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Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores

Presentation for FAMACHA workshops by Steve Hart, retired Langston University

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Langston University
Dewormers and Dewormer
Resistance
Introduction to Eye Scores
Steve Hart
The 35th Annual Goat and Hair Sheep Field Day
Day IV (May 22, 2021)
Langston University
Langston University
Proper Drug Usage
• Drugs must be labeled for the use and
species.
– Applies to both OTC and Rx drugs
– Off label use is the domain of licensed
veterinarians who must address the questions of
dose, route, duration and withdrawal time
• FDA regulations require a valid client-patient
relationship (vet has been to your farm and
knows your animals) for off-the label use of
drugs such as dewormers.
• Violations are the liability of the producer!
Langston University
Action Families
•All members of an action family share the
same mode of action despite there being
several members in the same family
•Only 3 broad spectrum families available
–Benzimidazoles
–Levamisole and Morantel/Pyrantel
–Avermectins/Milbemycins
•If a drug is not effective, other drugs in that
family may not be either.
Langston University
Benzimidazoles
•All kill roundworms, eggs, lungworms
and tapeworms
•fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard)
•oxfendazole (Synanthic)
•albendazole (Valbazen) also kills flukes
•Greatest level of dewormer resistance
because of long history of use.
Langston University
Cell Depolarizers
•Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole, Prohibit)
•Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet)
•Basically only effective against active
roundworms (does not get arrested L-4)
•Overdose is toxic!! You must know what
goats weigh to use safely.
Langston University
Avermectins/Milbemycins
•Ivermectin (Ivomec)
•Dormectin (Dectomax)
•Eprinomectin (Eprinex)
•Moxidectin (Cydectin) long residual
effect
•Effective against roundworms, arrested
roundworms, lung worms, sucking lice

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Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores

  • 1. Langston University Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance Introduction to Eye Scores Steve Hart The 35th Annual Goat and Hair Sheep Field Day Day IV (May 22, 2021) Langston University
  • 2. Langston University Proper Drug Usage • Drugs must be labeled for the use and species. – Applies to both OTC and Rx drugs – Off label use is the domain of licensed veterinarians who must address the questions of dose, route, duration and withdrawal time • FDA regulations require a valid client-patient relationship (vet has been to your farm and knows your animals) for off-the label use of drugs such as dewormers. • Violations are the liability of the producer!
  • 3. Langston University Action Families •All members of an action family share the same mode of action despite there being several members in the same family •Only 3 broad spectrum families available –Benzimidazoles –Levamisole and Morantel/Pyrantel –Avermectins/Milbemycins •If a drug is not effective, other drugs in that family may not be either.
  • 4. Langston University Benzimidazoles •All kill roundworms, eggs, lungworms and tapeworms •fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard) •oxfendazole (Synanthic) •albendazole (Valbazen) also kills flukes •Greatest level of dewormer resistance because of long history of use.
  • 5. Langston University Cell Depolarizers •Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole, Prohibit) •Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet) •Basically only effective against active roundworms (does not get arrested L-4) •Overdose is toxic!! You must know what goats weigh to use safely.
  • 6. Langston University Avermectins/Milbemycins •Ivermectin (Ivomec) •Dormectin (Dectomax) •Eprinomectin (Eprinex) •Moxidectin (Cydectin) long residual effect •Effective against roundworms, arrested roundworms, lung worms, sucking lice
  • 7. Langston University Use of Dewormers •Few are approved for use in goats –Fenbendazole (Panacur or Safeguard) –Morantel (Rumatel or Positive Pellet) •Use 1.5 -2 x sheep or cattle dose per lb. because goats have faster rate of passage and relatively larger livers. •Administer orally back behind tongue so they go to the rumen.
  • 8. Langston University Dewormer Combinations • Combinations can be effective when there is dewormer resistance • Use Valbazen, Prohibit, Cydectin, two of three • Use full goat dose at same time • Important to use selective deworming 9/8/2021 8
  • 9. Langston University Use of Dewormers •Observe withdrawal period before selling •Pour-on works poorly in goats •Dewormers should not be injected •Blocks or feed-problems with each animal getting dose • Deworming in water-suckling kids don’t drink much
  • 11. Langston University Salvage •Save animal’s life Least desirable strategy Severe production loss has already occurred by this time and goats are more subject to other diseases
  • 12. Langston University Strategic •Deworming at strategic times when worms are most likely to be a problem - Prekidding or prelambing and lamb/kid at weaning Strategic times neglect year to year differences in the weather
  • 13. Langston University Opportunistic •When we are working the goats and it is convenient to deworm them. Effectiveness depends on when the time happens to fall that they get dewormed. Goats may need dewormed badly when we are not working them. They may not need dewormed when we work them.
  • 14. Langston University Tactical •Deworming when weather conditions are favorable for transmission of parasites Barber pole worm requires 2 inches of rain in a month period and a mean temperature greater than 60oF. Best to use FAMACHA or fecal egg counts.
  • 15. Langston University Scheduled •Deworming at regular intervals e.g., 30 days Expensive, effective in short term, but much faster development of dewormer resistance.
  • 16. Langston University Selective •Deworming individual animals only when they need it using FAMACHA or Fecal Egg Count. •Reduces development of dewormer resistance, helps to identify resistant individuals and reduces dewormer expense.
  • 17. Langston University Deworming with Fecal Egg Counts •Take fecal egg counts every 2-4 weeks depending on time of year. •Mark certain animals and take fecal samples from them each time. •Number of animals minimum 4 animals, square root of herd, 10 in a herd of 100. •Be sure animals represent cross section of herd as to age, sex, class.
  • 18. Langston University Deworming with Fecal Egg Counts •May be a good idea to sample half or all the bucks so that you can assess their parasite resistance. •Take grab fecal samples and do FEC such as by McMaster. •Individual counts best, but some have used composite samples for the herd.
  • 19. Langston University Deworming with Fecal Egg Counts •During Haemonchus season, deworm dry adults at 2,000 epg, 1,000 epg for all others except dairy does 800 epg. •Other times of year, 1000 epg for dry animals, 500 epg for all others. •Disadvantage, takes 3 weeks from ingesting larvae until larvae is producing eggs and larvae is sucking blood all the time.
  • 20. Langston University When do you use dewormer? •Do you give your goats a shot of LA-200 in February because they had pneumonia last year in February? Wait until they show symptoms. •We haven’t had knowledge of how to determine when animals need dewormed. We did not know the consequences of excessive deworming.
  • 21. Langston University Dewormer Resistance •Biggest threat to small ruminant industry •Means we will have to rely on techniques other than dewormers to control worms –Animal selection –Pasture rotation –Co-species grazing
  • 22. Langston University What Is Dewormer Resistance? •An effective dewormer will reduce fecal egg counts by 95 % 7-14 days after giving the dewormer •Fecal Egg Count before deworming 1,000 eggs per gram •10 days after deworming 200 eggs per gram = 80% fecal egg count reduction which indicates dewormer resistance
  • 23. Langston University Fecal Egg Count Reduction Tests •Need several animals, 5-6 minimum •Take post treatment samples at least 7 days up to 14 days after deworming •Compare post-treatment with pretreatment fecal egg counts •Calculate fecal egg count reduction (% of eggs there at first sampling that disappeared by the second sampling)
  • 24. Langston University Oklahoma Farm FECR % in 2001 Farm IVM VAL LEV CYD 1 12 87 98 2 37 88 99 3 7 67 99 4 63 85 92 5 55 99 100 6 46 42 98 7 41 91 8 0 97 9 69 74 94
  • 25. Langston University Preventing Dewormer Resistance • Use the correct dose of dewormer • Rotation of dewormers tends to develop resistance to all dewormers in rotation. Stay with dewormer for at least a year • Must verify that dewormer is working by doing a fecal egg count reduction test • If you are deworming more than 2-3 x a year you are building dewormer resistance • Biggest factor is using other management practices to reduce need for deworming
  • 26. Langston University Do Not Buy Resistant Worms •All new additions should be quarantined and aggressively dewormed upon arrival •Deworm with 3 dewormers from different drug classes •Should remain in quarantine for 10 - 14 days –Perform FEC to confirm that no eggs are shed
  • 27. Langston University Parents Selection for Drug Resistance Resistant Next Generation Resistant Drug Treatment
  • 28. Langston University Why Doesn’t it Seem As Bad As it Sounds ??? •Not all worms on farm are resistant to dewormers •Killing some worms may relieve disease symptoms –Removing 50% of worms will result in clinical improvement –It appears that the treatment was effective –Animals require treatment again very soon •Eventually most worms become resistant and treatment fails – animals may die
  • 29. Langston University • The proportion of the population that is not selected by dewormer treatment – In “refuge” from dewormer • Worms in untreated animals and their subsequent larvae • Eggs and larvae on pasture before treatment • Provides a pool of genes sensitive to dewormer – Dilutes genes resistant to dewormer • Until recently, overlooked as the most important component of drug resistance selection Refugia
  • 30. Langston University Concept Behind Selective Treatment • Parasites are not equally distributed to all individuals • Resistance of animals to the parasite differs –20-30 % of animals harbor 80% of worms • responsible for most of egg output and pasture contamination
  • 31. Langston University 33% of Goats 80% of Eggs Distribution of FEC in Goat Herds Treating high 33% Greatly Reduces Daily Pasture Contamination With Eggs Treating 1/3 of goats gives just as good control as treating the entire herd 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 FEC 1000 2000 3000 4000 FEC 230 M 33% 46 Million 66%
  • 32. Langston University 33% of Goats < 5% of Eggs 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 FEC 100 200 300 400 FEC Treating high 1/3 with a drug that causes a 99% FECR reduces daily pasture contamination with eggs by 80% Following treatment > 95% of eggs are being shed by untreated goats = REFUGIA What Happens If We Treat Only the High 33% ???
  • 33. Langston University How Do We Achieve Selective Treatment ??? •The FAMACHA© system –Novel technique for the assessment of barber pole worm and need for treatment. –Developed in response to development of severe dewormer resistance in South Africa –Method of selective deworming which leads to a large reduction in the number of deworming treatments given • significantly decreases the rate of development of dewormer resistance
  • 34. Langston University How Does FAMACHA Work ??? • Since primary impact of barber pole worm is anemia, one can indirectly measure parasite burden (and need for treatment) by measuring anemia • Only useful where the barber pole worm is the primary parasite species
  • 35. Langston University The FAMACHA© System Classification into one of five color categories: 1 – not anemic 5 --severely anemic Eye color chart with five color categories Compare chart with color of mucous membranes of sheep or goat
  • 36. Langston University FAMACHA© score Score Classification 1 Red Healthy, optimal 2 Red to pink Acceptable, not anemic 3 Pink Borderline, suspected and may require treatment (?) 4 Pink to white Anemia and require treatment 5 White Severely anemic or fatal. Require treatment but may be difficult to recover
  • 37. Langston University Cover, Push, Pull, Pop 1. Cover the eye by eyelid 2. Push down on the eyeball 3. Pull down on the lower eyelid 4. Pop the mucus membranes 5. Match the color to the card
  • 39. Langston University Five Point Check 1-FAMACHA 2-Bottle jaw 3-Body condition 4-Diarrhea 5-Shiny haircoat
  • 40. Langston University Other Recommendations for Proper Use •Check both eyes if in doubt –Score animal based on highest eye score •No ½ scores –Assign higher whole number score if unsure •Do not hold eye open more than few seconds –Wait and retry in other eye
  • 41. Langston University Other Recommendations for Proper Use •Keep records !!!! –Record ID of dewormed animals so those requiring most deworming can be culled –On large farms animals can be tagged in a variety of ways
  • 42. Langston University General Treatment Guidelines When Using FAMACHA •Treat goats and sheep in categories 4 and 5 with an effective dewormer –You must know what drugs are effective on your farm. •If in doubt, score at paler category •Do not use in isolation – use FECs, rotational grazing, strategic or tactical treatments
  • 43. Langston University Integrating the FAMACHA© System •If there are none in categories 4 or 5, then safe •Re-examine two weeks later if weather is warm •In dry or cool times of year every 4 -6 weeks may be sufficient
  • 44. Langston University Integrating the FAMACHA© System •If there are < 10% in categories 4 or 5, then safe but remember to treat categories 4 and 5 •Re-examine two weeks later
  • 45. Langston University Integrating the FAMACHA© System •If >10% of flock/herd in categories 4 and 5, consider treating 3s in pregnant, lactating, young and thin animals •Change pastures if possible –Do not deworm all animals before changing pastures
  • 46. Langston University Integrating the FAMACHA© System •Examine especially animals which lag behind the flock/herd (stragglers) •Check for animals with “bottle jaw” and treat these, regardless of whether they look anemic or not –This may indicate large numbers of other roundworms that do not cause anemia.
  • 47. Langston University Other Advantage of Selective Treatment (FAMACHA) • Identify animals that need treatment most often – These are the ones contaminating the pasture for others in the herd/flock – Cull animals that required the greatest number of treatments, along with their offspring – Compare does with twins to other does with twins – Improves genetics of resistance of the herd/flock – Significantly cuts down on need for dewormer in subsequent years
  • 48. Langston University Precautions • Paleness or reddening of the eyes may have other causes than the barber pole worm – Other causes of anemia: • Other parasites such as coccidia, liver flukes, lice and external parasites • Nutritional deficiencies, esp. copper and cobalt • Other diseases – Other causes of redness: • Environmental conditions such as dust or allergies • Diseases such as pinkeye
  • 49. Langston University Precautions •Lambs/kids and pregnant or lactating ewes/does need special attention •Always score animals with the help of the card, not from memory •Replace card after 24 months’ use due to inherent fading of colors
  • 50. Langston University Precautions •FAMACHA is part of a total worm control program – NOT the total program •Maintain standard worm control measures: –Monitoring of fecal egg counts –Rotational grazing –Resting pastures (6 or more weeks) –Alternation of goat grazing with cattle or horses
  • 51. Langston University Management to Reduce Parasite Problems •Stocking rates < 2 hd/ acre •Grazing cattle or horses with goats •Don’t graze close to ground •Haymaking or tillage •Pasture rotation with 6 or more weeks rest •Browse or animals eating high off ground
  • 52. Langston University Future prospects • New Dewormers – not likely new dewormers will be licensed for use in goats and will be expensive? • Vaccines – Lot of research for last 20 years, but still no practical effective vaccine • Fungi – Bioworma is now approved and available from Premier1 – Paraprobiotic • Specialized Crops • Copper oxide wire particles
  • 53. Langston University BioWorma • Commercial source of fungus now approved • Spores develop to mature fungus in feces • Fungus traps infective larva in the feces by putting out loops for larva to wander through • Fungus digests larva and uses it to produce more spores
  • 54. Langston University BioWorma • Only kills larva in poop, prevents larvae from infecting the goat • Does not remove worms from goats • Must be fed every day • Research in Georgia has shown it to be effective in goats
  • 55. Langston University Paraprobiotic • Bacillus thuringiensis a soil microbe produces a protein Cry5b which disrupts the gut of invertebrates killing them. • Has been used as a bioinsecticide for many years. • Had to encapsulate it in ghost cells to bypass destruction in the rumen • Very promising, but must wait for commercialization and approval.
  • 56. Langston University • Use of specialized crops –mainly those with tannins - sericea lespedeza, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil and chicory -have been demonstrated to be effective in goats
  • 57. Langston University 9/8/2021 63 Alternative Control Strategies • Copper oxide wire capsules • Seems most effective in young animals against Barberpole worm. • Dose is 2.0 g for less than 50 lb and 4.0 g for over 50 lb., half that dose for sheep, available on the internet. • Use only on animals that need deworming • Only effective against Barberpole worm
  • 58. Langston University Breeding for Resistance –possible but slow - similar heritability of about 0.3 as in sheep –some research in Scotland has shown progress over some years (5-6 generations) at a similar rate to improvements in sheep –are differences in mature immunity between breeds ? –Dorper < Katahdin < St. Croix –Angoras < Boer< Spanish, Kiko –There are resistant individuals in all breeds
  • 59. Langston University Near Future •Dewormer resistance will continue to have a major impact on small ruminant industry •We are going to have to use more management and less dewormer •We are going to have to monitor parasites whether by FAMACHA or FEC
  • 60. Langston University Useful resources • Information at famacha@vet.uga.edu • Why and how to do FAMACHA© scoring –YouTube video by Dr. Zajac at https://youtu.be/I5rcuvVG56Q?t=1661 • American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) –https://www.wormx.info/