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Understanding OER,
Innovation & Business Models
Dr. Robert Farrow, The Open University (UK)
6th April 2023
ENCORE+
ENCORE+ is a Knowledge Alliance project funded by the European
Commission under Erasmus+
● Supporting the uptake of open education resources (OER)
● Catalysing and sharing innovative practice across education and
business
● Developing stakeholder communities for knowledge exchange
2
3
Partners
● International Council for Distance Education (Norway)
● Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University (Germany)
● The Open University (UK)
● Universidad Internacional De La Rioja (Spain)
● Knowledge 4 All Foundation (UK)
● Joubel (Norway)
● Fondazione Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
● Instructure Global (UK)
● Dublin City University (Ireland)
4
ENCORE+
Ecosystem
ENCORE+ functions as
a network catalyst for a
socio-technical ecosystem.
ENCORE+’s main mission is
to amplify existing OER
initiatives, projects, platforms
and networks by integrating
them across the four
thematic Circle strands and
three crosscutting integration
events.
Open Educational Resources (OER)
Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research
materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that are in the public
domain and/or released under an open license that permits no-cost
access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited
restrictions. They are free at the point of use and ‘free’ in the sense that
they provide users with greater freedoms in how resources are shared,
used, customised and iterated.
Compatible definitions of OER are provided by UNESCO, Hewlett
Foundation and OER Commons.
5
OER Innovation Routes
● Lower cost routes to delivering online, blended distance learning
● Supporting student readiness through non-formal learning opportunities
● Providing access to education for disadvantaged peoples
● Supporting diversity and inclusion throughout learning and teaching
processes
● Removing barriers to collaboration between institutions, individuals, countries
6
OER “Innovation”
1. OER as an innovation
in teaching and
learning (includes
adoption / substitution)
2. OER is being used to
support or enable
innovative behaviours
and practices
7
Innovation Vectors for OER/OEP
8
Accreditation/Recognition Platformisation
Authoring & Publication Proctoring
Authentication Quality Assurance
Course creation Rapid reskilling
Curation Self-directed learning
Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI) Teaching
Forecasting & Needs analysis Training
Learning pathways Translation
Lifelong learning TVET
ENCORE+ OER Innovation
Evaluation Framework
OER Innovation Evaluation Framework
The framing work on innovation that informs the design of this tool includes Rogers (2003);
Carroll, Kellogg & Rosson (1991) and Puentedura (2006).
OER related practices are being conceptualised through the SAMR framework (Puentedura,
2006) and Darwish’s (2019) model of edupreneurship. Business strategies are aligned with
the ‘defenders and prospectors’ indicators (Miles & Snow, 1978; Orr et al., 2018).
The ENCORE+ OER business model typology is synthesized from Tlili et al. (2020); Padilla
Rodriguez et al., (2018); Belleflamme & Jacqmin (2015); Ubachs & Konings (2016); and
Farrow (2019).
The stakeholder value proposition and impact matrices combine categories from Rogers
(2003) and the Cabinet Office ‘UPIG' or ‘CPIG’ stakeholder model (no citation).
10
OER Innovation Evaluation Framework
11
12
OER Business Model Typology
13
Externally funded Internally funded Community funded Service Models
Donations model Institutional model Community owned
infrastructure
Data exploitation
model
Governmental
model
Substitutions model Membership model Dual mode
university
Sponsorship /
Advertising model
Author Pays model Platformisation Freemium
Online programme
Segmentation
model
14
15
16
17
18
Categories:
● Practitioner level
● Organizational
● Evidence base
● Technology and infrastructure
● Community
● Other
19
20
Innovation Case Studies
About the data
● Collection by survey between September 2022 and February 2023
● 57 responses
● 49 usable records in the data set
● Wide geographical spread includes Argentina, Canada, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, India, Kenya, Myanmar, Netherlands, Norway, Spain,
UK, USA
● User base ranged from a few dozen up to 10,000,000+ monthly users
22
23
OER Innovation Case Studies
● 5 years of Open Educational
Resources at University of Edinburgh
● Alternative Textbook Grant
● Basics of Gardening for sustainable
health and society
● BMELTET
● Clinical Cases
● Critical Curation and Collaboration in
Learning (Cur8)
● Curso 0
● Developing a Library Service to
support OER
● Digital Education for Universities in
Kenya (Skills for Prosperity)
● Digital Open Textbooks for
development
● eDoer
● Form and Function(s): Sustainable
Design Meets Computational
Thinking
● Framework for Open and
Reproducible Research Training
(FORRT)
● Frontiers for Young Minds
● Future of learning initiative
● h5pcatalogue
● Institute for Interactive Systems
● LibreTexts
● MOOC programme, UoS
24
OER Innovation Case Studies
● MOOC Puertas Abiertas: Curso de
Español para necesidades
inmediatas (Part of the MOONLITE
Project)
● MoodleNet
● MOONLITE
● Norwegian Digital Learning Arena
(NDLA)
● OEP-based course for teaching
family education
● OER Committee, Cape Breton
● Oklahoma State University,
OpenOKState
● Open Academic e-textbooks
KALLIPOS
● Open Education for a Better World
(OE4BW)
● Open Library ‘Maktaba Huria’
● Open Resources Campus NRW
(ORCA.nrw)
● Open.Ed - The University of
Edinburgh's OER Service
● OpenLearn
● Peoples-uni
● Pressbooks
● SABIER
● SITO (Foundation on IT and
Education)
● Smith ScholarWorks
● Software development teaching
25
OER Innovation Case Studies
● Teaching Pre-service Teachers
● Technology-enabled organisational
learning & improvement for complex
fragmented problems (ULTIMATE)
● SPLOTs
● TMU MOOCS
● Transformation by Innovation in
Distance Education (TIDE)
● Universidad del Aconcagua
● University education
● University of Wisconsin Collaborative
Language Program
● Webinars on OEP
● WIHEA #knowhow project
● YourMOOC4all
Trends and findings
27
28
29
Edupreneurship
Business Models
(Darwish, 2019)
30
31
Challenges faced (n=48)
32
● Less important for
meso/macro
Skills development
4th
● Appears in 2nd or 3rd
position across all size
cohorts
Changing
culture/practices
3rd
● Top 3 across all sizes
Building awareness
2nd
● Focus for micro &
international
Budget & Finance
1st
Challenges by implementation size (n=48)
33
International
(n=24)
Macro
(n=7)
Meso
(n=5)
Micro
(n=12)
Most significant
challenge
Budget & finance Building awareness Budget & finance Building awareness
2nd most
significant
challenge
Building awareness Time pressure Changing culture /
practices
Changing culture /
practices
3rd most
significant
challenge
Changing
culture/practices
Changing
culture/practices
Building awareness Budget & finance
Strategic Approach (n=49)
Enabling Factors (n=49)
35
● 97.4% Open source software
● 95.1% Leadership (*)
● 91.4% Personal characteristics
● 91% Relevance and applicability
● 87.1% Quality of evidence
● 86.8% Responding to authentic
learners’ needs
● 86.7% Virtual Learning
Environments
● 84.8% Our skills (*)
● 84.2% Existence of evidence (*)
● 84.2% Internet access
● 83.7% Open Educational
Practices
● 83.3% Social context
● 78.1% Research-practice links
● 74.2% Stakeholders’
relationships
● 71.4% Accessibility of evidence
(*) = Affected by the variable ‘size of implementation’
Organisational Culture (n=49, Likert)
36
Statement Score
Innovation is clearly aligned to our organisational strategies +53
My organisation is open to new and innovative approaches +47
Our staff are empowered to develop their capacity for innovation +45
Innovation activity is a part of daily activity and tasks in this
organization
+36
Our leaders recognise the innovation achievements of our staff +35
Our organisation is committed to a continuing and meaningful
evaluation of best practices
+35
Organisational Culture (n=49, Likert)
37
Statement Score
Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to track and analyse
innovation behaviours
-15
We have a management system for tracking innovation -14
Our decision making is bottom-up -1
Our decision making is top-down +9
Our organisation responds quickly to adopt/adapt new ideas and
approaches
+12
Our decision making is middle-out +12
Consistency of strategy (e.g. Frontiers for Young Minds)
Users Providers Influencers Governance
Value
proposition
Easy access to free
OERs
Peer review
process and
mentoring
To increase views
and downloads to
be considered
attractive partners
To increase
international
partners’ interest
Impact Increased interest,
use, and access.
CC-BY licences
enabled the re-use
of resources. Social
media enabled
dissemination
Impact is varied
due to different
ways of
engagement, but
they have received
excellent feedback
from educators
Regional
funders/sponsors
gained excellent
brand exposure
and corporate
social recognition
Plans to expand
their services and
resources
Innovation
aspect
Simplicity Relative advantage Observability Trialability
Perceived attributes of innovation (n=36)
39
● Not perceived at the
macro level
Relative advantage
19.3%
● Equally perceived at
international, meso, and
micro levels
Compatibility
22.4%
● Equally perceived at
international, macro, and
micro levels
Simplicity
23.7%
● Almost equally perceived
at all size levels
Observability
23.7%
● Slightly perceived at all
levels
Triability
10.5%
Qualities of OER Value Propositions
40
1
Transformative
Mostly related to
the “modification”
and “redefinition”
approaches
(SAMR)
Practical
Mostly targeted to
users and
providers (UPIG)
2
Observable,
simple &
compatible
Top 3 perceived
attributes of
innovation
3
Aspirational
A progressive
interest in making
value
propositions to all
stakeholders
4
ENCORE+ OER Innovation Framework
Comprising the full framework with theoretical background, CC BY tools for
collecting and analysing data, and more than 40 examples of the completed
framework.
OER: Drivers, Enablers, Barriers and Challenges
Desk research report summarising empirical evidence (n=251) around factors
influencing OER innovation; providing a model to conceptualise OER innovation
ENCORE+ OER Innovation Showcase
Highlighting flagship examples through a curated showcase
41
Forthcoming Publications
Thank you!
https://encoreproject.eu/events/
Project
partners:
Contacts
Robert Farrow, The Open University (UK)
rob.farrow@open.ac.uk
info@encoreproject.eu
Website
For further and updated information
about this project please see:
www.encoreproject.eu

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Understanding OER, Innovation & Business Models

  • 1. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. This document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license except where otherwise noted. Understanding OER, Innovation & Business Models Dr. Robert Farrow, The Open University (UK) 6th April 2023
  • 2. ENCORE+ ENCORE+ is a Knowledge Alliance project funded by the European Commission under Erasmus+ ● Supporting the uptake of open education resources (OER) ● Catalysing and sharing innovative practice across education and business ● Developing stakeholder communities for knowledge exchange 2
  • 3. 3 Partners ● International Council for Distance Education (Norway) ● Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University (Germany) ● The Open University (UK) ● Universidad Internacional De La Rioja (Spain) ● Knowledge 4 All Foundation (UK) ● Joubel (Norway) ● Fondazione Politecnico di Milano (Italy) ● Instructure Global (UK) ● Dublin City University (Ireland)
  • 4. 4 ENCORE+ Ecosystem ENCORE+ functions as a network catalyst for a socio-technical ecosystem. ENCORE+’s main mission is to amplify existing OER initiatives, projects, platforms and networks by integrating them across the four thematic Circle strands and three crosscutting integration events.
  • 5. Open Educational Resources (OER) Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that are in the public domain and/or released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. They are free at the point of use and ‘free’ in the sense that they provide users with greater freedoms in how resources are shared, used, customised and iterated. Compatible definitions of OER are provided by UNESCO, Hewlett Foundation and OER Commons. 5
  • 6. OER Innovation Routes ● Lower cost routes to delivering online, blended distance learning ● Supporting student readiness through non-formal learning opportunities ● Providing access to education for disadvantaged peoples ● Supporting diversity and inclusion throughout learning and teaching processes ● Removing barriers to collaboration between institutions, individuals, countries 6
  • 7. OER “Innovation” 1. OER as an innovation in teaching and learning (includes adoption / substitution) 2. OER is being used to support or enable innovative behaviours and practices 7
  • 8. Innovation Vectors for OER/OEP 8 Accreditation/Recognition Platformisation Authoring & Publication Proctoring Authentication Quality Assurance Course creation Rapid reskilling Curation Self-directed learning Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI) Teaching Forecasting & Needs analysis Training Learning pathways Translation Lifelong learning TVET
  • 10. OER Innovation Evaluation Framework The framing work on innovation that informs the design of this tool includes Rogers (2003); Carroll, Kellogg & Rosson (1991) and Puentedura (2006). OER related practices are being conceptualised through the SAMR framework (Puentedura, 2006) and Darwish’s (2019) model of edupreneurship. Business strategies are aligned with the ‘defenders and prospectors’ indicators (Miles & Snow, 1978; Orr et al., 2018). The ENCORE+ OER business model typology is synthesized from Tlili et al. (2020); Padilla Rodriguez et al., (2018); Belleflamme & Jacqmin (2015); Ubachs & Konings (2016); and Farrow (2019). The stakeholder value proposition and impact matrices combine categories from Rogers (2003) and the Cabinet Office ‘UPIG' or ‘CPIG’ stakeholder model (no citation). 10
  • 12. 12
  • 13. OER Business Model Typology 13 Externally funded Internally funded Community funded Service Models Donations model Institutional model Community owned infrastructure Data exploitation model Governmental model Substitutions model Membership model Dual mode university Sponsorship / Advertising model Author Pays model Platformisation Freemium Online programme Segmentation model
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. Categories: ● Practitioner level ● Organizational ● Evidence base ● Technology and infrastructure ● Community ● Other 19
  • 20. 20
  • 22. About the data ● Collection by survey between September 2022 and February 2023 ● 57 responses ● 49 usable records in the data set ● Wide geographical spread includes Argentina, Canada, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Kenya, Myanmar, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, UK, USA ● User base ranged from a few dozen up to 10,000,000+ monthly users 22
  • 23. 23 OER Innovation Case Studies ● 5 years of Open Educational Resources at University of Edinburgh ● Alternative Textbook Grant ● Basics of Gardening for sustainable health and society ● BMELTET ● Clinical Cases ● Critical Curation and Collaboration in Learning (Cur8) ● Curso 0 ● Developing a Library Service to support OER ● Digital Education for Universities in Kenya (Skills for Prosperity) ● Digital Open Textbooks for development ● eDoer ● Form and Function(s): Sustainable Design Meets Computational Thinking ● Framework for Open and Reproducible Research Training (FORRT) ● Frontiers for Young Minds ● Future of learning initiative ● h5pcatalogue ● Institute for Interactive Systems ● LibreTexts ● MOOC programme, UoS
  • 24. 24 OER Innovation Case Studies ● MOOC Puertas Abiertas: Curso de Español para necesidades inmediatas (Part of the MOONLITE Project) ● MoodleNet ● MOONLITE ● Norwegian Digital Learning Arena (NDLA) ● OEP-based course for teaching family education ● OER Committee, Cape Breton ● Oklahoma State University, OpenOKState ● Open Academic e-textbooks KALLIPOS ● Open Education for a Better World (OE4BW) ● Open Library ‘Maktaba Huria’ ● Open Resources Campus NRW (ORCA.nrw) ● Open.Ed - The University of Edinburgh's OER Service ● OpenLearn ● Peoples-uni ● Pressbooks ● SABIER ● SITO (Foundation on IT and Education) ● Smith ScholarWorks ● Software development teaching
  • 25. 25 OER Innovation Case Studies ● Teaching Pre-service Teachers ● Technology-enabled organisational learning & improvement for complex fragmented problems (ULTIMATE) ● SPLOTs ● TMU MOOCS ● Transformation by Innovation in Distance Education (TIDE) ● Universidad del Aconcagua ● University education ● University of Wisconsin Collaborative Language Program ● Webinars on OEP ● WIHEA #knowhow project ● YourMOOC4all
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Challenges faced (n=48) 32 ● Less important for meso/macro Skills development 4th ● Appears in 2nd or 3rd position across all size cohorts Changing culture/practices 3rd ● Top 3 across all sizes Building awareness 2nd ● Focus for micro & international Budget & Finance 1st
  • 33. Challenges by implementation size (n=48) 33 International (n=24) Macro (n=7) Meso (n=5) Micro (n=12) Most significant challenge Budget & finance Building awareness Budget & finance Building awareness 2nd most significant challenge Building awareness Time pressure Changing culture / practices Changing culture / practices 3rd most significant challenge Changing culture/practices Changing culture/practices Building awareness Budget & finance
  • 35. Enabling Factors (n=49) 35 ● 97.4% Open source software ● 95.1% Leadership (*) ● 91.4% Personal characteristics ● 91% Relevance and applicability ● 87.1% Quality of evidence ● 86.8% Responding to authentic learners’ needs ● 86.7% Virtual Learning Environments ● 84.8% Our skills (*) ● 84.2% Existence of evidence (*) ● 84.2% Internet access ● 83.7% Open Educational Practices ● 83.3% Social context ● 78.1% Research-practice links ● 74.2% Stakeholders’ relationships ● 71.4% Accessibility of evidence (*) = Affected by the variable ‘size of implementation’
  • 36. Organisational Culture (n=49, Likert) 36 Statement Score Innovation is clearly aligned to our organisational strategies +53 My organisation is open to new and innovative approaches +47 Our staff are empowered to develop their capacity for innovation +45 Innovation activity is a part of daily activity and tasks in this organization +36 Our leaders recognise the innovation achievements of our staff +35 Our organisation is committed to a continuing and meaningful evaluation of best practices +35
  • 37. Organisational Culture (n=49, Likert) 37 Statement Score Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to track and analyse innovation behaviours -15 We have a management system for tracking innovation -14 Our decision making is bottom-up -1 Our decision making is top-down +9 Our organisation responds quickly to adopt/adapt new ideas and approaches +12 Our decision making is middle-out +12
  • 38. Consistency of strategy (e.g. Frontiers for Young Minds) Users Providers Influencers Governance Value proposition Easy access to free OERs Peer review process and mentoring To increase views and downloads to be considered attractive partners To increase international partners’ interest Impact Increased interest, use, and access. CC-BY licences enabled the re-use of resources. Social media enabled dissemination Impact is varied due to different ways of engagement, but they have received excellent feedback from educators Regional funders/sponsors gained excellent brand exposure and corporate social recognition Plans to expand their services and resources Innovation aspect Simplicity Relative advantage Observability Trialability
  • 39. Perceived attributes of innovation (n=36) 39 ● Not perceived at the macro level Relative advantage 19.3% ● Equally perceived at international, meso, and micro levels Compatibility 22.4% ● Equally perceived at international, macro, and micro levels Simplicity 23.7% ● Almost equally perceived at all size levels Observability 23.7% ● Slightly perceived at all levels Triability 10.5%
  • 40. Qualities of OER Value Propositions 40 1 Transformative Mostly related to the “modification” and “redefinition” approaches (SAMR) Practical Mostly targeted to users and providers (UPIG) 2 Observable, simple & compatible Top 3 perceived attributes of innovation 3 Aspirational A progressive interest in making value propositions to all stakeholders 4
  • 41. ENCORE+ OER Innovation Framework Comprising the full framework with theoretical background, CC BY tools for collecting and analysing data, and more than 40 examples of the completed framework. OER: Drivers, Enablers, Barriers and Challenges Desk research report summarising empirical evidence (n=251) around factors influencing OER innovation; providing a model to conceptualise OER innovation ENCORE+ OER Innovation Showcase Highlighting flagship examples through a curated showcase 41 Forthcoming Publications
  • 43. Project partners: Contacts Robert Farrow, The Open University (UK) rob.farrow@open.ac.uk info@encoreproject.eu Website For further and updated information about this project please see: www.encoreproject.eu