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ACHARYAN.GRANGAAGRICULTURALUNIVERSITY
AGRICULTURALCOLLEGEBAPATLA
SUBMITTED TO:
Dr. A. J. SUVARNALATHA
Assistant Professor
Department of soil science.
PRESENTED BY :
D. V. V. MALLESWARA RAO,
BAM/23-053.
COURES NO: SOIL-504
COURSE TITLE: SOIL MINEROLOGY, GENESIS AND CLASSIFICATION
Title : CHLORITE –A PHYLLOSILICATE clay MINERAL
( SHEET SILICATE)
DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE
CHLORITE
A PHYLLOSILICATE MINERAL
Contents
 Introduction
 What is Chlorite ?
 Structure of chlorite
 Properties of Chlorite
 Distinguishing from other
minerals
 Occurence
 Uses of chlorite
INTRODUCTION
 The chlorites are the group of phyllosilicate minerals common in low-
grade metamorphic rocks and in altered igneous rocks .
 The name chlorite is basically a part of a Greek word which is chloros.
The meaning of this Greek word is none other than green which is a
complete reference to the color of the chlorite minerals.
What is Chlorite ?
 Chlorite is the name of a group of common sheet silicate minerals
that form during the early stages of metamorphism.
 Most chlorite minerals are green in color, have a foliated
appearance, perfect cleavage, and an oily to soapy feel.
 They are found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
 The glassy rims of pillow basalt on the ocean floor is often
altered to pure chlorite, in part by exchange of chemicals with
seawater.
CHL0RITE STRUCTURE:
 The typical general formula is:
(Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·
(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6. This formula
emphasises the structure of the group.
 Chlorites have a 2:1 sandwich structure
(2:1 sandwich layer tetrahedral-
octahedral-tetrahedral = t-o-t...), this is
often referred to as a talc layer. Unlike
other 2:1 clay minerals, a chlorite's
interlayer space (the space between
each 2:1 sandwich filled by a cation) is
composed of (Mg2+, Fe3+)(OH)6. This
(Mg2+, Fe3+)(OH)6 unit is more
commonly referred to as the brucite-
like layer, due to its closer resemblance
to the mineral brucite (Mg(OH)2).
schematic diagram illustrating the Ostwald Step Rule when applied to reactants and products in the saponite-to chlorite reaction series.
Direct transformation from saponite to chlorite requires a large activation energy, ΔG a , and is unlikely in a normal sedimentary basin
setting. Transformation via a series of intermediate products requires smaller activation energies and is kinetically more likely in
sedimentary basins (modified from Merriman, 2005).
Chlorite Properties
 A chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate sheets of minerals such as
Magnesium, Iron, Nickel, Calcium as well as Manganese. It can
generally be found during the metamorphism phases. Apart from
that, Zinc and Lithium also have a special role.
 The maximum number of chlorite minerals are coming is a
greenish color. It is because of its foliated emergence as well as it
has perfect cleavages . Chlorites ate very oily in nature to feel
soapy.
Color : Various shades of green;
rarely yellow, red, or white.
Cleavage : Perfect
Fracture :Lamellar
Mohs scale hardness : 2–2.5
Luster: Vitreous, pearly, dull
Streak : Pale green to grey
Specific gravity : 2.6–3.3
Refractive index :1.57–1.67
Optical property of Chlorite :-
Refractive
indices
increase with
increasing Fe
and Al
contents.
Pleochroism :-
Yellow-green
– brown
Colour :-
Green,
greenish
brown
Relief:-
Moderate to
high
Pleochroism
strengthens
with Fe content.
Birefrenges :-
Low
Crystal System :-
Monoclinic
DIFFERENT CHLORITE MINERALS AND CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION
Most Common Members Of Chlorite Group :-
Clinoclore : (Magnesiun (Mg)-rich chlorite)
Chamosite : Iron (Fe)-rich chlorite)
Nimite : Nickel (Ni) -rich chlorite)
Pennantite : (Manganese (Mn) -rich chlorite)
Pennantite
Clinoclore Chamosite
Nimite
POLARISED VIEW
From Other Distinguishing Minerals
 Chlorite is so soft that it can be scratched by a finger nail. The
powder generated by scratching is green. It feels oily when
rubbed between the fingers. The plates are flexible, but not elastic
like mica.
 Talc is much softer and feels soapy between fingers. The powder
generated by scratching is white.
 Mica plates are elastic whereas chlorite plates are flexible without
bending back
OCCURRENCE
 Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration
product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole,
and biotite. In this environment chlorite may be a retrograde
metamorphic alteration mineral of existing ferromagnesian
minerals, or it may be present as a metasomatism product via
addition of Fe, Mg, or other compounds into the rock mass.
 Chlorite is a common mineral associated
with hydrothermal ore deposits and commonly occurs
with epidote, sericite, adularia and sulfide minerals with talc.
Contd…
 Chlorite is also a common metamorphic mineral, usually
indicative of low-grade metamorphism. It is the diagnostic
species of lower greenschist facies.
 It occurs in the quartz, albite, sericite, chlorite, garnet assemblage
of pelitic schist. Within ultramafic rocks, metamorphism can also
produce predominantly clinochlore chlorite in association .
Uses of Chlorite
 Chlorite is a mineral with a low potential for industrial use.
 It does not have physical properties that make it suited for a
particular use, and it does not contain constituents that make it a
target of mining.
 When found, chlorite is usually intimately intermixed with other
minerals, and the cost of separation would be high.
 As a result, chlorite is not mined and processed for any specific
use.
Conclusions
Minerals of chlorite group are mainly products of low
temperatures and mainly of hydrothermal or low
temperature genesis.
They also occur as products of transformation of
ferromagnesian minerals-biotite, amphibole, pyroxene
and others in amphibolite rocks.
Analyzing different varieties of amphibolite rocks, it is
represented that genesis of chlorite in them is often
followed with complex processes of mineral genesis,
where beside chlorite, created were other secondary
minerals like prenite, epidotite, clinocoisite, serpentine,
spinel, especially zeolitic.
Also, occurrence of chlorite together with appropriate
minerals is important because on the basis of this mineral
association we can determine affiliation to metamorphic
Case study 1
Study of the Effect
of Layer Charge
and Interlayer
Cations on
Swelling of Mixed-
Layer Chlorite−
Montmorillonite
Clays .
Mahsa
Rahromostaqim
and Muhammad
Sahimi
INTRODUCTION
 Each chlorite layer consists of two 2:1-type layers along with a
central brucite-like layer, which is why chlorite is sometimes called
2:1:1 clay mineral. Each of the 2:1 layered chlorite has an
asymmetric structure, generated as a result of the interactions
between saponite and chlorite
 About 70 percent of all clays are of mixed-layer (ML) types, such
as illite-montmorillonite (I-MMT) and chlorite−montmorillonite
(CH−MMT) clays.
 GOALS
 One goal of the study is to understand the differences between the
behavior of CH−MMT and pure chlorite and MMT.
 Another goal is to understand the effect of cations on the swelling
behavior of the MLclays, for which we use Na+, K+, and Cs+.
 Swelling of clays occurs by two distinct mechanisms, namely,
crystalline and osmotic swelling.
 Crystalline swelling occurs with water adsorption in the interlayer.
 Osmotic swelling, on the other hand, occurs in some specific clays
in which water molecules are drawn to the interlayer from the
surrounding.
 Higher the hydration energy, the more swelling may be expected.
 As the cation’s atomic radius increases, less water is adsorbed in
the interlayer and, therefore, less swelling occurs.
 Clay swelling is also correlated with the hydration energy of the
cations.
 The higher the hydration energy, the more swelling is expected.
Comparison of the absolute basal spacing of the clay interlayers as a function of interlayer cation and the
water content, grouped by the interlayer type. (a) MMT−MMT; (b) CH−MMT + cation, and (c) CH−CH .
Conclusions:
 The Cs−CH−CH system indicates the widest monolayer, when compared
with all other cases that we have considered.
Although swelling of Na−CH−CH is considerably lower than the other two
interlayers, it still exhibits two distinct layers that are, however, unstable,
having a short interval of hydration .
Finally, the K−CH−CH depicts something in between the other two cases,
which is consistent with the hydration enthalpy of K and its ion size, when
compared to the other two ions.
These results show that the CH−CH interlayer is more sensitive to the
interlayer cation , hence implying that the octahedral substitutions are more
responsive to the ion type than the tetrahedral substitutions.
Case study 2
Near-Infrared
Spectroscopic
Study of
Chlorite
Minerals
Min
Yang
Introduction
• The crystal structure of the chlorite group minerals can be described as
a 2:1-type hydrous aluminosilicate (talc-like layer) with the octahedral
sheet “sandwiched” between two opposite tetrahedral sheets and
linked by an extra octahedral sheet (brucite-like layer)
• Cation substitution is very common in chlorites and leads to a wide
range of chemical compositions.
• The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of chlorites have also been studied by
some , but they mostly focused on the application of NIR spectra to
discriminate chlorites from other minerals
• The NIR reflectance technique, which is particularly fast and efficient
for identifying chlorites .
Methodology:
NIR Spectroscopy. All NIR spectra were obtained using a
spectrometer that records spectra from the 350 to 2500nm wavelength
(4000 to 28,571cm−1) region with a spectral resolution of 10nm and a
sampling interval of 1nm in the shortwave infrared (1300–2500nm)
region.
The spectrometer was connected to a contact probe with an internal
halogen bulb, which ensures stable illumination conditions during data
collection. The raw values of at-sensor radiance were converted to
surface reflectance values using a Spectralon reflectance panel.
Table1:Description and mineral components of chlorite samples collected from the USGS spectral
library in this study.
Conclusions:
NIR Bands.
• For many natural phyllosilicates, the OH combination bands
occurring in the NIR region are broad and overlapping.In the
spectral component analysis, four or five independent bands
were observed at approximately 4525, 4440, 4361, 4270,and
4182 cm−1 (2210, 2252, 2293, 2341, and 2391 nm), which are
the average band positions.
• NIR spectroscopy is almost nondestructive, fast, and easy to
perform (no preparation of samples) and has a high sensitivity
to the hydroxyl group environment. The results clearly show
the analytical efficiency of the NIR spec tra technique for clay
minerals
CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)

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CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)

  • 1. ACHARYAN.GRANGAAGRICULTURALUNIVERSITY AGRICULTURALCOLLEGEBAPATLA SUBMITTED TO: Dr. A. J. SUVARNALATHA Assistant Professor Department of soil science. PRESENTED BY : D. V. V. MALLESWARA RAO, BAM/23-053. COURES NO: SOIL-504 COURSE TITLE: SOIL MINEROLOGY, GENESIS AND CLASSIFICATION Title : CHLORITE –A PHYLLOSILICATE clay MINERAL ( SHEET SILICATE) DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE
  • 3. Contents  Introduction  What is Chlorite ?  Structure of chlorite  Properties of Chlorite  Distinguishing from other minerals  Occurence  Uses of chlorite
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  The chlorites are the group of phyllosilicate minerals common in low- grade metamorphic rocks and in altered igneous rocks .  The name chlorite is basically a part of a Greek word which is chloros. The meaning of this Greek word is none other than green which is a complete reference to the color of the chlorite minerals.
  • 5. What is Chlorite ?  Chlorite is the name of a group of common sheet silicate minerals that form during the early stages of metamorphism.  Most chlorite minerals are green in color, have a foliated appearance, perfect cleavage, and an oily to soapy feel.  They are found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.  The glassy rims of pillow basalt on the ocean floor is often altered to pure chlorite, in part by exchange of chemicals with seawater.
  • 6. CHL0RITE STRUCTURE:  The typical general formula is: (Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2· (Mg,Fe)3(OH)6. This formula emphasises the structure of the group.  Chlorites have a 2:1 sandwich structure (2:1 sandwich layer tetrahedral- octahedral-tetrahedral = t-o-t...), this is often referred to as a talc layer. Unlike other 2:1 clay minerals, a chlorite's interlayer space (the space between each 2:1 sandwich filled by a cation) is composed of (Mg2+, Fe3+)(OH)6. This (Mg2+, Fe3+)(OH)6 unit is more commonly referred to as the brucite- like layer, due to its closer resemblance to the mineral brucite (Mg(OH)2).
  • 7. schematic diagram illustrating the Ostwald Step Rule when applied to reactants and products in the saponite-to chlorite reaction series. Direct transformation from saponite to chlorite requires a large activation energy, ΔG a , and is unlikely in a normal sedimentary basin setting. Transformation via a series of intermediate products requires smaller activation energies and is kinetically more likely in sedimentary basins (modified from Merriman, 2005).
  • 8. Chlorite Properties  A chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate sheets of minerals such as Magnesium, Iron, Nickel, Calcium as well as Manganese. It can generally be found during the metamorphism phases. Apart from that, Zinc and Lithium also have a special role.  The maximum number of chlorite minerals are coming is a greenish color. It is because of its foliated emergence as well as it has perfect cleavages . Chlorites ate very oily in nature to feel soapy.
  • 9. Color : Various shades of green; rarely yellow, red, or white. Cleavage : Perfect Fracture :Lamellar Mohs scale hardness : 2–2.5 Luster: Vitreous, pearly, dull Streak : Pale green to grey Specific gravity : 2.6–3.3 Refractive index :1.57–1.67
  • 10. Optical property of Chlorite :- Refractive indices increase with increasing Fe and Al contents. Pleochroism :- Yellow-green – brown Colour :- Green, greenish brown Relief:- Moderate to high Pleochroism strengthens with Fe content. Birefrenges :- Low Crystal System :- Monoclinic
  • 11. DIFFERENT CHLORITE MINERALS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
  • 12. Most Common Members Of Chlorite Group :- Clinoclore : (Magnesiun (Mg)-rich chlorite) Chamosite : Iron (Fe)-rich chlorite) Nimite : Nickel (Ni) -rich chlorite) Pennantite : (Manganese (Mn) -rich chlorite)
  • 15. From Other Distinguishing Minerals  Chlorite is so soft that it can be scratched by a finger nail. The powder generated by scratching is green. It feels oily when rubbed between the fingers. The plates are flexible, but not elastic like mica.  Talc is much softer and feels soapy between fingers. The powder generated by scratching is white.  Mica plates are elastic whereas chlorite plates are flexible without bending back
  • 16. OCCURRENCE  Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite. In this environment chlorite may be a retrograde metamorphic alteration mineral of existing ferromagnesian minerals, or it may be present as a metasomatism product via addition of Fe, Mg, or other compounds into the rock mass.  Chlorite is a common mineral associated with hydrothermal ore deposits and commonly occurs with epidote, sericite, adularia and sulfide minerals with talc.
  • 17. Contd…  Chlorite is also a common metamorphic mineral, usually indicative of low-grade metamorphism. It is the diagnostic species of lower greenschist facies.  It occurs in the quartz, albite, sericite, chlorite, garnet assemblage of pelitic schist. Within ultramafic rocks, metamorphism can also produce predominantly clinochlore chlorite in association .
  • 18. Uses of Chlorite  Chlorite is a mineral with a low potential for industrial use.  It does not have physical properties that make it suited for a particular use, and it does not contain constituents that make it a target of mining.  When found, chlorite is usually intimately intermixed with other minerals, and the cost of separation would be high.  As a result, chlorite is not mined and processed for any specific use.
  • 19. Conclusions Minerals of chlorite group are mainly products of low temperatures and mainly of hydrothermal or low temperature genesis. They also occur as products of transformation of ferromagnesian minerals-biotite, amphibole, pyroxene and others in amphibolite rocks. Analyzing different varieties of amphibolite rocks, it is represented that genesis of chlorite in them is often followed with complex processes of mineral genesis, where beside chlorite, created were other secondary minerals like prenite, epidotite, clinocoisite, serpentine, spinel, especially zeolitic. Also, occurrence of chlorite together with appropriate minerals is important because on the basis of this mineral association we can determine affiliation to metamorphic
  • 21. Study of the Effect of Layer Charge and Interlayer Cations on Swelling of Mixed- Layer Chlorite− Montmorillonite Clays . Mahsa Rahromostaqim and Muhammad Sahimi
  • 22. INTRODUCTION  Each chlorite layer consists of two 2:1-type layers along with a central brucite-like layer, which is why chlorite is sometimes called 2:1:1 clay mineral. Each of the 2:1 layered chlorite has an asymmetric structure, generated as a result of the interactions between saponite and chlorite  About 70 percent of all clays are of mixed-layer (ML) types, such as illite-montmorillonite (I-MMT) and chlorite−montmorillonite (CH−MMT) clays.  GOALS  One goal of the study is to understand the differences between the behavior of CH−MMT and pure chlorite and MMT.  Another goal is to understand the effect of cations on the swelling behavior of the MLclays, for which we use Na+, K+, and Cs+.
  • 23.  Swelling of clays occurs by two distinct mechanisms, namely, crystalline and osmotic swelling.  Crystalline swelling occurs with water adsorption in the interlayer.  Osmotic swelling, on the other hand, occurs in some specific clays in which water molecules are drawn to the interlayer from the surrounding.  Higher the hydration energy, the more swelling may be expected.  As the cation’s atomic radius increases, less water is adsorbed in the interlayer and, therefore, less swelling occurs.  Clay swelling is also correlated with the hydration energy of the cations.  The higher the hydration energy, the more swelling is expected.
  • 24. Comparison of the absolute basal spacing of the clay interlayers as a function of interlayer cation and the water content, grouped by the interlayer type. (a) MMT−MMT; (b) CH−MMT + cation, and (c) CH−CH .
  • 25. Conclusions:  The Cs−CH−CH system indicates the widest monolayer, when compared with all other cases that we have considered. Although swelling of Na−CH−CH is considerably lower than the other two interlayers, it still exhibits two distinct layers that are, however, unstable, having a short interval of hydration . Finally, the K−CH−CH depicts something in between the other two cases, which is consistent with the hydration enthalpy of K and its ion size, when compared to the other two ions. These results show that the CH−CH interlayer is more sensitive to the interlayer cation , hence implying that the octahedral substitutions are more responsive to the ion type than the tetrahedral substitutions.
  • 28. Introduction • The crystal structure of the chlorite group minerals can be described as a 2:1-type hydrous aluminosilicate (talc-like layer) with the octahedral sheet “sandwiched” between two opposite tetrahedral sheets and linked by an extra octahedral sheet (brucite-like layer) • Cation substitution is very common in chlorites and leads to a wide range of chemical compositions. • The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of chlorites have also been studied by some , but they mostly focused on the application of NIR spectra to discriminate chlorites from other minerals • The NIR reflectance technique, which is particularly fast and efficient for identifying chlorites .
  • 29. Methodology: NIR Spectroscopy. All NIR spectra were obtained using a spectrometer that records spectra from the 350 to 2500nm wavelength (4000 to 28,571cm−1) region with a spectral resolution of 10nm and a sampling interval of 1nm in the shortwave infrared (1300–2500nm) region. The spectrometer was connected to a contact probe with an internal halogen bulb, which ensures stable illumination conditions during data collection. The raw values of at-sensor radiance were converted to surface reflectance values using a Spectralon reflectance panel.
  • 30. Table1:Description and mineral components of chlorite samples collected from the USGS spectral library in this study.
  • 31. Conclusions: NIR Bands. • For many natural phyllosilicates, the OH combination bands occurring in the NIR region are broad and overlapping.In the spectral component analysis, four or five independent bands were observed at approximately 4525, 4440, 4361, 4270,and 4182 cm−1 (2210, 2252, 2293, 2341, and 2391 nm), which are the average band positions. • NIR spectroscopy is almost nondestructive, fast, and easy to perform (no preparation of samples) and has a high sensitivity to the hydroxyl group environment. The results clearly show the analytical efficiency of the NIR spec tra technique for clay minerals