15:30 PM (GMT+7) | Amazon Room, CIFOR Key Message • In order (very vulnerable – very low vulnerable), the results obtained are: • Mangroves have an important role in the survival of humans and nature. Demak – Banten - Banyuwangi.
  • 11. CIFOR-ICRAF CIFOR-ICRAF harnesses the power of trees, forests and agroforestry landscapes to address the most pressing global challenges of our time - biodiversity loss, climate change, food security, livelihoods and inequity. Thank you! p.sagala@cifor-icraf.org