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Current recommendations for internal parasite control in small ruminants


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Presentation for MVMA Mid-Atlantic States Bovine Conference, Hagerstown, MD: March 30- 31, 2017.

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Current recommendations for internal parasite control in small ruminants

  1. 1. Current recommendations for internal parasite control in small ruminants SUSAN SCHOENIAN (SHAY-NE-UN) Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension - -
  2. 2. Current recommendations for internal parasite control in small ruminants Topic outline  American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control  Background Problem and parasites  Anthelmintics and resistance  Targeted selective treatment (TST)  Combination treatments
  3. 3. American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC)  Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in 2003 in response to the critical state of the small ruminant industry associated with the emergence of anthelmintic-resistant worms.  As membership expanded, the name was changed to the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC).  A group of scientists, veterinarians, and extension specialists devoted to: 1) Developing novel methods for sustainable control of gastro-intestinal nematodes in small ruminants; and 2) Educating stakeholders in the small ruminant industry on the most up-to-date methods and recommendations for control of gastrointestinal nematodes.
  4. 4. Our web site: or  Timely Topics (new article monthly)  Member profiles and contact info  Articles  Journal articles and abstracts  Teaching materials  Videos and images  Conference proceedings 2013 - 10th anniversary conference 2015 - South African Conference 2018 - 15th year anniversary (?)  List of FAMACHA© instructors Do you want your name added?  List of upcoming workshops Are you conducting a workshop? Your one-stop information source for internal parasite control in small ruminants.
  5. 5. Gastro-intestinal parasites (GIP)  Gastro-intestinal parasites (GIP) are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats in warm, moist climates.  There are many reasons why sheep and goats are more vulnerable to parasitic infection than other farm animals.  Sheep and goats can be infected simultaneously with many different kinds of GIP, but two are usually of primary concern: barber pole worm and coccidia.
  6. 6. Risk of parasitic infection varies Environment  Geographic region  Climate  Season  Rainfall  Temperature  Humidity  Farm: production practices  Birthing period  Grazing practices  Method of growing/finishing lambs and kids. Animal  Species Goats generally more susceptible than sheep  Breed Some breeds less susceptible e.g. hair sheep, Kiko and Spanish goats  Age Young stock most vulnerable  Production status/level Periparturient female also more vulnerable
  7. 7. Challenges to controlling internal parasites in small ruminants Parasites  Short, direct life cycles  Strongyles have ability to go into hypobiotic (arrested) state and survive over the winter in the animal.  Barber pole worm is a very prolific egg layer.  Barber pole worm is one of the most pathogenic (deadly) parasites. Drugs  No new dewormers in over 20 years.  New dewormers are not sold in US. (Zolvix®, Startect®)  No combination products in US.  Few FDA-approved dewormers for goats; ELDU usually required to effectively treat goats.  The worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and dewormer groups.
  8. 8. Gastro-intestinal parasites of small ruminants Multi-cellular: Helminths 1. Nematodes Roundworms Strongyles 2. Cestodes Tapeworms Flatworms 3. Trematodes Flukes Single-cell: Protozoa 1. Coccidia 2. Giardia 3. Cryptospordia
  9. 9. Nematodes - Roundworms - Strongyles Primary 1. Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm 2. Trichostrongylus spp. Black scour worm (bankrupt worm) 3. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) Brown stomach worm Other  Cooperia small intestinal worm  Nematodirus threadneck worm  Oesaphagostomum nodule worm  Bunostomum Hookworm  Trichuris ovis Whipworm  Strongyloides Threadworms  Lungworms  Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Meningeal worm Deer worm, brain worm
  10. 10. Gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) roundworms, strongyles 1. Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm 2. Trichostrongylus Black scour worm 3. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) Brown stomach worm Eggs look the same; need to hatch larvae in order to differentiate species. Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia are often not differentiated even when doing larvae ID.
  11. 11. Clinical signs of infection Barber pole worm Haemonchus contortus  Anemia Blood and protein loss Low packed cell volume (PCV)  Sub-mandibular enema swelling under jaw “Bottle jaw”  Loss of weight and condition  Scours (diarrhea)  Weakness  Anorexia  Death (often)  Acute haemonchosis = sudden death Trichostrongylus spp. Teladorsagia  Hypersensitivity of gut Damage and inflammation of gut Diarrhea (scours)  Loss of weight and condition Slow growth  Lethargy  Death (sometimes)  Additive: usually part of mixed infections with H. contortus.
  12. 12. Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis)  Parasite of white tail deer (non-pathogenic)  Sheep, goats, and camelids are abnormal, aberrant hosts for parasite.  Parasite has indirect life cycle: snail or slug required as intermediate host.  Sheep/goats get infected when they consume snail, slug, or slime stream (on vegetation) containing L3 (larvae).  Larvae travel from intestinal tract to spinal cord to brain, causing nerve damage and inflammation.
  13. 13. Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis)  No definitive diagnostic in live animal  Diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs and history.  Parasite is difficult to locate in necropsy.  Symptoms: lameness, hind end weakness, gait abnormality, constant itching, paralysis (extreme) and death (rare).  Animals typically maintain appetite.  No proven or FDA-approved treatment.  Cornell University has been evaluating treatment protocols and potential for vaccine. Cornell University image
  14. 14. Treatment protocol for meningeal worm (ELDU, Rx) Cornell University (14 farms: 38 goats and sheep) Not pregnant Late Gestation Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) 25 mg/kg orally for five days (1 1/3 cc/10 lbs. [Meat WD: 28 d, goats; 80 d, sheep] Dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg IM for first 3 days (½ cc/10 lbs.) 0.1 mg/kg IM for next 2 days (¼ cc/10 lbs.) Banamine 1.1 mg/kg orally for 5 days (1 cc/100 lbs.) Treatment A Treatment B Ivermectin 1% injectable 0.5 mg /kg SQ for 5 days (¼/10 lbs.) [Meat WD: 96 d, sheep and goat] Ivermectin placebo ¼ cc/10 lbs. SQ for 5 days It is not known if ivermectin improves outcome; however, it increases meat withdrawal to 96 d. Theoretically, ivermectin cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier.
  15. 15. Tapeworms (Moniezia expansa)  Diagnosed by seeing segments in feces or passage of worm.  Only worm that is visible in feces or outside of animal.  Parasite has indirect life cycle; pasture (grass) mite serves as intermediate host.  Tend to be non-pathogenic; immunity develops at an early age.  Almost all research (sheep) shows no benefit to treating for tapeworms.
  16. 16. Tapeworms (Moniezia expansa)  Heavy infestations 1. Mild unthriftiness and GI disturbances 2. Intestinal blockages (rare) 3. Alter intestinal function/affect gut motility, predisposition to enterotoxemia (occasional.  Treatment  SafeGuard® (2x dose, Rx)  Valbazen® (Rx, goats)  Praziquantel [Rx] via Quest Plus®, Equimax®, or Zimecterin Gold®.  Sheep and goats can be intermediate hosts for tapeworms that infect dogs. Called sheep measles (cysts in meat).
  17. 17. Coccidia Eimeria spp.  Not all Eimeria spp. are pathogenic  Eimeria spp. are host-specific  Coccidia has a more complex life cycle than roundworms.
  18. 18. Coccidiosis  Most commonly seen in lambs and kids just before weaning.  Most common in intensively-managed operations, but outbreaks can occur in pasture-rearing environments.  Most commonly associated with poor hygiene, wet conditions, overcrowding, and stress.  Sheep develop strong and lifelong immunity; coccidiosis is rare in adult sheep.  Goats don’t develop as strong immunity; coccidiosis can occur in goats of any age.  Adults harbor small numbers of coccidia and are source of infection for their offspring.
  19. 19. Signs of coccidia infection  Diarrhea (scours) – not always Brown, liquid, foul-smelling Sometimes containing blood or mucous  Dirty hocks, tail  Hollow flanks, hunched up appearance  Open fleece  Depressed  Dehydration  Anemia  Death (some cases)  Fecal oocyst counts not overly reliable as a diagnostic tool. Animals that recover may experience more subtle and long-lasting effects.
  20. 20. Coccidiosis Prevention  Good hygiene and management  Coccidiostats in feed or mineral 1. Lasalocid Bovatec® (sheep, Rx goats) 2. Monensin  Rumensin® (goats, Rx sheep) 3. Decoquinate (non antibiotic) Deccox® (sheep, goats)  Coccidiostats in water 1. Amprolium (Rx, OTC)* Corid® 2. Sulfa drugs (Rx)* Di-Methox®  Natural control  Sericea lespedeza  Oregano oil Treatment  Amprolium (OTC, Rx) Corid®  Sulfa drugs* (Rx) Di-Methox® *As part of the new Veterinary Feed Directive (2017), water-soluble drugs (e.g. sulfa antibiotics; Di- Methox®) transitioned from OTC to Rx.
  21. 21. Sericea lespedeza for natural control of internal parasites 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Experiment 1 Experiment 2A Experiment 2B Percent reduction in egg and oocyst counts (after 7 days) compared to control diet EPG OPG Differences were maintained or increased throughout trial. In Exp. 2, fecal consistency scores were lower in goats fed SL pellets for 4 weeks . Fort Valley State University: recently weaned bucks were fed SL pellets for 28 days (confinement) 2A: pellets from leaf meal stored 3 years; 2B: pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months.
  22. 22. Sericea lespedeza for natural control of internal parasites (lambs) Experiment 1  Weaned lambs (n=76) Naturally infected Control or SL diet With or w/o amprolium  Fecal oocyst counts were similar between dietary groups.  Fecal oocyst counts declined more rapidly after weaning in amprolium-fed lambs.  Control lambs had higher fecal scores (more soiling). Experiment 3  Lambs (n=24) Control or SL diet Innoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts.  Fecal egg and oocyst counts were reduced in SL-fed lambs. Experiment 2  Twin-bearing ewes Nursing lambs (n=62 Creep fed Control or SL diet 30 d before weaning Weaned to semi-confinement  Fecal oocyst counts were similar between dietary groups, but declined in SL-fed lambs by weaning.  Dag and fecal scores were lower by weaning for SL-fed lambs.  No SL-fed lambs required treatment compared to 33% of control lambs.
  23. 23. Anthelmintics 101 There are only 3 families of drugs. BENZIMIDAZOLES (BZ) “white dewormers” 1. Fenbendazole Safeguard® Panacur® 2. Albendazole Valbazen® 3. Oxyfendazole Synanthic® MACROCYLIC LACTONES (ML) 1. Avermectins a) Ivermectin Ivomec® Primectin® Privermectin® b) Eprinomectin Eprinex® c) Doramectin Dectomax® 2. Milbimycins a) Moxidectin Cydectin® Quest® NICOTINIC AGONISTS “cell depolarizers” 1. Imidazothiaoles a) Levamisole Prohibit® Leva-Med® 2. Tetrahydropyrimidines a) Morantel Rumatel® Positive Goat Pellet Goat dewormer b) Pyrantel Strongid® 1 32
  24. 24. (1) Benzimidazoles (2) Macrocylic lactones (3) NicotinicsAvermectins Milbimycins Adult worms     Immature worms (L4)     - Hypobiotic larvae     ? Lung worms     + Tapeworms  Liver flukes adult Coccidia External parasites   Persistent activity  Safety Do not use in first 45 days of pregnancy ++++ ++++ ++ Resistance (in general) ++++ +++ ++ + FDA-approved Valbazen® Ivomec® Cydectin® Levamisole® Labeled dosage 3 ml/100 lbs. 3 ml/26 lbs. 1 ml/11 lbs. 2 ml/50 lbs.* Meat withdrawal 7 days 11 days 7 days 3 days FDA-approved anthelmintics for sheep *Concentrated drench: 52 g packet mixed in 17.5 oz. of water
  25. 25. (1) Benzimidazoles (3) Nicotinics SafeGuard® Valbazen® Rumatel® Adult worms    Immature worms (L4)   Hypobiotic larvae   Lung worms   Tapeworms not labeled Liver flukes adult Coccidia External parasites Safety ++++ Do not use first 45 days of pregnancy +++ Resistance ++++ n/a ? Labeled dosage per 100 lbs. 2.3 ml 4 ml 44 g or 0.1 lb. Meat withdrawal 6 days 7 days 30 days Milk withdrawal NA NA 0 days FDA-approved anthelmintics for goats
  26. 26. (1) Benzimidazoles (2) Macrocylic lactones (3) Nicotinics SafeGuard® Valbazen® Ivomec® Cydectin® Prohibit® Adult worms      Immature worms (L4)      - Hypobiotic larvae      ? Lung worms      + Tape worms   Adult liver flukes  Coccidia External parasites   Persistent activity ? Safety ++++ Restricted use during early pregnancy ++++ ++++ ++ Resistance ++++ ++++ +++ ++ + Dosage per 25 lbs. 1.1 ml 2 ml 6 ml 4.5 ml 2.7 ml* Meat withdrawal 16 days 9 days 14 days 17 days 4 days Milk withdrawal 4 days 7 days 9 days 8 days 3 days Extra-label anthelmintics for goats (Rx, ELDU) Source: ACSRPC ( *52 g packet mixed in 1 quart (943 ml) of water
  27. 27. Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance  Worms have developed varying degrees of resistance to all dewormers and dewormer groups; there is cross resistance to dewormers in same group.  Resistance varies by geographic location and individual farm and is affected by prior dewormer use.  Resistant worms pass their resistant genes onto the next generation or worms.  Resistance differs in levamisole (homozygous recessive=resistance)  Resistance is/was inevitable; no treatment will kill 100% of worms.  Resistance is defined as failure to reduce fecal egg counts by 95% or more (WAAVP).
  28. 28. Studies done more than 5 years ago
  29. 29. Two ways to test for anthelmintic resistance Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT)  Compare before and after fecal egg counts or after treatment egg counts.  Need to test each drug separately with individual or pooled samples from 10-15 animals (same animals each time)  Cost of testing is variable. $5-$20 per sample Use pooled samples to reduce cost  Producer can learn to do their own fecals. DrenchRite® Test Larval development assay  Determine dewormer resistance for all dewormers simultaneously from a single pooled fecal sample.  Larvae ID is part of test.  Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab at University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine is only place that does test in North America. []  $450 per sample
  30. 30. FECRT: Old Guidelines (WAAVP)  Utilize animals that have not been dewormed for prior 8- 12 weeks.  Allocate animals to either a treatment or control (nontreated) group. You’ll need a treatment group for each dewormer you want to test.  15 animals per group is recommended. The fewer animals you have the less confidence you will have in the results (from a statistical standpoint).  Average FEC of group should be at least 250 epg.  Lambs and kids are preferred age group to test because they tend to have higher FECs.  Compare FEC means of treated group to control group 10-14 days after treatment.  >95% is indicative of drug susceptibility.
  31. 31. FECRT: New Guidelines (WAAVP)  Compare pre- and post-treatment fecal egg counts of treated animals; no control group is needed.  15 animals per group. You’ll need a different group for each drug you want to test.  No minimum FEC is required, but eggs counted pre- treatment across all animals should exceed 140, though anything above 100 eggs should yield good results.  Use same number of slides/chambers for post- treatment counting.  Three highest egg counts shouldn’t account for more than 50% of sum of all individual egg counts.  Modified McMaster may not be appropriate if egg counts are low.
  32. 32. FECRT: Pooled Fecal Samples  Few sheep and goat producers test for anthelmintic resistance.  The use of pooled composite fecal samples could reduce the cost of testing and encourage more producers to test for resistance.  Research shows that there is little difference in FECR results between individual and pooled composite fecal samples.
  33. 33. FECRT: Pooled fecal samples  Collect paired fecal samples via the rectum from a minimum of 15 animals.  The same animals must be sample pre- and post-treatment.  Mix samples thoroughly.  Weigh 1 g from each sample  Combine into one composite sample.  Follow new guidelines (WAAVP) for determining FECR.  Can also use multiple pooled composite samples to determine anthelmintic resistance.
  34. 34. Limitation of FECRT  FECRT requires significant time and effort (cost).  FECRT requires a lot of animals; most producers don’t have enough.  The fewer the animals tested, the higher the variability will be; the less confidence in the results.  The lower the pre-treatment FEC, the higher the variability will be; the less confidence in the results.  FECRT is only performed for a single dose (e.g. labeled sheep dose or 2x label for goats).  Observed efficacy is subject to high variability once it falls below 95%.  FECRT should only be used to indicate whether resistance is present (or not).
  35. 35. DrenchRite® Test Larval development assay (LDA)  Determines resistance status to all drug classes simultaneously from a single pooled fecal sample.  Eggs isolated from sample are placed in specially-made well assay plates, containing doubling concentrations of the drugs.  Critical well values which correlate to fecal egg count reductions are used to determine resistance.  Resistance is present if the percentage reduction in fecal egg count is less than 95%.  Depending upon level of resistance, actual efficacy may vary from 0 to 95%.
  36. 36. Determining anthelmintic resistance on sheep farms in the Southeastern US  Determine anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance on 30 commercial sheep farms (preferably 100+ ewes) in Maryland, Virginia, and Georgia.  Project funded by ASI’s Let’s Grow Program. 1. University of Maryland 2. Virginia State University 3. Fort Valley State University  Cost-share DrenchRite® test (larval development assay; $450) to determine anthelmintic resistance.  Tests conducted by University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine (Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab). In 2016
  37. 37. DrenchRite ® Test results
  38. 38. Percent farms (n=26) with anthelmintic resistance FECR <95% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Benzimidazoles Ivermectin Levamisole Moxidectin Maryland Virginia Georgia In 2016
  39. 39. Benzimidazoles (SafeGuard®) Albendazole (Valbazen®), Oxyfendazole (Synanthic®)
  40. 40. Ivermectin (Ivomec®) Avermectins: Doramectin (Dectomax®), Eprinomectin (Eprinex®)
  41. 41. Moxidectin (Cydectin®)
  42. 42. Levamisole® Prohibit®, Leva-Med®
  43. 43. Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance  We can’t prevent the development of resistant worms, but we can affect the rate by which the worms develop resistance.  On most farms, resistance is probably still at a level where there is still time to slow it down and enable the continued use of some anthelmintics.  Resistance was previously thought to be permanent, but there is evidence of reversion to susceptibility when combination treatments (multiple drug actives) are combined with resistance management strategies.
  44. 44.  Some level of “infection” is normal and acceptable.  The goal of an internal parasite control program is to maintain welfare and prevent clinical disease (production loss), while preserving long-term efficacy of drugs.  Anthelmintics are a valuable, but limited resource; regular deworming is no longer advocated. Control of internal parasites
  45. 45. Targeted Selective Treatment (TST)  Only treating those animals which require deworming or would benefit from treatment.  Never treating the whole group.  Increases refugia Slows drug resistance  Helps to identify resistant and susceptible animals for selection and culling. Refugia are worms (in animal and on pasture) that have not been exposed to drug, thus remain susceptible.
  46. 46. Targeted Selective Treatment (TST) Three on-farm decision making tools 1. FAMACHA© eye anemia system 2. Five Point Check© 3. Happy Factor™ Performance-based criteria
  47. 47. FAMACHA© system  FAMACHA© system was developed for small-scale sheep farmers in South Africa in response to growing anthelmintic resistance.  System validated for goats  System validated in US for sheep and goats  A system to assess anemia (primary symptom of barber pole worm infection) in sheep and goats and to determine the need for deworming individual animals.  Named for its originator: Dr. Francois “Faffa” Malan Faffa Malan Chart
  48. 48. Clinical Category Eye Lid Color Packed Cell Volume/PCV Treatment recommendation 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-Pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes FAMACHA© system
  49. 49.  Addresses limitations of FAMACHA©, which is only effective for blood feeding parasites, such as Haemonchus.  Extension of TST to determine need for deworming for additional internal parasites that affect sheep and goats.  Especially useful when deciding whether or not to deworm FAMACHA© score 3’s.  Involves 5 check points on the animal: eye, back, tail, jaw, and nose.  Developed for sheep  For goats, can replace nose checkpoint with coat condition. Five Point Check© 5.©
  50. 50. Check Point Observation Possibilities 1. EYE Anemia 1-5 (FAMACHA© card) Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes 2. BACK Body condition score 1-5 (BCS card) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Nodular worm Other worms and causes 3. TAIL Fecal soiling (1-5) Dag score card Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) Other worms and causes 4. JAW Soft swelling “Bottle jaw” 1-5 Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes 5. NOSE Discharge 1-5 Nasal botfly Lungworms Pneumonia Other causes 5. COAT Coat condition 1-3 Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Coccidia (Eimeria) External parasites Other causes
  51. 51. The Happy Factor™ “A happy sheep is a healthy sheep.”  Developed in Europe and New Zealand, where barber pole worm is not the primary parasite, but “scour” worms are.  Performance-based model; deworm when animals fail to meet performance targets.  Live weight gain  Milk production  Will be most practical with use of individual electronic ID and automatic weighing platforms.  More information/research needed. Not tested for barber pole worm: will it work?
  52. 52. Limitations of fecal egg counts as a diagnostic tool  Not a highly accurate test, especially at low numbers.  Parasites vary in their egg producing capacity.  Immature worms (L4s) suck blood, but do not lay eggs.  Inhibited larvae do not lay eggs.  There is a day-to-day variability in counts, even in stable worm populations.  Eggs are not always evenly distributed in manure.  Loose stools (diarrhea) may underestimate egg counts.  Some eggs look the same and cannot be differentiated at the egg stage (e.g. Haemonchus vs. Trichostrongylus)  Not all parasites (or strains) are pathogenic.  There are different procedures for doing fecal egg counts.  The possibility of human error.  Should not be used as SOLE indicator of when/if to deworm animal.
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Impact of using dewormers in combination on efficacy of treatment
  55. 55. Efficacy of combination treatment Efficacy FECR # eggs 1000 LEV 95% 950 50 MOX 95% 47.5 3.5 BZ 20% 0.7 2.8 998.2 99.8%
  56. 56. Using combination dewormers  No combination dewormers are available in the US.  So -- each dewormer must be purchased separately.  And -- each dewormer must be administered separately in a different syringe.  Each dewormer should be given at full dose in a close time span.  The withdrawal period for the dewormer with the longest withdrawal period should be followed (is Cydectin® for sheep and goats).  Use a Targeted Selective Treatment Approach: if you don’t maintain refugia, eventually all dewormers will be ineffective.
  57. 57. Dewormers should not be mixed.  They are not chemically compatible.  Water soluble vs. suspensions  Water soluble vs. lipophilic  You don’t know how much to mix (how many animals will require treatment)  The purpose of combination treatment is to increase the efficacy of a single treatment. Why do something that will jeopardize efficacy?  FDA regulates compounding of animal drugs. Only veterinarians are allowed to compound medications.
  58. 58. Recommended combination treatment for sheep and goats Valbazen® Cydectin® Prohibit®* Sheep 1.5 ml/50 lbs. [7 days] 4.5 ml/50 lbs. [7 days] 3.7 ml/50 lbs. [3 days] Goats 4 ml/50 lbs. [9 days meat] [7 days milk] 9 ml/50 lbs. [17 days meat] [8 days milk] 5.5 ml/50 lbs. [4 days meat] [3 days milk] *Dose of Prohibit® depends upon how product is mixed. Dose is given for dissolving 52 g packet in 943 ml (1 quart) of water.
  59. 59. Combination treatments The time is now!  The time for combination treatments is not after resistance has become a big problem.  The earlier, the better.  If you use combinations when the drugs are still highly effective … there will be a dramatic change in the evolution of drug resistance in the worm populations on your farm.  If efficacy of dewormers >80%, you may not notice any difference in clinical response.
  60. 60. Using copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) to increase dewormer efficacy Treatment (10-23 lambs per Tx group) Efficacy (%FECR) No treatment (control) Increase Valbazen® (3 ml/50 lbs.) 20% COWP (2 g, Ultracruz™) 58% COWP (2 g, Copasure®) 12% Valbazen® + COWP 99% Similar results would be expected if COWPs were combined with other dewormers (e.g. Prohibit®). USDA ARS (Booneville, AR) Study, Published 2016.
  61. 61. What are copper oxide wire particles?  Small needles composed of copper oxide (Cu20).  COWPs have been shown to reduce barber pole worm infections in sheep and goats; exact mechanism of control is unknown.  There are copper boluses (Copasure®, 12.5 and 25 g) available for cattle (for copper supplementation) that can be repackaged into smaller doses for sheep and goats.  Buy gel caps and weigh out 0.5-1 g of COWP needles (easy to do).  Administer with balling gun, pet pilling gun, or PVC pipe and dowel.  Several companies sell COWPs in 2 and 4 g dosages for goats (for copper supplementation) 1. UltraCruz™ 2. Copasure® (Animax)
  62. 62. Using COPWs for internal parasite control in small ruminants  COWPs should only be used as part of a targeted selective deworming program utilizing the FAMACHA© system, Five Point Check©, or Happy Factor™ (performance-based deworming protocol).  Know your copper status before giving any supplemental form of copper to livestock, especially sheep.  The 2 and 4 g boluses of COWP should probably not be used for deworming purposes, especially for sheep. Lesser dosages are effective and safer.
  63. 63. Field trial with COWP 2014 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test  Mid-way through the test (d-42) which was at the end of the “parasite challenge phase” of test, test bucks (n=77) were given a gel cap containing ~0.5 g of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs).  Nine bucks required deworming (based on FAMACHA© scores and 5 Point ©) were dewormed with a commercial dewormer (either levamisole or moxidectin).  Fifteen (15) bucks from the pasture group of the pen vs. pasture study served as controls: they did not receive any treatments. Pen group also did not receive any treatment.
  64. 64. Field trial with COWPs 2014 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test Treatment # goats July 17 Avg. FEC July 31 Avg. FEC Avg. FECR Dewormer Effective 8 8735 103 98.6 Ineffective 1 500 275 45.0 COWPs Effective 53 2768 388 81.7 Ineffective 8 723 2000 < 0 No treatment (Control) Pasture 15 2164 2371 < 0 Pen 12 1216 758 37.7
  65. 65. Field trial with COWPs 2014 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Testc 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Test - COWP Study - no COWP AVG FEC EPG COWP
  66. 66. Field trial with COWPs 2014 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test  Treatment with COWPs reduced FECs by 74.6 + .09% (53-86 % CI), compared to 92.9 + .09% (84-96% CI) for the commercial dewormer(s).  There was no reduction in fecal egg counts in the CON group.  COWPs were determined to be moderately effective at reducing FECs, but the effect was less than for the commercial dewormer and by d-28, FECs had increased to pre-treatment levels.
  67. 67. Thank you. Comments? Questions? SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension –