ICAWC 2013 - Sarcoptic and Demodectic Mange - David Grant

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Sarcoptic and Demodectic Mange

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ICAWC 2013 - Sarcoptic and Demodectic Mange - David Grant

  1. 1. What you need to know about demodectic and sarcoptic mange David Grant B.Vet. Med. Cert.SAD. F.R.C.V.S.
  2. 2. Canine Demodicosis and Canine Scabies • Both canine demodicosis and canine scabies are parasitic diseases caused by mites invisible to the naked eye • They are generally diagnosed from the clinical signs and by skin scraping, hair plucks or tape strips and identification of the mite microscopically
  3. 3. CANINE DEMODICOSIS • The disease is caused by Demodex canis • This is a parasitic mite which is transferred from the carrier mother to her pups in the first 2 or 3 days of life • Thereafter the disease is non-contagious • This is an important distinction from canine scabies which is highly contagious
  4. 4. DEMODEX CANIS LIFE CYCLE IMAGES
  5. 5. DEMODEX CANIS
  6. 6. CANINE DEMODICOSISDemodex canis • CLINICAL FEATURES • • The disease is more common in pedigree dogs, particularly short haired Can occur in long-haired dogs e.g. Old English Sheepdog, West Highland White and Afghan. There are three forms of the disease. These are :Localised and generalised A few cases present with foot lesions only. This is called Demodectic pododermatitis The majority of cases present in the first year of life-called juvenile onset A minority present in older dogs more than 2 years of age and usually in old age. These are called adult onset demodicosis and is associated with suppression of the immune system. These have a guarded outlook because there may be a serious underlying disease • • • • •
  7. 7. LOCALISED DEMODICOSIS
  8. 8. GENERALISED DEMODICOSIS
  9. 9. ‘REDDE’ MANGE
  10. 10. CANINE DEMODICOSIS Diagnosis • Deep skin scrapings using blunted number 10 scalpel blade • Hair plucks • Tape strips using scotch diamond ultratransparent • Impression smears if deep pyoderma
  11. 11. CANINE DEMODICOSISlicensed treatment • Amitraz(Aludex) 0.5% solution weekly • Metaflumizone + amitraz spot on(Promeris duo) every 2 weeks. This is off label as manufacturer recommends monthly • Moxidectin + imidacloprid spot on(advocate) weekly spot on
  12. 12. CANINE DEMODICOSIS Unlicensed treatment • Ivermectin. Orally at a dose of 0.3-0.6 mg/kg daily Do not use in collies and related breeds-neurotoxic. Prudent to start with 0.1 mg/kg and build up over a week or two until at the upper dose rate. Commonly first choice in many parts of the world
  13. 13. Before treatment with promeris
  14. 14. Before treatment with amitraz
  15. 15. Before treatment with ivermectin
  16. 16. Demodectic pododermatitis before ivermectin treatment
  17. 17. CANINE SCABIES (Sarcoptic mange) • Caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei var canis
  18. 18. SARCOPTES SCABIEI
  19. 19. Canine Scabies Clinical signs
  20. 20. CANINE SCABIES • DIAGNOSIS • History, physical examination, skin scrapings, ELISA test and/or trial therapy • Often mildly pruritic initially but gets markedly worse without treatment • Sarcoptes can be difficult to capture even with numerous skin scrapings therefore• Trial therapy should be given to any dog suspected of having scabies even if scrapings are negative
  21. 21. CANINE SCABIES  TREATMENT  Amitraz-5 to 6 weekly baths recommended, at a dilution of 250 ppm  Cannot be used in Chihuahuas, puppies less than 12 weeks of age, pregnant or lactating bitches  Selamectin(Stronghold)is licensed-spot on every month for three applications  Moxidectin(Advocate) is licensed-spot on every two weeks for three applications  With therapeutic trial veterinarian should apply and monitor (Ivermectin is effective at 200 mcg/kg subcutaneous injection x 3 at 10 day intervals but is not licensed)
  22. 22. CANINE SCABIES-treatment
  23. 23. SUMMARY CANINE DEMODICOSIS CANINE SCABIES • Caused by Demodex canis • Not contagious • Not usually pruritic(except if severe secondary infection) • Can be difficult to cure and labour intensive • Licensed and unlicensed products available with cure rate c 90%+ • Caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis • Highly contagious • Severe pruritus which escalates • Most cases easy to cure • Effective licensed products available - seldom need to use unlicensed. Cure rate approaching 100%

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