Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Parasites in Goats

4,134 views

Published on

For presentation to Dakota Goat Producers

Published in: Education
  • I like this service ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ from Academic Writers. I don't have enough time write it by myself.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Works For Teens! Hey, I'm only 18 and I thought I was going to have small boobs forever. After using your book for about 2 weeks, I started seeing results! I then used it for another month and I managed to get my breasts up to a C cup (with padding). I'm so pleased and I'm getting a lot more attention from boys now! Thanks you ➢➢➢ https://t.cn/A6Li7dmy
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi there! I just wanted to share a list of sites that helped me a lot during my studies: .................................................................................................................................... www.EssayWrite.best - Write an essay .................................................................................................................................... www.LitReview.xyz - Summary of books .................................................................................................................................... www.Coursework.best - Online coursework .................................................................................................................................... www.Dissertations.me - proquest dissertations .................................................................................................................................... www.ReMovie.club - Movies reviews .................................................................................................................................... www.WebSlides.vip - Best powerpoint presentations .................................................................................................................................... www.WritePaper.info - Write a research paper .................................................................................................................................... www.EddyHelp.com - Homework help online .................................................................................................................................... www.MyResumeHelp.net - Professional resume writing service .................................................................................................................................. www.HelpWriting.net - Help with writing any papers ......................................................................................................................................... Save so as not to lose
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • There is a useful site for you that will help you to write a perfect. And valuable essay and so on. Check out, please ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Leptitox Nutrition | 70% Off Today? ♥♥♥ https://url.cn/5yLnA6L
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Parasites in Goats

  1. 1. PARASITES AND GOATS DAKOTA GOAT ASSOCIATION STATE WIDE GOAT CONFERENCE - OCTOBER 20, 2017 SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu - (301) 432-2767 x343 www.wormx.info - www.sheepandgoat.com
  2. 2. PRESENTATION TOPICS • American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) • Overview • Biology of parasites • Anthelmintics (dewormers) 101 • Anthelmintic resistance • Combination treatments • Copper oxide wire particles • Nematode trapping fungus • Fecal egg counting
  3. 3. AMERICAN CONSORTIUM FOR SMALL RUMINANT PARASITE CONTROL A group of scientists, veterinarians, and extension specialists devoted to (1) developing novel methods for sustainable control of gastro-intestinal nematodes in small ruminants and (2) educating the stakeholders in the small ruminant industry on the most up-to-date methods and recommendations for control of gastrointestinal nematodes.
  4. 4. WEB SITE WORMX.INFO OR ACSRPC.ORG Go-to place for information about internal parasites Not Facebook or Google!
  5. 5. BLOG: https://www.wormx.info/blog • Subscribe to WORMINFO listserv to receive an email when something new has been posted to the web site. • To subscribe, send an email to listserv@listserv.umd.edu. In the body of the message, write subscribe WORMINFO. LISTSERV RECENT ADDITIONS TO WEB SITE BLOG AND LISTSERV
  6. 6. ONLINE FAMACHA© TRAINING • Two members of consortium are piloting online FAMACHA© training. • Dr. Katherine Petersson, University of Rhode Island • Dr. Anne Zajac, Virginia Tech • You view 2.5 hours of video: Integrated Parasite Control and Why and How to Do FAMACHA© scoring. • You Make a video of yourself demonstrating your FAMACHA© technique and send to URI. • Have follow-up with URI, if needed. • Upon completion, receive certificate of competence and right to purchase FAMACHA© card(s). http://web.uri.edu/sheepngoat/famacha/ COVERPUSHPULLPOP
  7. 7. GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITES AFFECTING SMALL RUMINANTS
  8. 8. OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM • Gastro-intestinal parasites are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats worldwide. • GI parasites can be an obstacle to profitable and sustainable small ruminant production in many climates and production systems. • Small ruminants are more susceptible to parasitism than other farm livestock • Goats are more susceptible than sheep. • Problem is worsened by drug resistance.
  9. 9. GOATS AND PARASITES WHY ARE THEY SO SUSCEPTIBLE? • Goats are browsers or intermediate grazers. • They rely on feeding strategies to avoid ingestion of infective worm larvae, which are found mostly in first two inches of vegetative growth. • Unlike sheep, goats are unable to reduce establishment of infective worm larvae or to expel adult worms. • In goats, immunity is rarely completely effective against worms. • Exposure to worms is necessary to develop immunity; low levels are insufficient.
  10. 10. HOST IMMUNITY https://www.wormx.info/riskfactors
  11. 11. MULTI-CELLULAR HELMINTHS 1. Nemadodes Roundworms Strongyles 2. Cestodes Flatworms Tapeworms 3. Trematodes Flukes 1. Coccidia 2. Giardia 3. Cryptospordia SINGLE CELL PROTOZOA GOATS CAN HOST MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF INTERNAL PARASITES.
  12. 12. USUALLY MAJOR 1. Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm 2. Trichostrongylus spp. Black scour worm (bankrupt worm) 3. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) Brown stomach worm 1. Cooperia small intestinal worm 2. Nematodirus threadneck worm 3. Oesophagostomum nodule worm 4. Bunostomum hook worm USUALLY MINOR NEMATODES – ROUNDWORMS - STRONGYLES 5. Trichuris ovis whipworm 6. Strongyloides threadworms 7. Lungworms 8. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Meningeal worm
  13. 13. MAJOR ROUNDWORMS • Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm • Trichostrongylus spp. Black scour worm • Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) Brown stomach worm Eggs look the same; need to hatch larvae in order to differentiate species. Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia are often not differentiated even when doing larvae ID.
  14. 14. BARBER POLE WORM HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS • Anemia: blood/protein loss Low packed cell volume (PCV) FAMACHA© score 3, 4, or 5 • Sub-mandibular edema “bottle jaw” swelling under jaw • Loss of weight and condition • Scours (diarrhea) • Weakness • Anorexia • Death • Acute haemonchosis: SUDDEN DEATH • Hypersensitivity of gut Damage and inflammation of gut Diarrhea (scours) • Loss of weight and condition Slow growth – poor performance • Lethargy • Death (sometimes) • Additive: usually part of mixed infections with H. contortus. “SCOUR WORMS” TRICHOSTRONGYLES TELADORSAGIA CLINICAL SIGNS (SYMPTOMS) OF ROUNDWORM INFECTION
  15. 15. ROUNDWORMS CAN BE HARD TO CONTROL • Short, direct life cycles • No intermediate host • Ability to engage in hypobiosis • Barber pole worm is prolific egg layer • Goats slow to develop immunity. • Compromised immunity of peri- parturient female. • Widespread and growing drug resistance
  16. 16. ROUNDWORM LIFE CYCLE
  17. 17. HYPOBIOTIC LARVAE Adult worms in GI tract L4 larval stage L4 larvae in “arrested development” Eggs in feces During winter, most larvae are in “arrested development.” Few larvae survive prolonged cold. This allows worms to survive over winter (as hypobiotic larvae) and re-infect pastures following spring. Hypobiotic larvae is the primary means by which worms survive in a northern climate.
  18. 18. PERI-PARTURIENT EGG RISE (PPER) • Loss of immunity during late gestation and early lactation; occurs from several weeks before to several weeks after parturition • Well-documented phenomenon in sheep; also documented in goats. • With spring kidding, PPER often coincides with hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycle. • Need to have a strategy for dealing with periparutient egg rise. • Primary source of pasture
  19. 19. COCCIDIA (EIMERIA SPP.) THE OTHER BIG PARASITE PROBLEM • Single-cell protozoan parasite. • Has more complex life cycle than roundworms. • Host-specific • Not all species are pathogenic (harmful). • Affects lambs/kids mostly before and after weaning. • Sheep develop strong and lifetime immunity; goats probably less so. • Causes diarrhea, but not always, and general ill- thrift • Associated with poor hygiene and management. https://attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=483
  20. 20. PREVENTION • Good hygiene, nutrition, and management. • Coccidiostats in mineral, feed, or water Need to feed or put in water before risk period 1. Lasalocid (Bovatec®) - sheep 2. Monensin (Rumensin®) - goats ( horses) 3. Decoquinate (Deccox®) - both 4. Amprolium (Corid®) - ELDU, OTC • Natural control • Sericea lespedeza pellets • Other (?) • Amprolium (Corid®)- ELDU, OTC • Sulfa drugs (Di-Methox®) - ELDU, Rx, VFD Damages lining of small intestines. Damage can be permanent (“runts”) TREATMENT COCCIDIOSIS
  21. 21. WHAT ABOUT TAPEWORMS? MONIEZIA EXPANSA • Tapeworms are the only parasite visible in the feces. Diagnosed by seeing segments in feces. • Tapeworms tend to be non-pathogenic; not harmful, but they’re blamed for a lot, usually no benefit to treatment (goats?). • Lambs develop immunity at very young age. • Tapeworms can cause mild unthriftiness and digestive disturbances, intestinal blockages (rare) and affect gut motility, predisposing lambs to enterotoxemia (occasionally). • Treat with albendazole (Valbazen®) or praziquantel (in some horse dewormers, ELDU) https://www.wormx.info/tapeworms
  22. 22. WHAT ABOUT MENINGEAL WORM? PARALAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENIUS • Parasite of white tail deer. • Also called deer or brain worm. • Sheep, goats, alpacas, and llamas are all abnormal hosts. • Infection requires an intermediate host, terrestrial snail or slug. • Causes various neurological symptoms. • No diagnostic test in live animal. • No FDA-approved or proven treatment. • Cornell University has been evaluating treatment protocols: fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) + anti-inflammatory drugs (Dexamethasone or Banamine). https://nydairyadmin.cce.cornell. edu/uploads/doc_392.pdf
  23. 23. ANTHELMINTICS (DEWORMERS) 101
  24. 24. WHAT IS AN ANTHELMINTIC? • Compound used to kill gastro-intestinal parasites (worms) without harming host. • More commonly called wormer, dewormer or drench. • Anthelmintics have different chemistries. • Chemistry determines which worms they are effective against, mode of action, and withdrawal period(s). • Anthelmintics are grouped by chemistries. • There is cross-resistant among drugs in the same groups, having the same modes of action.
  25. 25. THERE ARE THREE (SORT OF 4) “CHEMICAL” CLASSES OF DEWORMERS FOR SMALL RUMINANTS (IN THE US). GROUP 1 Benzimidazoles (BZ) GROUP 2 Macrocylic lactones (ML) GROUP 3 Nicotinic agonists Avermectins Milbemycins Imidazo-thiazoles Tetrahydro-pyrimidines Fenbendazole SafeGuard® Panacur® Ivermectin Ivomec® Moxidectin Cydectin® Quest® Levamisole Prohibit® Leva-Med® Tramisol® Levasol® Morantel tartrate Rumatel® Albendazole Valbazen® Doramectin Dectomax® Pyrantel Strongid®Eprinomectin Eprinex® Oxfendazole Synanthic®
  26. 26. ANTHELMINTICS FDA-APPROVED FOR GOATS 1 Benzimidazoles 3b Morantel Fenbendazole SafeGuard® Albendazole Valbazen® Feed premix Rumatel Adult worms  Not approved  Larvae (L4)  Not approved sporadic Hypobiotic larvae  Not approved Lungworms  Not approved Tapeworms Not labeled Not approved Liver flukes Adult stage Coccidia External parasites Persistent activity Safety wide 10x (sheep) pregnancy restriction ~20x (sheep) Dosage 1.2 ml/50 lbs. 4 ml/100 lbs. Varies by product Meat withdrawal 6 days 7 days 30 days Milk withdrawal 0 days
  27. 27. EXTRA-LABEL ANTHELMINTICS FOR GOATS 1 Benzimidazoles 2a Avermectins Ivomec® sheep drench 2b Milbimycins Moxidectin Cydectin® sheep drench 3a Levamisole Prohibit® Leva-Med® Fenbendazole SafeGuard® Albendazole Valbazen® Adult worms      Larvae (L4)     Limited Hypobiotic larvae     Limited Lungworms      Tapeworms Double dosage  Liver flukes Adult stage Coccidia External parasites Some label for bot control Some Not labeled Persistent activity   Safety wide 10x pregnancy restriction 20x 5x 3x Dosage 1.1 ml/25 lbs. 2 ml/25 lbs. 6 ml/25 lbs. 4.5 ml/25 lbs. Depends on dilution Meat withdrawal 16 days (1 day for each additional day used) 9 days 14 days 17 days 4 days Milk withdrawal 4 days (1 day for each additional day used) 7 days 9 days 8 days 3 days https://www.wormx.info/dewormers
  28. 28. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE https://www.wormx.info/anthelmintic- resistance
  29. 29. IN WORM • Worms develop resistance to drugs. Can’t be killed! Pass resistant genes onto next generation. • Some animals are more resistant to parasites. Ability to reduce parasite establishment. Pass resistance genes onto next generation. IN ANIMAL TWO KINDS OF RESISTANCE WHEN WE TALK ABOUT INTERNAL PARASITES
  30. 30. WHAT IS ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE? • Genetic ability of a worm to survive a dose of anthelmintic which would normally be effective. • Only worms that survive treatment carry genes that confer resistance. • Result of selection through exposure of worm population to an anthelmintic. • When more than 5 percent of worms are “drug tolerant”; i.e. failure to reduce FEC by 95% or more (some say 90%). http://www.scops.org.uk/what-is-resistance.html
  31. 31. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE • In the US, worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and dewormer classes, though it varies by geographic region and farm. • Worse in Southeast due to increased parasite risk and need for deworming. • Worse on farms that frequently deworm or use improper deworming practices. • Most farms have resistance to at least two dewormers; some farms have resistance to all dewormers/classes. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Benzimidazoles Ivermectin Levamisole Moxidectin Maryland Virginia Georgia
  32. 32. WHAT ABOUT RESISTANCE IN MORE NORTHERN CLIMATES? Farm Fenbendazole %FECR Ivermectin % FECR A 16 77 B 70 41 C 38 78 D 0 0 • There is growing suspicion that the geographic range of the barber pole worm is increasing and that resistance to deworming agents is on the rise. • A pilot project in Alberta (2015) showed that many Alberta sheep flocks have high parasite burdens and that ivermectin and fenbendazole -resistant parasites may be common in the province. • NCAT is working with Montana State University Extension to determine anthelmintic resistance in Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
  33. 33. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE IS INEVITABLE, BUT CAN BE DELAYED. Practices that accelerate development of resistant worms 1. Frequent deworming 2. Whole flock treatments 3. Calendar based treatments 4. Treat and move strategy 5. Rotating dewormers 6. Underdosing 7. Depositing drug in mouth instead of deep into oral cavity. 8. Use of persistent activity dewormers 9. Use injectable dewormers 10.Use pour-on dewormers. 11.Use of feed dewormers* 12.Improper storage of dewormers
  34. 34. FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST • Compare before and after fecal egg counts from same animals. • Old protocol compared post-treatment FECs of treated animals vs. control (untreated) group. • ~15 animals per drug tested • Minimum FEC of 250 epg*, preferably higher. • Can use individual or pooled (composite) samples. • Cost varies. Can learn to do yourself or send to parasitology lab. • Labor-intensive laboratory test that determines resistance to all dewormers and classes from a single pooled fecal sample (from ~10 animals). • Minimum FEC of 500 epg. • Also identifies larvae: % Haemonchus Trichostrongyles eggs look the same. • Test done exclusively by Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab at the University of Georgia. • $450 per sample DRENCHRITE® TEST TWO WAYS TO TEST FOR ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE
  35. 35. Animal Before After % FECR 1 1000 100 90% 2 500 25 95% 3 6000 150 98% 4 4350 250 94% 5 3000 1000 67% 6 1200 400 67% 7 1500 200 87% 8 750 50 93% 9 1100 100 91% 10 3100 200 94% 11 2900 200 93% 12 475 200 58% 13 900 100 89% 14 1100 50 95% 15 300 0 100% Avg 1878 145 87% Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT)
  36. 36. COMBINATION TREATMENTS Different drugs to kills same parasites. Not different drugs for different parasites.
  37. 37. “THERE NOW IS VERY STRONG EVIDENCE THAT USING COMBINATION TREATMENT IS THE BEST METHOD FOR USING DEWORMERS AND SHOULD BE INSTITUTED ON ALL FARMS IMMEDIATELY.” DR. RAY KAPLAN, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (JANUARY 2017) http://www.wormx.info/combinations
  38. 38. RATIONALE FOR COMBINATION TREATMENTS • Most farms have resistance to at least two of the three major groups of dewormers; some have resistance to all. • At first introduction, drug efficacy is over 99%. • Once efficacy falls below 95%, drug resistance is present, though drug is still useful for treatment. • As effectiveness of dewormer decreases (<95%), as it is used more, it provides less and less benefit to animals. • Below 50%, it is no longer effective as sole There is already resistance to Zolvix® in other countries. Zolvix® is not sold in US.
  39. 39. WHY GIVE COMBINATION TREATMENTS? • Contrary to popular belief, rotating between dewormers will not prevent resistance from developing. In fact, it will allow worms to develop resistance to multiple drugs simultaneously. It is no longer recommended. • Research done in New Zealand has shown that the best approach is to use several different dewormers at one time as a combination treatment. • When combined with “best management practices” (that help to maintain refugia), combination treatments may improve drug efficacy and result in a reversion back toward susceptibility. Most dewormers sold in New Zealand and Australia are combination products (multiple drug actives in same product); combination products are not available in US.
  40. 40. HOW DO COMBINATIONS WORK? • Unlike rotating drugs, there is an additive effect with each drug used in a combination treatment. • By achieving a higher efficacy, there are fewer resistant worms that survive treatment. • The sooner you start using combination treatments the better, as you achieve the greatest difference in the percentage of resistant survivors when efficacy of dewormers is high. Drug 1 Drug 2 Drug 3 Combo12 Combo123 80% 80% 80% 96.00% 99.20% 90% 90% 90% 99.00% 99.90% 60% 95% 98.00% 98.00% 60% 60% 95% 84.00% 99.20% 99% 99% 99.99% 99.99% 60% 60% 60% 84.00% 93.60% 50% 50% 50% 75.00% 87.50% 40% 40% 40% 64.00% 78.40% 95% 80% 20% 99.00% 99.20%
  41. 41. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR USING COMBINATION TREATMENTS • Purchase and administer each dewormer separately in a separate syringe. • Do not mix dewormers. They are not chemically compatible. Only veterinarians have the right to compound medications. • Administer each dewormer at full dose based on an accurate weight. • Can give one drug immediately after the other. • Observe withdrawal period of drug with longest withdrawal period
  42. 42. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR USING DEWORMERS IN COMBINATION Valbazen® Cydectin® Prohibit®* Goats 4 ml/50 lbs. [9 days meat] [7 days milk] 9 ml/50 lbs. [17 days meat] [8 days milk] Depends on dilution [4 days meat] [3 days milk] https://www.wormx.info/dewormers
  43. 43. SELECTIVE TREATMENT IS IMPORTANT. REFUGIA MUST BE MAINTAINED! • Do not give combination treatments to all animals in a flock or group. • Selectively treat clinically-parasitized animals to maintain refugia. • Refugia are worms that have not been exposed to drug. • Use FAMACHA© system, Five Point Check©, and Happy Factor™ to determine which animals need dewormed. • If you deworm all animals in a flock or group, you will simultaneously accelerate resistance to all drugs.
  44. 44. FAMACHA© • Use color eye chart to assess level (1-5) of anemia and need for deworming. • Decision making tool for blood- feeding parasites only: barber pole worm. • Examine 5 points on animal’s body to determine need for deworming: 1) eye (anemia), 2) jaw (bottle jaw), 3) back (BCS), 4) tail (dags), and 5) nose (nasal bots) or coat (for goats). • Expands decision making ability to include parasites other than blood feeders, e.g. scour worms. FIVE POINT CHECK© DECISION MAKING TOOLS FOR MAKING DEWORMING DECISIONS • Use performance, e.g. ADG, as a criteria for making deworming decisions. • Could also use milk production. • Untested for barber pole worm. HAPPY FACTOR™
  45. 45. COPPER OXIDE WIRE PARTICLES (COWPS) https://www.wormx.info/copper-oxide-wire-particles
  46. 46. WHAT ARE COPPER OXIDE WIRE PARTICLES (COWPS)? • Tiny metal rods of copper oxide (Cu2O). • Poorly absorbed, slow release form of copper versus copper sulfate which is very absorbable; therefore, greater potential for toxicity (especially in sheep). • Has been shown to reduce barber pole worm infections in sheep and goats. • Available as copper supplement (different brands) for cattle (12.5 and 25 g) and goats (2 and 4 g). https://www.wormx.info/copper-oxide-wire-particles
  47. 47. COPPER BASICS • Goats require more copper than sheep in their diets and are less susceptible to copper toxicity. • Copper metabolism is very complicated, with several antagonists (interactions), including molybdenum, sulfur, zinc, cadmium, and iron. • Copper absorption is more important than copper concentration in diet. • Copper requirements have been set at 15, 20, and 25 ppm for lactating, mature, and growing goats respectively [NRC, 2007]. • The maximum tolerable amount is unknown for goats.
  48. 48. YOU CAN ASSESS THE COPPER STATUS OF YOUR HERD • Copper toxicity is less likely in goats, but it can occur, as can a copper deficiency. • Blood copper levels can be misleading • Excess copper accumulates in liver. • Collect liver and kidney samples for testing. • Frozen or chilled samples can be sent to Michigan State University for testing. https://www.animalhealth.msu.edu/
  49. 49. TIPS FOR USING COWPS AS A DEWORMER • Re-package cattle boluses into smaller doses, 0.5 or 1 g. • Use the smallest dose needed to achieve effect. • Goat boluses can also be repackaged. • Dose based on age not weight: mature vs. young. • Best to selectively treat animals showing clinical signs of Haemonchosis (FAMACHA© 4 or https://www.wormx.info/cowp-safety
  50. 50. ANOTHER COMBINATION TREATMENT VALBAZEN® + COWPs Treatment (10-23 lambs per Tx group) Efficacy (%FECR) No treatment (control) Increase Valbazen® (3 ml/50 lbs.) 20% COWP (2 g, Ultracruz™) 58% COWP (2 g, Copasure®) 12% Valbazen® + COWP 99% Similar results could be expected if COWPs were combined with other dewormers (e.g. Prohibit®). USDA-ARS, Booneville, Arkansas http://www.wormx.info/cowpcombo
  51. 51. THE FUNGUS MAY SOON BE AMONG US.
  52. 52. NEMATODE TRAPPING FUNGUS DUDDINGTONIA FLAGRANS • Duddingtonia flagrans is a nematophagous fungus, meaning that it traps, paralyzes, and consumes parasites. • Non-chemical, biological control of the free-living stage of nematode parasites. • Substantially reduces number of infective worm larvae, including multi-resistant larvae. • Is fed to grazing animals. Spores resist digestion. No effect on host animal. Passes through into manure. • Reduces amount of reinfection from contaminated pasture. Interrupts of life www.duddingtonia.co m
  53. 53. USING FUNGUS TO CONTROL PARASITES • Not commercially available. Not yet. • Dr. Jim Miller from Louisiana State University (retired) has been told that product (fungus) should be available sometime early 2018. • Will need to feed every day to maintain effect. • Cost may be issue. • Greatest application is probably zoo animals.
  54. 54. FECAL EGG COUNTING www.wormx.info [Consortium] [W4: 2015 Conference] [Fecal egg counts: uses and limitations]
  55. 55. QUALITATIVE • Positive or negative. Yes or no. - or + • Mix feces with flotation solution. Place cover slip on meniscus. Put on slide. • Estimates number of eggs in a fresh sample of manure: eggs per gram of feces (EPG). • Mix known amount of feces (2-4 g) with known amount of flotation solution (26-28 ml) • Fill chambers of McMaster slide. QUANTITATIVE FECAL EGG COUNTS (FECS) • You can learn to do your own fecals or send sample to a parasitology lab. • Microscope (100x) Mechanical stage helpful • McMaster egg counting slide • Homemade flotation solution
  56. 56. THREE PRIMARY USES OF FECAL EGG COUNTS 1. Determine treatment efficacy by comparing before and after fecal egg counts from a group of animals (~n=15) • Determine drug resistance on your farm • Determine efficacy of alternative treatment(s) 2. Monitor pasture contamination • How fast is pasture contamination building up? • Determine when to move animals 3. Identify resistant and susceptible animals • Differentiate between resistance and resilience • Need sufficient parasite challenge to get data separation (at least 500 epg group average, 1000 epg better) By themselves, fecal egg counts are not a good diagnostic tool for making individual deworming decisions.
  57. 57. SUSAN SCHOENIAN S H E E P & G O AT S P E C I A L I S T U N I V E R S I T Y O F M A RY L A N D E X T E N S I O N S S C H O E N @ U M D . E D U – ( 3 0 1 ) 4 3 2 - 2 7 6 7 X 3 4 3 S H E E PA N D G O AT. C O M – W O R M X . I N F O Thank you for your attention. Questions? Comments? https://www.slideshare.net/schoenian

×