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Attention and perception
Mr. Sushil Humane MSN, RN
Attention
Mr. Sushil Humane MSN, RN
Concept
• Attention, in psychology, the concentration
of awareness on some phenomenon to the
exclusion of other stimuli.
• Attention determined the content
of consciousness and influenced the quality of
conscious experience
• Attention has to do with the immediate experience
of the individual; it is a state of current awareness.
Definition
• William James, attention "is the taking
possession by the mind, in clear and
vivid form, of one out of what may
seem several simultaneously possible
objects or trains of thought. …It implies
withdrawal from some things in order to
deal effectively with others."—"The
Principles of Psychology," 1890
Types of attention
Voluntary attention Involuntary attention
Voluntary attention
• Requires conscious effort on the part of
the person.
• Eg: problem solving, answering in the
examination.
• Furthur types 1. Implicit volitional
attention 2. Explicit volitional attention
Implicit volitional attention
• Implicit volitional attention
• A single act of will is responsible for
arousing attention.
• Eg home work given by teacher and the
fear of punishment arouse attention in
the student to complete the given
tasks.
Explicit volitional
attention
• Attention is obtained by repeated acts
of will.
• One has to struggle hard for keeping
oneself attentive.it requires strong will
power and motivation to keep the
attention focused.
• Eg: during the preparatory days of the
examiantion.
Involuntary attention
• This type of attention is aroused
without the conscious effort .
• Eg: bright lights, loud noise and strong
odours, pain etc.
• This type of attention can be aroused
by instincts called enforced non
volitional attention.
• Attention given due to preformed
sentiments , to people objects and
things.
Uses
• It provides strength and ability to
continue the task despite the obstacles
present in the environment.
• Helps in better organization of the
perceptual field for maximum clarity and
understanding.
• It helps by providing the deeper
concentration by focusing ones
consciousness upon required object or
idea.
• Helps in bringing mental alertness and
preparedness.
Methods
for arousing
attention
External factors
Nature of the stimuli:
• The attributes of the stmuli are more likely to arouse attention and allow
concentration
• Shape , color , beauty, odditiy,
• Picutres are more likely to attract attention than that of the text.
External
factors
Intensity of the stimuli:
• The strength of the stimuli determines the attention it receives
• Like a loudness of sound, the brightness of colors etc.
External factors
Size of the stimulus :
• General rule is that the bigger the stimuli the more attention it attracts and if
the item or object is unlikely in an environment then that is also more likely
attract attention.
External factors
Contrast of the stimuli:
• Change and contrast usually attract
more of attention, we do not notice the
ticking of the watch usually but when it
stops we notice it
• Novelty or newness attracts attention.
External factors
Location of the stimulus :
• The area where the stimulus s located is
also important for attracting the
attention as
• advertisements on the upper-half or on
the front page attracts more attention
than being located elsewhere.
External factors
Repetition of the stimulus :
• A repeated stimulus attracts our
attention.
• A mis-spelt word in the same paragraph
for more than 2 times tends to get
noticed more often.
• But the excessive repetition of the
stimulus can also diminish the attention.
• Eg: people working in a factory with loud
noise become adjusted to that
environment.
External factors
Motion of the object:
• The moving stimulus attracts more attention than the stagnant one.
External factors
Definite form of the object:
• A sharply defined object attracts more attention than a vaguely defined
object.
External factors
Isolation of the stimulus:
• Isolation is an important determinant of the attention. A black dot in a
middle of a white page attracts more attention than , a dot in a written
page.
Internal
Factors
Interest and attention:
• Interest is a very helpful factor in securing
attention.
• People tend to pay more attention to the items
and ideas which they are more interested.
Internal Factors
Motives :
• The basic drives and urges of the
individual are more important in
securing his attention.
• Hunger , thirst , curiosity and sex
are some motives.
Internal
Factors
Mental set up:
• A person always attends to one subject which
the mind has a set.
• During exam any talk about it attracts the
attention.
Internal
Factors
Past experience :
• Learning and previous experience facilitate
attention.
• If we find that certain thing has been beneficial
in the past we give more attention to it in the
present.
Internal Factors
Emotion
• The emotional state of the individual
determines the attention the person will
put to any certain stimuli.
Internal
Factors
Habits:
• Habit is also an important determinant of
attention.
• A person develops a habit of attending to
important things and a habit of not attending to
the unimportant things.
Duration of
Attention
Span of attention
• The maximum amount of attention that can be
attended in period of the is called span of
attention.
Visual
attention
• The visual attention span is very less the time of
exposure is very short ranging from 1/100 to 1/5 of
a second.
• The mind can attend to only 4 or 5 separate units if
the items are not grouped together.
• But if the items are combined into meaningful
wholes, for instance words, a large number of
items can be perceived at once.
Span of auditory
attention
• The number of auditory,
impressions perceived at a single
instance is slightly greater.
• An adult can perceive eight
sounds given rapidly in
succession . But when sounds are
given a rhythm, a much larger
number of sounds can be
perceived.
Duration of
Attention
• It referrers to how long one can attend to an
object without a break.
• The duration of attention depends upon the
nature of the stimulus and the interest of the
observer.
Sustained attention
(concentration)
• To sustain attention is to concentrate ones
activities continuously upon one subject.
• The individual attention always remains on
track and activity proceeds without any
serious distractions.
Perception
Mr. Sushil Humane MSN, RN
Introduction
• “Perception refers to the interpretation of what
we take in through our senses. “
• perception is the process by which people
select, organize and interpret information to
form a meaningful picture
Principles of
perception
Figure-ground relationship
Principle of closure
Principle of
grouping
Principle of
simplicity
Principle of
contour
Principle of
context
• An examiner may award higher marks to the same
answer book in a pleasant context than in an
unpleasant one
Principle of
contrast
Principle of
adaptablity
• An individual who adapt himself to work before an
intense bright light will perceive normal sunlight as
quite dim.
Factors
affecting
perception
Errors in
perception
Illusion
Hallucination

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Attention and perception

  • 1. Attention and perception Mr. Sushil Humane MSN, RN
  • 3. Concept • Attention, in psychology, the concentration of awareness on some phenomenon to the exclusion of other stimuli. • Attention determined the content of consciousness and influenced the quality of conscious experience • Attention has to do with the immediate experience of the individual; it is a state of current awareness.
  • 4. Definition • William James, attention "is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what may seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. …It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others."—"The Principles of Psychology," 1890
  • 5. Types of attention Voluntary attention Involuntary attention
  • 6. Voluntary attention • Requires conscious effort on the part of the person. • Eg: problem solving, answering in the examination. • Furthur types 1. Implicit volitional attention 2. Explicit volitional attention
  • 7. Implicit volitional attention • Implicit volitional attention • A single act of will is responsible for arousing attention. • Eg home work given by teacher and the fear of punishment arouse attention in the student to complete the given tasks.
  • 8. Explicit volitional attention • Attention is obtained by repeated acts of will. • One has to struggle hard for keeping oneself attentive.it requires strong will power and motivation to keep the attention focused. • Eg: during the preparatory days of the examiantion.
  • 9. Involuntary attention • This type of attention is aroused without the conscious effort . • Eg: bright lights, loud noise and strong odours, pain etc. • This type of attention can be aroused by instincts called enforced non volitional attention. • Attention given due to preformed sentiments , to people objects and things.
  • 10. Uses • It provides strength and ability to continue the task despite the obstacles present in the environment. • Helps in better organization of the perceptual field for maximum clarity and understanding. • It helps by providing the deeper concentration by focusing ones consciousness upon required object or idea. • Helps in bringing mental alertness and preparedness.
  • 12. External factors Nature of the stimuli: • The attributes of the stmuli are more likely to arouse attention and allow concentration • Shape , color , beauty, odditiy, • Picutres are more likely to attract attention than that of the text.
  • 13. External factors Intensity of the stimuli: • The strength of the stimuli determines the attention it receives • Like a loudness of sound, the brightness of colors etc.
  • 14. External factors Size of the stimulus : • General rule is that the bigger the stimuli the more attention it attracts and if the item or object is unlikely in an environment then that is also more likely attract attention.
  • 15. External factors Contrast of the stimuli: • Change and contrast usually attract more of attention, we do not notice the ticking of the watch usually but when it stops we notice it • Novelty or newness attracts attention.
  • 16. External factors Location of the stimulus : • The area where the stimulus s located is also important for attracting the attention as • advertisements on the upper-half or on the front page attracts more attention than being located elsewhere.
  • 17. External factors Repetition of the stimulus : • A repeated stimulus attracts our attention. • A mis-spelt word in the same paragraph for more than 2 times tends to get noticed more often. • But the excessive repetition of the stimulus can also diminish the attention. • Eg: people working in a factory with loud noise become adjusted to that environment.
  • 18. External factors Motion of the object: • The moving stimulus attracts more attention than the stagnant one.
  • 19. External factors Definite form of the object: • A sharply defined object attracts more attention than a vaguely defined object.
  • 20. External factors Isolation of the stimulus: • Isolation is an important determinant of the attention. A black dot in a middle of a white page attracts more attention than , a dot in a written page.
  • 21. Internal Factors Interest and attention: • Interest is a very helpful factor in securing attention. • People tend to pay more attention to the items and ideas which they are more interested.
  • 22. Internal Factors Motives : • The basic drives and urges of the individual are more important in securing his attention. • Hunger , thirst , curiosity and sex are some motives.
  • 23. Internal Factors Mental set up: • A person always attends to one subject which the mind has a set. • During exam any talk about it attracts the attention.
  • 24. Internal Factors Past experience : • Learning and previous experience facilitate attention. • If we find that certain thing has been beneficial in the past we give more attention to it in the present.
  • 25. Internal Factors Emotion • The emotional state of the individual determines the attention the person will put to any certain stimuli.
  • 26. Internal Factors Habits: • Habit is also an important determinant of attention. • A person develops a habit of attending to important things and a habit of not attending to the unimportant things.
  • 27. Duration of Attention Span of attention • The maximum amount of attention that can be attended in period of the is called span of attention.
  • 28. Visual attention • The visual attention span is very less the time of exposure is very short ranging from 1/100 to 1/5 of a second. • The mind can attend to only 4 or 5 separate units if the items are not grouped together. • But if the items are combined into meaningful wholes, for instance words, a large number of items can be perceived at once.
  • 29. Span of auditory attention • The number of auditory, impressions perceived at a single instance is slightly greater. • An adult can perceive eight sounds given rapidly in succession . But when sounds are given a rhythm, a much larger number of sounds can be perceived.
  • 30. Duration of Attention • It referrers to how long one can attend to an object without a break. • The duration of attention depends upon the nature of the stimulus and the interest of the observer.
  • 31. Sustained attention (concentration) • To sustain attention is to concentrate ones activities continuously upon one subject. • The individual attention always remains on track and activity proceeds without any serious distractions.
  • 33. Introduction • “Perception refers to the interpretation of what we take in through our senses. “ • perception is the process by which people select, organize and interpret information to form a meaningful picture
  • 39. Principle of context • An examiner may award higher marks to the same answer book in a pleasant context than in an unpleasant one
  • 41. Principle of adaptablity • An individual who adapt himself to work before an intense bright light will perceive normal sunlight as quite dim.