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Constellations
of Open
Dr. Robert Farrow
The Open University, UK
OPEN
EDUCATION
RESEARCH
HUB
I. Constellations of Open
II. Findings from OER Hub
III. Upcoming and Future Work
I. Constellations of Open
II. Findings from OER Hub
III. Upcoming and Future Work
I. Constellations of Open
II. Findings from OER Hub
III. Upcoming and Future Work
@philosopher1978
@oer_hub
I. Constellations of Open
Forthcoming in Deimann, M. & Peters, S. (eds.) (2016). The Philosophy and
Theory of Open Education. New York: Peter Lang Publishing
History of open education
Peters and Deimann (2013) have demonstrated that the history of
openness can be understood to stretch back before the
institutionalization of education, even if the language of open was not
always used.
• Ancient knowledge transmission through apprenticeship
• Guttenberg printing press (1450s)
• Monastic tradition gave way to university institutions
• Emergence of the public sphere (Habermas, 1962) and public
university systems
History of open education
By the 1960s the open education movement had
begun to coalesce around the idea of
disestablishing cultural, economic and institutional
barriers to formal education. The Open University
in the UK was founded in 1969 to widen access to
higher education by disregarding the need for prior
academic qualification, and using the
communication technologies of the time to ‘open
up’ campus education though a “teaching system
to suit an individual working in a lighthouse off the
coast of Scotland” (Daniel et al., 2008).
load.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Louisbourg_Lighthouse.jpg
History of open education
• Industrialisation brought the rise of popular literacy and establishment
of public libraries and distance education
• In the 20th century we have seen an extension of the belief that
education is a right that can be extended to all
• It is mistaken to see this as a linear historical progression: (Peters &
Deimann, 2013:12) observe that “historical forms of openness caution
us against assuming that particular configurations will prevail, or that
social aspects should be assumed as desired by default”.
History of open education
• Over the last decade – primarily in the form of Massively
Open Online Courses (MOOC) and Open Educational
Resources (OER) – the open education movement has further
expanded opportunities for education worldwide.
• Yet as opportunities for accessing educational materials
increases, so higher education (in the West, at least) has
increasingly seemed to be in a crisis of funding shortfalls,
massive student debt, and a lack of graduate employment.
This has led some to ask whether open education is the
saviour of traditional education, or the herald of its demise.
“Open approaches are featured in the mainstream
media. Millions of people are enhancing their
learning through open resources and open courses.
Put bluntly, it looks as though openness has won.
And yet you would be hard pressed to find any signs
of celebration amongst those original advocates.
They are despondent about the reinterpretation of
openness to mean ‘free’ or ‘online’ without some of
the reuse liberties they had envisaged. Concerns are
expressed about the commercial interests that are
now using openness as a marketing tool. Doubts are
raised regarding the benefits of some open models
for developing nations or learners who require
support. At this very moment of victory it seems
that the narrative around openness is being usurped
by others, and the consequences of this may not be
very open at all.” (Weller, 2014: 14)
• Contextualist, not essentialist
• Defines itself against a status quo that restricts some activity:
open lets you do X
• Fundamentally oriented towards freedom
• But what kind of freedom?
Negative Liberty: the absence of (external)
restrictions on activity; freedom from
interference
Positive Liberty: the capacity to act on the
basis of one’s free will; implies rational
agency, autonomy, active choice
Distinction made by Fromm (1941)
and Berlin (1958)
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Statue_of_Liberty_from_ferry.JPG
Characteristics of Constellation Method
• Always reconstructive and historical
• Begins with actually existing examples of practice
• Intimately related to how language is used
• Move beyond binary judgements (e.g. open or not?)
• Anti-essentialist: “the constellation of moments is not to be
reduced to a singular essence; what is inherent in that
constellation is not an essence.” (Adorno, 1973:104)
• Recognises historical contingency without over-simplification
or relativism
• Constellation does not prohibit possibility of other
constellations, nor future re-interpretation
• Reflective open practice
Other work relating to this strand
• Deimann, M. & Farrow, R. (2013). Rethinking OER and their
use: Open Education as Bildung. International Review of
Online and Distance Learning 14(3).
http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1370/25
42
• Farrow, R. (2015). Open education and critical pedagogy.
Learning, Media and Technology. DOI:
10.1080/17439884.2016.1113991
• Farrow, R. (forthcoming 2016). Framework for an open ethics.
Open Praxis
II. Open Education Research Hub
Prof. Martin Weller
Dr. Rob Farrow
Dr. Bea de los Arcos
Dr. Beck Pitt
Natalie Egglestone
• Research project 2013-2015 at The Open University (UK)
• Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
• Tasked with building the most comprehensive picture of OER impact
• Organised by eleven research hypotheses
• Collaboration model works across different educational sectors
• Global reach but with a USA focus
• Openness in practice: methods, data, dissemination
OER Research Hub
oerresearchhub.org  oerhub.net
Keyword Hypothesis
Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction
Openness People use OER differently from other online materials
Access OER widen participation in education
Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies
Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice
Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions
Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER
Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support
Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study
Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies
Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
Project Co-PILOT
• Research instruments applied
consistently across collaborations:
surveys, interview questions,
focus groups, etc.
• Supplemented by integration of
secondary research
• ‘Agile’ research, sprinting
• Thematic and methodological
cohesion provided by research
hypotheses
Research Process
Constellation of Open (Lahore)
Constellation of Open (Lahore)
Geographical spread of research participation
Some key findings
• 37.6% of educators and 55.7% of formal learners agree or strongly
agree that OER use increases student satisfaction
• 27.5% of educators and 31.9% of formal learners agree or strongly
agree that OER use improves student grades
• Impact appears to be greater for non-grade related aspects:
- 36.2% (n=254) OER improves student engagement ✓
- 36.2% (n=254) OER promotes new ways of learning ✓
- 35.2% (n=256) OER increases student interest in subject ✓
- 35% (n=249) OER leads to student self-reliance ✓
• 55.7% (n=370) of formal students agree or strongly agree that OER
increases student satisfaction
• Formal learners reported that increased interest in subject was the
main outcome from using OER (60.1% n=398)
• Others included increased experimentation (49.4% n=398) and
gaining confidence (48.6% n=322)
• For some cohorts (e.g. Saylor Academy) more than half of learners
believed that they grew more confident, became interested in a
wider range of subjects and felt their learning experiences improved
• 79.4% of OER users adapt resources to fit their needs
• 79.5% of educators use OER to get new ideas and inspiration
• Videos are the most common type of OER used
• 88.4% of learners say that the opportunity to study at no cost
influenced their decision to use OER
• 40.9% of all formal learners in our sample believe that OER have a
positive impact in helping them complete their course of study
• 79.6% of formal students think they save money by using OER
• 31.5% of non-formal learners say that their interest in using OER is a
chance to try university-level content before signing up for a paid-for
course
• Informal learners choose OER that are relevant to their particular
needs, have a good description of learning objectives and outcomes,
and are easy to find and download
• 31.3% say their use of OER influenced their decision to register for
their current course
Impact of OER repository on likelihood of future study
Repository More likely to study formally Less likely to study formally
Saylor
(n=1858)
19.8% 19.9%
OpenLearn
(n=583)
31.4% 13.9%
iTunesU
(n=94)
23.4% 25.5%
iTunesU channel users were much
more likely to be younger and were
mostly male. They are often in full
time education and use OER on an
informal basis outside of their
formal studies to pursue interest in
a wide range of subjects
Saylor Academy users are more
likely to be in employment and
already in possession of a degree.
They tended to be middle aged and
primarily motivated by professiona
development.
OpenLearn users were more likely to be older, retired, and
female, and had a higher proportion of users who were
motivated mainly by personal interest (though 40% are in
full time employment).
Aggregation
Inspiration
• learning experiences improved
Textbook
access
Access to high
quality content
Community
building
https://www.flickr.com/photos/amagill/3366720659
Strong evidence for savings when replacing textbooks with open versions
Evidence for other forms of cost savings is less clear
Summary of General Findings
• There was a high degree of satisfaction with OER across all types of
user, with a large percentage willing to access further OER and to
recommend them
• However, OER brand recognition was weak compared with other
popular resource sites, and finding appropriate OER was a major
obstacle
• Use of OER increases satisfaction and engagement with learning and is
seen as saving students money
• Users look for relevance, reputation and clear learning outcomes
when selecting OER
Summary of General Findings
• OER (in English) is not confined to one or two disciplines, with all
subjects well represented, and a range of formats are accessed,
although video remains the most significant
• An under-reported benefit for educators is the manner in which OER
cause them to reflect on their own practice, and to broaden their
teaching approaches
• Similarly underreported is the idea that the benefits may not be cost
savings and improved performance but recruitment and retention of
students
OER Evidence Report 2014
http://oerhub.net/reports/
OER Data Report 2013-2015
http://oerhub.net/reports/
oerhub.net/dissemination
III. Current and upcoming work
… including ways to get involved
• Research into open education and strategies for building
worldwide open education research capacity
• Available for research & consultancy (short & long term)
• Current projects include:
Open Education Research Hub
• Research into open education and strategies for building
worldwide open education research capacity
• Available for research & consultancy (short & long term)
• Current projects include:
oerworldmap.org
The Opening Educational Practices in Scotland
project aims to facilitate best practice in open
education in Scotland through:
• the development of a peer support network
• an online hub and awareness raising
activities
• collecting evidence of effective practice
oepscotland.org
go-gn.net
tinyurl.com/2016ora
Latest results: oerhub.net
• Research into open education and strategies for building
worldwide open education research capacity
• Available for research & consultancy (short & long term)
• Current projects include:
Thanks for listening!
oerhub.net
oerworldmap.org
go-gn.net
rob.farrow@open.ac.uk
@philosopher1978

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Constellation of Open (Lahore)

  • 1. Constellations of Open Dr. Robert Farrow The Open University, UK OPEN EDUCATION RESEARCH HUB
  • 2. I. Constellations of Open II. Findings from OER Hub III. Upcoming and Future Work
  • 3. I. Constellations of Open II. Findings from OER Hub III. Upcoming and Future Work
  • 4. I. Constellations of Open II. Findings from OER Hub III. Upcoming and Future Work
  • 6. I. Constellations of Open Forthcoming in Deimann, M. & Peters, S. (eds.) (2016). The Philosophy and Theory of Open Education. New York: Peter Lang Publishing
  • 7. History of open education Peters and Deimann (2013) have demonstrated that the history of openness can be understood to stretch back before the institutionalization of education, even if the language of open was not always used. • Ancient knowledge transmission through apprenticeship • Guttenberg printing press (1450s) • Monastic tradition gave way to university institutions • Emergence of the public sphere (Habermas, 1962) and public university systems
  • 8. History of open education By the 1960s the open education movement had begun to coalesce around the idea of disestablishing cultural, economic and institutional barriers to formal education. The Open University in the UK was founded in 1969 to widen access to higher education by disregarding the need for prior academic qualification, and using the communication technologies of the time to ‘open up’ campus education though a “teaching system to suit an individual working in a lighthouse off the coast of Scotland” (Daniel et al., 2008). load.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Louisbourg_Lighthouse.jpg
  • 9. History of open education • Industrialisation brought the rise of popular literacy and establishment of public libraries and distance education • In the 20th century we have seen an extension of the belief that education is a right that can be extended to all • It is mistaken to see this as a linear historical progression: (Peters & Deimann, 2013:12) observe that “historical forms of openness caution us against assuming that particular configurations will prevail, or that social aspects should be assumed as desired by default”.
  • 10. History of open education • Over the last decade – primarily in the form of Massively Open Online Courses (MOOC) and Open Educational Resources (OER) – the open education movement has further expanded opportunities for education worldwide. • Yet as opportunities for accessing educational materials increases, so higher education (in the West, at least) has increasingly seemed to be in a crisis of funding shortfalls, massive student debt, and a lack of graduate employment. This has led some to ask whether open education is the saviour of traditional education, or the herald of its demise.
  • 11. “Open approaches are featured in the mainstream media. Millions of people are enhancing their learning through open resources and open courses. Put bluntly, it looks as though openness has won. And yet you would be hard pressed to find any signs of celebration amongst those original advocates. They are despondent about the reinterpretation of openness to mean ‘free’ or ‘online’ without some of the reuse liberties they had envisaged. Concerns are expressed about the commercial interests that are now using openness as a marketing tool. Doubts are raised regarding the benefits of some open models for developing nations or learners who require support. At this very moment of victory it seems that the narrative around openness is being usurped by others, and the consequences of this may not be very open at all.” (Weller, 2014: 14)
  • 12. • Contextualist, not essentialist • Defines itself against a status quo that restricts some activity: open lets you do X • Fundamentally oriented towards freedom • But what kind of freedom?
  • 13. Negative Liberty: the absence of (external) restrictions on activity; freedom from interference Positive Liberty: the capacity to act on the basis of one’s free will; implies rational agency, autonomy, active choice Distinction made by Fromm (1941) and Berlin (1958) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Statue_of_Liberty_from_ferry.JPG
  • 14. Characteristics of Constellation Method • Always reconstructive and historical • Begins with actually existing examples of practice • Intimately related to how language is used • Move beyond binary judgements (e.g. open or not?) • Anti-essentialist: “the constellation of moments is not to be reduced to a singular essence; what is inherent in that constellation is not an essence.” (Adorno, 1973:104) • Recognises historical contingency without over-simplification or relativism • Constellation does not prohibit possibility of other constellations, nor future re-interpretation • Reflective open practice
  • 15. Other work relating to this strand • Deimann, M. & Farrow, R. (2013). Rethinking OER and their use: Open Education as Bildung. International Review of Online and Distance Learning 14(3). http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1370/25 42 • Farrow, R. (2015). Open education and critical pedagogy. Learning, Media and Technology. DOI: 10.1080/17439884.2016.1113991 • Farrow, R. (forthcoming 2016). Framework for an open ethics. Open Praxis
  • 16. II. Open Education Research Hub Prof. Martin Weller Dr. Rob Farrow Dr. Bea de los Arcos Dr. Beck Pitt Natalie Egglestone
  • 17. • Research project 2013-2015 at The Open University (UK) • Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation • Tasked with building the most comprehensive picture of OER impact • Organised by eleven research hypotheses • Collaboration model works across different educational sectors • Global reach but with a USA focus • Openness in practice: methods, data, dissemination OER Research Hub oerresearchhub.org  oerhub.net
  • 18. Keyword Hypothesis Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction Openness People use OER differently from other online materials Access OER widen participation in education Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
  • 20. • Research instruments applied consistently across collaborations: surveys, interview questions, focus groups, etc. • Supplemented by integration of secondary research • ‘Agile’ research, sprinting • Thematic and methodological cohesion provided by research hypotheses Research Process
  • 23. Geographical spread of research participation
  • 25. • 37.6% of educators and 55.7% of formal learners agree or strongly agree that OER use increases student satisfaction • 27.5% of educators and 31.9% of formal learners agree or strongly agree that OER use improves student grades • Impact appears to be greater for non-grade related aspects: - 36.2% (n=254) OER improves student engagement ✓ - 36.2% (n=254) OER promotes new ways of learning ✓ - 35.2% (n=256) OER increases student interest in subject ✓ - 35% (n=249) OER leads to student self-reliance ✓
  • 26. • 55.7% (n=370) of formal students agree or strongly agree that OER increases student satisfaction • Formal learners reported that increased interest in subject was the main outcome from using OER (60.1% n=398) • Others included increased experimentation (49.4% n=398) and gaining confidence (48.6% n=322) • For some cohorts (e.g. Saylor Academy) more than half of learners believed that they grew more confident, became interested in a wider range of subjects and felt their learning experiences improved
  • 27. • 79.4% of OER users adapt resources to fit their needs • 79.5% of educators use OER to get new ideas and inspiration • Videos are the most common type of OER used • 88.4% of learners say that the opportunity to study at no cost influenced their decision to use OER • 40.9% of all formal learners in our sample believe that OER have a positive impact in helping them complete their course of study
  • 28. • 79.6% of formal students think they save money by using OER • 31.5% of non-formal learners say that their interest in using OER is a chance to try university-level content before signing up for a paid-for course • Informal learners choose OER that are relevant to their particular needs, have a good description of learning objectives and outcomes, and are easy to find and download • 31.3% say their use of OER influenced their decision to register for their current course
  • 29. Impact of OER repository on likelihood of future study Repository More likely to study formally Less likely to study formally Saylor (n=1858) 19.8% 19.9% OpenLearn (n=583) 31.4% 13.9% iTunesU (n=94) 23.4% 25.5%
  • 30. iTunesU channel users were much more likely to be younger and were mostly male. They are often in full time education and use OER on an informal basis outside of their formal studies to pursue interest in a wide range of subjects
  • 31. Saylor Academy users are more likely to be in employment and already in possession of a degree. They tended to be middle aged and primarily motivated by professiona development.
  • 32. OpenLearn users were more likely to be older, retired, and female, and had a higher proportion of users who were motivated mainly by personal interest (though 40% are in full time employment).
  • 34. • learning experiences improved Textbook access
  • 35. Access to high quality content Community building
  • 36. https://www.flickr.com/photos/amagill/3366720659 Strong evidence for savings when replacing textbooks with open versions Evidence for other forms of cost savings is less clear
  • 37. Summary of General Findings • There was a high degree of satisfaction with OER across all types of user, with a large percentage willing to access further OER and to recommend them • However, OER brand recognition was weak compared with other popular resource sites, and finding appropriate OER was a major obstacle • Use of OER increases satisfaction and engagement with learning and is seen as saving students money • Users look for relevance, reputation and clear learning outcomes when selecting OER
  • 38. Summary of General Findings • OER (in English) is not confined to one or two disciplines, with all subjects well represented, and a range of formats are accessed, although video remains the most significant • An under-reported benefit for educators is the manner in which OER cause them to reflect on their own practice, and to broaden their teaching approaches • Similarly underreported is the idea that the benefits may not be cost savings and improved performance but recruitment and retention of students
  • 39. OER Evidence Report 2014 http://oerhub.net/reports/
  • 40. OER Data Report 2013-2015 http://oerhub.net/reports/
  • 42. III. Current and upcoming work … including ways to get involved
  • 43. • Research into open education and strategies for building worldwide open education research capacity • Available for research & consultancy (short & long term) • Current projects include: Open Education Research Hub
  • 44. • Research into open education and strategies for building worldwide open education research capacity • Available for research & consultancy (short & long term) • Current projects include:
  • 46. The Opening Educational Practices in Scotland project aims to facilitate best practice in open education in Scotland through: • the development of a peer support network • an online hub and awareness raising activities • collecting evidence of effective practice oepscotland.org
  • 49. • Research into open education and strategies for building worldwide open education research capacity • Available for research & consultancy (short & long term) • Current projects include:

Editor's Notes

  1. What can OER do for me? Evaluating the claims for OER Who are the open learners? What difference is openness making? Nb ethics paper Open Research Course Researcher Toolkit Openness (freedom) as supposition of moral responsibility
  2. What can OER do for me? Evaluating the claims for OER Who are the open learners? What difference is openness making? Nb ethics paper Open Research Course Researcher Toolkit Openness (freedom) as supposition of moral responsibility
  3. What can OER do for me? Evaluating the claims for OER Who are the open learners? What difference is openness making? Nb ethics paper Open Research Course Researcher Toolkit Openness (freedom) as supposition of moral responsibility
  4. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Carina_Nebula_composite_of_visible_and_infrared_light_(captured_by_the_Hubble_Space_Telescope).jpg
  5. TWO WAYS: 1. Disregard previous experience/qualification. 2. Use technologies As far back as the 1970s the argument was being made that ‘open education’ was a somewhat vague and nebulous phrase (Denton, 1975; Hyland, 1979).
  6. The point is that openness is not a teleological progression
  7. Pick up on this idea of open education as saviour/apocalypse later, perhaps in connection with colonization
  8. These aren’t necessarily all to do with openness, but form a set of co-ordinates that may help us to understand where openness makes a difference
  9. These aren’t necessarily all to do with openness, but form a set of co-ordinates that may help us to understand where openness makes a difference
  10. Open Access publication: making peer reviewed research available free of charge and with minimal restrictions on copyright and other licensing restrictions (Suber, 2012) Probably best known
  11. Open Data – releasing data for others to use
  12. Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.
  13. Open Educational Resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.
  14. Open Pedagogy is defined by Wiley (2013) as “that set of teaching and learning practices only possible in the context of the free access and [the] permissions characteristic of open educational resources”. http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975
  15. Open Educational Practices include a whole life cycle of OER production and use, institutional strategies, empowering informal learners, creating environments that supports learning, and empowering individuals (Ehlers, 2013:89-97).
  16. As Bayne & Ross (2014:21-22) note, we are starting to see a move away from the cMOOC/xMOOC binary and greater recognition of more diverse forms of open online course, including DOCC (Distributed Open Collaborative Course); POOC (Participatory Open Online Course); LOOC (Local open online course); BOOC (Big/Boutique Open Online Course); and even a non-open variant – SPOC (Small Private Online Course).
  17. Openness can be seen as a matter of access, of licence, of publicity, of transparency, of pedagogical practice, or of policy; and yet it is not reducible to any one of these. Sometimes it seems to refer to processes, and sometimes to the outcomes of those processes. Mostly it is context dependent: this makes it hard to extrapolate from one example to others, meaning that we don’t really get closer to a universal definition of openness
  18. More vague = more open to commercial exploitation
  19. Openness can be seen as a matter of access, of licence, of publicity, of transparency, of pedagogical practice, or of policy; and yet it is not reducible to any one of these. Sometimes it seems to refer to processes, and sometimes to the outcomes of those processes. Mostly it is context dependent: this makes it hard to extrapolate from one example to others, meaning that we don’t really get closer to a universal definition of openness
  20. Examples of open tend towards NEGATIVE LIBERTY: removal of barriers. This is well developed but doesn’t capture ‘thicker’ sense of freedom. Eg. Resource rich drug addict. Needed also is a sense of POSITIVE LIBERTY: what kinds of actions in this area can be endorsed by free, rational beings? Deeper ‘ethic of care’ Vision of social justice The ‘underlying ethos of openness’ (Atenas & Havemann, 2014) WORKING ASSUMPTION: Open education has articulated the negative sense but less so the positive sense
  21. So what does all this have to do with Constellations? Constellations aren’t there. We imagine/interpret them We are always looking into the past GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
  22. So what does all this have to do with Constellations?
  23. Synergies between open education and critical theory. One key assumption is that ideologies
  24. In one sense this is what all open education researchers are arguably doing, even if they don’t conceive of it this way.
  25. Quotes like these may not be doing me any favours. I didn’t just invent research!
  26. So what does all this have to do with Constellations?
  27. Bildung: Critical pedagogy:
  28. What can OER do for me? Evaluating the claims for OER Who are the open learners? What difference is openness making? Nb ethics paper Open Research Course Researcher Toolkit Openness (freedom) as supposition of moral responsibility
  29. Most responses came from the USA (n=862) or the UK (n=473) though India (n=117) Canada (n=87) and Brazil (n=84) also contributed significant amounts of data. Most countries were represented and people from every continent contributed information. Excluding Africa, only Bolivia, French Guyana, Greenland, Kyrgyzstan, Suriname, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela were not represented. Most countries recorded between 5 and 40 responses.
  30. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  31. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  32. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  33. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  34. The higher figure for OpenLearn may be explained by the existence of planned pathways between OpenLearn content and degree level content provided by The Open University (UK) which make it easier to move from non-formal to formal study. NO FURTHER STUDY = LEARNING NEEDS MET?
  35. Now switching to non-formal learners
  36. http://cdn.xl.thumbs.canstockphoto.com/canstock18561873.jpg
  37. Immediate and ongoing access to educational resources
  38. For educators, the most important factors surrounding OER are relevance and quality.
  39. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  40. Caveat – some stereotyping imminent
  41. Users of iTunesU showed a much lower average age profile with 71.8% of their users aged below 35. By contrast, OpenLearn users tended to be older, with 69% aged 35 or over and relatively few younger users. The pattern of user age profiles was closer to a standard deviation for Saylor users (perhaps reflective of a larger sample size).
  42. YouTube is the most popular place to find open resources, with over 50% of each sample reporting that they used it to find OER. iTunesU and TED talks were also popular across the samples, as was Khan Academy (though less so with users of OpenLearn).   DON’T USE REPOSITORIES?! Saylor users were much more likely than the other groups to be studying via MOOC platforms (41.7%, n=751). BUT Respondents showed a lack of understanding about the nature of an OER repository: between 9% and 20% of each sample said that they did not use any OER repositories despite the fact that they had only been offered the chance to participate in the survey specifically because of their OER repository use.
  43. What is meant by adaptation is not always clear. We took it to mean remix behaviours but many reported activities along a spectrum of adaptation.
  44. What can OER do for me? Evaluating the claims for OER Who are the open learners? What difference is openness making? Nb ethics paper Open Research Course Researcher Toolkit Openness (freedom) as supposition of moral responsibility
  45. Use new lgo?
  46. Use new lgo?
  47. Use new lgo?