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SERICEA LESPEDEZASERICEA LESPEDEZA
Thomas H. TerrillThomas H. Terrill
and Niki C. Whitleyand Niki C. Whitley
Fort Valley State University, GeorgiaFort Valley State University, Georgia
CAN SERICEA LESPEDEZACAN SERICEA LESPEDEZA
BE USED AS….BE USED AS….
 As a soil builder?
 As a cost effective source of hay?
 As a feed resource for different classes and
species of livestock?
 As a nutraceutical?
 As part of a sustainable parasite management
program?
 As a potential source of revenue?
Sericea Lespedeza
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.- Cours) G. Don
 Native to eastern Asia and AustraliaNative to eastern Asia and Australia
Preliminary map of wherePreliminary map of where
Sericea Lespedeza may beSericea Lespedeza may be
adapted based on soil typesadapted based on soil types
Places where SericeaPlaces where Sericea
Lespedeza is foundLespedeza is found
NRCS
Donn Rodekohr and J. Mosjidis
OK AR
KS
TX
OH
OK
KS MO
IL IN
PA
Places where sericea lespedeza
is found world-wide
http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20m?kind=Lespedeza+cuneata&guide=North_American_Invasives
History of Sericea Lespedeza
in the USA
 Introduced to the
southeastern United States
(NC) in 1896 but there was
not much interest on the
plant
 In the 1920’s was considered
to have use for forage and
soil conservation
 Widely seeded in the
Southeast in 1930-1950 for
soil conservation
Pieters et al. 1950 Circular 863
Sericea Lespedeza CultivarsSericea Lespedeza Cultivars
Name Year Available Institutions
Two unnamed introduced
strains
<1939 USDA
Arlington 1939 SCS
Okinawa 1944 SCS
Serala 1962 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
Gasyn 1963 GA Ag. Expt. Stn.
Interstate 1969 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
Cericea 1972 NC Ag. Expt. Stn.
Appalow 1978 SCS & KY Ag. Expt. Stn.
Serala 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
Interstate 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
AU Lotan 1980 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
AU Donnelly 1987 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
AU Grazer™ 1997 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
Sericea Lespedeza in
USA today
 Older cultivars used for stabilizing soils from
surface-mined coal sites, roadbanks, and
other disturbed or eroding sites; improving
wildlife habitats
 ‘Common’ sericea lespedeza is growing on
thousands of acres in the mid-western states
 AU GrazerTM
is the primary cultivar planted as
grazing and hay crop
Agronomic Advantages of
Sericea Lespedeza
 Grows on a wide range of soil types, including
acidic, infertile sites
 Legume, needs no N fertilization
 Deep rooting, reduces need for P fertilization
 Drought tolerant once established
 Insect damage, disease problems minimal
 Tendency to shed lower leaves, leading to:
Improved soil fertility, soil structure
Reduced soil erosion
Sericea lespedeza - Forms
 Fresh forageFresh forage
 HayHay
 Leaf mealLeaf meal
 PelletsPellets
 SilageSilage
Production of Sericea
Lespedeza
 3-4 tons of hay per acre in Georgia (Hoveland
et al., 1990)
 Up to 5.5 tons/acre reported for Alabama in
the 70s-80s (ACES, ANR-1318)
 Up to 2 tons per acre of leaf meal from SL in
Alabama (2015, Sims Brothers)
 Seed yield of 200-400 lb/acre (AR Extension,
FSA3050)
Nutritional Value of
Sericea Lespedeza
 Older cultivars had thick, woody stems that
reduced nutritional value
 High-CT cultivars developed with finer stems
 High concentration of condensed tannins (CT)
reduced intake, digestibility
 Sun-drying of high-CT SL improved intake and
digestibility
 Low-CT cultivars developed with higher
digestibility
Nutritional Value of
Sericea Lespedeza
 Cattle graze common SL when it is young, graze the top 7-
8” of mature stands (younger leaves, pliable stems).
 CT content is just as high in young plants as in mature
stands
 Recommended to start grazing when plants are 8” tall
caused stand thinning with older types of SL
 Grazing-tolerant cultivar (AU GrazerTM
) released by Auburn
University in 1997
Nutritional Value of
Sericea Lespedeza
 High-CT sericea adequate nutrition as pasture and
hay crop for beef cows and calves, animal
performance similar to bermudagrass
 Not recommended to graze growing calves on high-
CT SL
 Cattle and sheep grazed on “AU Lotan” in South
Africa
 Hay, pelleted SL readily consumed by all classes of
livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, llamas, exotic
hoofstock)
Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza
for Small Ruminants
 Goats readily graze high-CT SL
 Sheep graze SL after an adjustment period
 Adequate nutrition for older animals (bucks, does,
rams, ewes)
 Good nutrition as short-term feed (no more than 8
weeks) for weaned lambs and kids
 Reduced gains in growing kids and lambs compared
to perennial grasses after 8-10 weeks
Calf Performance when Fed Free-
Choice Sericea Lespedeza or
Bermudagrass Hay
Trial:49 days, 16 weaned steers/treatment, Beef Unit, Shorter, AL, 2004
11
lbs/head/day, soyhullslbs/head/day, soyhulls
* No significant differences* No significant differences
Group 1Group 1
SLSL
Group 2Group 2
BGBG
Daily Gain, lbsDaily Gain, lbs 1.49*1.49* 1.381.38
Hay IntakeHay Intake11
9.29.2 13.613.6
SupplementSupplement
IntakeIntake11
66 66
Total IntakeTotal Intake11
15.215.2 19.619.6
Summary: Gained the same, but ate less
Cattle feeding trials in South Arica
 Unfertilized AU Lotan SL hay compared with
fertilized grass hay (*Eragrostis) for beef and dairy
cows
 Similar daily weight gain in 6-week trial with dry beef
cows fed hay only diets
 Milk volume, %butterfat, protein the same in 6-week
study with SL and Eragrostis hay as the roughage
source in balanced rations for dairy cows
 SL hay 60% cheaper than Eragrostis hay
*Teff and Lovegrass(es) are types of Eragrostis
Growth rate of growing goats
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weeks
weight(lbs)
Infected BG
Infected SL
Non-Infected BG
Non-Infected SL
Summary: Goats with or without parasites grew better when fed SL vs BG hay
Health Benefits for Livestock
 Anti-parasitic
 Lowers egg/ooycst
counts for worms and
coccidia
 Anti-bloat
 Reduces somatic cell
count in goat milk
 Over 1.5 mil, cannot sell
Ethno-medical Uses of Sericea Lespedeza
in China
 Ye men guan (pinyin)Ye men guan (pinyin)
 Whole plant boiled extract forWhole plant boiled extract for
 HeartHeart
 HemorrhageHemorrhage
 HerniaHernia
 InfantileInfantile
marasmusmarasmus (chronic
undernourishment)
 Skin ulcersSkin ulcers
 Snake biteSnake bite
 Tuberculosis ofTuberculosis of
the testiclesthe testicles
 AnemiaAnemia
 AscariasisAscariasis
 Dental cariesDental caries
 Dog biteDog bite
 DysenteryDysentery (severe
diarrhea with passage of mucus and
blood usually caused by infection)
 EnteritisEnteritis (inflammation
of intestines)
 EnuresisEnuresis (incontinence(incontinence
of urine)of urine)
Duke and Ayensu 1985
Other benefits
 In studies, SL has:
 Lowered ruminal methane
production
 Reduced urinary losses of N
as urea
 Had anti-bacterial (E. coli)
effects
 Killed houseflies in animal
feces
(Puchala et al., 2005; Min et al., 2008; Naumann et al., 2013)
Sericea Lespedeza ContainsSericea Lespedeza Contains
Condensed TanninsCondensed Tannins
 Tannins are polyphenolic
compounds
 Accumulate in cell vacuoles
of leaves and stems
 CT have very high
concentration of
“prodelphinidin-type”
tannins (PD type)
 Very reactive with protein
Polyphenols
CT
CT
Sericea lespedeza tannins
 Concentration
Leaves - 16.0 %
Stems - 3.3 %
Pellets – 13.2 %
 Structure
Leaves – 98 % PD, 42 mDP
Stems – 94 % PD, 18 mDP
Pellets – 97.4 % PD, 86 mDP
CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES
 Vary in concentration
Birdsfoot trefoil (1-5 %)
Big trefoil (5-10 %)
Sericea lespedeza (6-13 %)
Canary clover (15-20 %)
 Vary in composition
Birdsfoot trefoil CT (low PD:PC ratio, mDP)
Sericea lespedeza CT (high PD:PC ratio, mDP)
CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES
CT concentration, composition varies with:
Cultivar
Plant part (Leaves vs stems)
Plant maturity (leafy vs reproductive growth)
Processing method
• Sun-curing for hay
• Grinding and pelleting
• Ensiling
ANTI-PARASITIC EFFECTS OF
CONDENSED TANNINS
 Associated with their ability to form
complexes with both plant and parasite
proteins
 Mechanism of action explained by two
hypotheses:
Indirect effects
Direct effects
Grazing trials with SL
 57% reduction in GIN egg counts in does grazing SL
compared with tall fescue pasture
 Lower numbers of adult worms in “tracer” kids
grazing SL
Haemonchus contortus – Barberpole Worm (94%)
Teladorsagia circumcincta – Brown Stomach Worm (100%)
Trichostrongylus colubriformis –Bankrupt Worm (45%)
(Min et al., 2002; 2003)
 95.4% and 71.4% reduction in GIN egg counts in kids
grazing SL or SL + bermudagrass (BG) pasture
compared with BG pasture only (Mechineni et al., 2014)
Anti-parasitic effects of
grazed SL - Summary
GRAZING SERICEA LESPEDEZA WORKS FOR GIN MANAGEMENT
Different locations
USA (North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Arkansas)
South Africa (KwaZulu Natal)
Different animal species, breeds, ages
Pre-weaned, weanling lambs, weaned kids (3 to 12 months)
Spanish, Boer-cross
Different SL cultivars
AU Grazer
AU Lotan (S. Africa)
Other cultivars not YET tested
Grazing of Sericea Lespedeza
 Limited to late spring, summer, early autumn
months, areas where SL is adapted
 Ensiling SL, or sun-drying, processing into leaf
meal, pellets
– Gives farmers flexibility in use of SL on-farm
– Facilitates storage, transport to areas where SL is
not adapted
– Generates heat, reduces extractable CT, increases
CT bound to protein
Does sun-drying, grinding,
pelleting or ensiling of sericea
lespedeza affect it’s anti-
parasitic properties?
Effect of Feeding Sericea Lespedeza Hay on
Fecal Egg Count (FEC) of Goats
Pre-trial Trial
% Larval survival in fecal cultures
Pre trial Trial period
Summary: SL hay decreased the number of larvae in feces compared to BG
Effects of Feeding SL Hay on Adult Worm
Species in Goats
Summary: SL hay decreased worm loads for Barberpole, Brown Stomach and
Bankrupt/Black Scour worms, but was most effective on Barberpole worm
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1 2 3 4 5 6
weeks
EPG
Ground
Sericea
Pelleted
Sericea
Ground
Bermuda
Effects of Feeding SL pellets on goat FEC
Summary: Ground and pelleted sericea lespedeza reduced FEC
Effects of Feeding Ensiled SL
on goat FEC
Hay trials with sericea
lespedeza
 Goats
FVSU, USDA/ARS Booneville, AR
 Sheep
LSU, USDA/ARS
 Cattle
LSU
 Llamas
FVSU
Sericea lespedeza pellet experiments
 Gastrointestinal nematodes
Sheep (LSU, USDA/ARS)
Goats (FVSU, NCA&T, USDA/ARS)
Beef cattle (FVSU)
 Coccidia (Eimeria spp.)
Sheep (USDA/ARS, LSU)
Goats (FVSU)
Bottom Line
DRYING AND PROCESSING
SERICEA LESPEDEZA DOES NOT
REDUCE IT’S ANTI-PARASITIC
EFFECTIVENESS
Other Questions about
Anti-parasitic Properties of SL
 How much is needed to achieve anti-
parasitic effect?
 What parasites is it most effective
against?
 Does it always work?
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
WEEKS
EPG
0% SL
25% SL
50% SL
75% SL
Effects of Feeding SL Hay on goat FEC:
Dose Titration Study
Summary: Whole plant SL hay at 50% and 75% of the diet decreased FEC
Effect of feeding whole plant and leaf only SL
meal at 25% of the diet on goat FEC
Summary: Both whole plant and leaf meal SL hay at 25% of the diet decreased FEC
Gastrointestinal Nematodes
 Haemonchus contortus
(Barberpole worm)
 Trichostrongylus colubriformis
(Bankrupt worm)
 Teladorsagia circumcincta
(Brown Stomach worm)
77%
50%
36%
Species % reduction of adult females
relative to control
Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG
SL dramatically decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG
Both hay and SL decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
Anti-parasitic Effectiveness of
Sericea Lespedeza
 Consistently effective in all forms tested with
goats in Georgia
 Consistently effective with sheep in trials in
Louisiana
 Variable results with sheep and goats in
Arkansas and North Carolina
 Infection level with Haemonchus contortus?
 Over-heating of pellets?
 Possible regional differences in parasites?
Sericea Lespedeza Feeding
Recommendations for Parasite
Management
 Can be fed fresh (grazed, cut-and-carry), dried
(hay, leaf meal, pellets), or preserved (ensiled)
 50% or more of the diet
 Supplement energy or protein to meet
nutritional needs of specific classes of animals
Sericea Lespedeza Feeding
Recommendations for Parasite
Management
 For control of Coccidia or Barberpole worm,
begin feeding 2 weeks prior to periods of
stress, at least 6 weeks afterwards
 Susceptible animals
Kids and lambs at weaning
Does and ewes during kidding/lambing, in early
lactation (particularly with twins or triplets)
Sericea Lespedeza Feeding
Recommendations for Parasite
Management
 Currently, recommend feeding SL for no
longer than 8 weeks at a time with young kids
and lambs because of possible binding of
trace minerals in some locations/farms
 Not a problem with older animals
Sericea Lespedeza Feeding
Recommendations for Parasite
Management
 Remember that SL is not a silver bullet for parasite
control, should be used in conjunction with FAMACHA,
copper oxide wire particles for H. contortus when
needed, other integrated parasite management
techniques
 More information on sustainable parasite control
methods for small ruminants can be found at the
website for the American Consortium for Small Ruminant
Parasite Control – ACSRPC.org or wormx.info
Future Research with Sericea
Lespedeza for Parasite Control
 Grazing trials with sheep and goats
Pure stands
In combination with other forages
SL as deworming paddock
 Research with SL as dried or ensiled feed
Ingredient in complete feeds
Pasture supplement
Component of TMR for feedlot, confinement feeding
Beef and dairy cattle, dairy goats, llamas and alpacas,
pigs, poultry, zoo animals
Future Research with Sericea
Lespedeza for Parasite Control
 Establishment for organic or grass-fed small
ruminant production
 On-farm trials
Use of SL grazing, hay, pellet, or silage feeding for
as part of a parasite management program in
combination with FAMACHA, copper oxide wire
particles, other novel control technologies
Remaining Questions about
Sericea Lespedeza
 Is it a potential source of additional
revenue for commercial farmers?
SL leaf meal pellets currently being
marketed as an anthelmintic feed
Ensiled in small batches?
Feed resource for organic livestock
production?
Commercial sources for sericea
lespedeza seeds and pellets?
 Seeds and leaf meal pellets of ‘AU Grazer’ can
be purchased from a company in Alabama:
Sims Brothers Seed Company
Union Springs, AL
Phone: 334-738-2619
Email: simsbrothers.com
Sericea lespedeza management:
Establishment
 Plant on upland soil (well-drained)
 Fertilize and lime according to soil test
 Broadcast SL on a well-prepared, firm seedbed in the
spring after the danger of a killing frost has passed
 Use herbicide to control weeds during establishment
(Only Eptam approved for SL, Treflan works as well)
 Plant SL at ¼” depth (no deeper)
 Plant 20 lbs/acre if herbicide used
 Plant 30 lbs/acre if no herbicide used
Sericea lespedeza management:
Establishment
 Slow seedling growth initially
 Regular moisture essential after germination
 Do not graze during establishment year
 Can cut for hay in year 1 if sufficient growth
 Stands usually thicken up in year 2 after
establishment
Sericea lespedeza management:
Cutting for hay
 Cut for hay when 15 to 20” tall
 Leaves dry very rapidly
 Use hay conditioner if available to crush
stems
 Cut first day, bale the next after the dew
dries off
Sericea lespedeza
management: Grazing
 Grazing should be initiated in the spring when
plants are 6 – 8” tall
 Rotationally graze to maintain adequate root
carbohydrate reserves
 Older cultivars less grazing tolerant
 ‘AU Grazer’ is the only grazing-tolerant
cultivar released so far
Potential for increased use of
Sericea Lespedeza
Questions ???

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Sericea lespedeza

  • 1. SERICEA LESPEDEZASERICEA LESPEDEZA Thomas H. TerrillThomas H. Terrill and Niki C. Whitleyand Niki C. Whitley Fort Valley State University, GeorgiaFort Valley State University, Georgia
  • 2. CAN SERICEA LESPEDEZACAN SERICEA LESPEDEZA BE USED AS….BE USED AS….  As a soil builder?  As a cost effective source of hay?  As a feed resource for different classes and species of livestock?  As a nutraceutical?  As part of a sustainable parasite management program?  As a potential source of revenue?
  • 3. Sericea Lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.- Cours) G. Don  Native to eastern Asia and AustraliaNative to eastern Asia and Australia
  • 4. Preliminary map of wherePreliminary map of where Sericea Lespedeza may beSericea Lespedeza may be adapted based on soil typesadapted based on soil types Places where SericeaPlaces where Sericea Lespedeza is foundLespedeza is found NRCS Donn Rodekohr and J. Mosjidis OK AR KS TX OH OK KS MO IL IN PA
  • 5. Places where sericea lespedeza is found world-wide http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20m?kind=Lespedeza+cuneata&guide=North_American_Invasives
  • 6. History of Sericea Lespedeza in the USA  Introduced to the southeastern United States (NC) in 1896 but there was not much interest on the plant  In the 1920’s was considered to have use for forage and soil conservation  Widely seeded in the Southeast in 1930-1950 for soil conservation Pieters et al. 1950 Circular 863
  • 7. Sericea Lespedeza CultivarsSericea Lespedeza Cultivars Name Year Available Institutions Two unnamed introduced strains <1939 USDA Arlington 1939 SCS Okinawa 1944 SCS Serala 1962 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Gasyn 1963 GA Ag. Expt. Stn. Interstate 1969 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Cericea 1972 NC Ag. Expt. Stn. Appalow 1978 SCS & KY Ag. Expt. Stn. Serala 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Interstate 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Lotan 1980 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Donnelly 1987 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Grazer™ 1997 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
  • 8. Sericea Lespedeza in USA today  Older cultivars used for stabilizing soils from surface-mined coal sites, roadbanks, and other disturbed or eroding sites; improving wildlife habitats  ‘Common’ sericea lespedeza is growing on thousands of acres in the mid-western states  AU GrazerTM is the primary cultivar planted as grazing and hay crop
  • 9. Agronomic Advantages of Sericea Lespedeza  Grows on a wide range of soil types, including acidic, infertile sites  Legume, needs no N fertilization  Deep rooting, reduces need for P fertilization  Drought tolerant once established  Insect damage, disease problems minimal  Tendency to shed lower leaves, leading to: Improved soil fertility, soil structure Reduced soil erosion
  • 10. Sericea lespedeza - Forms  Fresh forageFresh forage  HayHay  Leaf mealLeaf meal  PelletsPellets  SilageSilage
  • 11. Production of Sericea Lespedeza  3-4 tons of hay per acre in Georgia (Hoveland et al., 1990)  Up to 5.5 tons/acre reported for Alabama in the 70s-80s (ACES, ANR-1318)  Up to 2 tons per acre of leaf meal from SL in Alabama (2015, Sims Brothers)  Seed yield of 200-400 lb/acre (AR Extension, FSA3050)
  • 12. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  Older cultivars had thick, woody stems that reduced nutritional value  High-CT cultivars developed with finer stems  High concentration of condensed tannins (CT) reduced intake, digestibility  Sun-drying of high-CT SL improved intake and digestibility  Low-CT cultivars developed with higher digestibility
  • 13. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  Cattle graze common SL when it is young, graze the top 7- 8” of mature stands (younger leaves, pliable stems).  CT content is just as high in young plants as in mature stands  Recommended to start grazing when plants are 8” tall caused stand thinning with older types of SL  Grazing-tolerant cultivar (AU GrazerTM ) released by Auburn University in 1997
  • 14. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  High-CT sericea adequate nutrition as pasture and hay crop for beef cows and calves, animal performance similar to bermudagrass  Not recommended to graze growing calves on high- CT SL  Cattle and sheep grazed on “AU Lotan” in South Africa  Hay, pelleted SL readily consumed by all classes of livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, llamas, exotic hoofstock)
  • 15. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza for Small Ruminants  Goats readily graze high-CT SL  Sheep graze SL after an adjustment period  Adequate nutrition for older animals (bucks, does, rams, ewes)  Good nutrition as short-term feed (no more than 8 weeks) for weaned lambs and kids  Reduced gains in growing kids and lambs compared to perennial grasses after 8-10 weeks
  • 16. Calf Performance when Fed Free- Choice Sericea Lespedeza or Bermudagrass Hay Trial:49 days, 16 weaned steers/treatment, Beef Unit, Shorter, AL, 2004 11 lbs/head/day, soyhullslbs/head/day, soyhulls * No significant differences* No significant differences Group 1Group 1 SLSL Group 2Group 2 BGBG Daily Gain, lbsDaily Gain, lbs 1.49*1.49* 1.381.38 Hay IntakeHay Intake11 9.29.2 13.613.6 SupplementSupplement IntakeIntake11 66 66 Total IntakeTotal Intake11 15.215.2 19.619.6 Summary: Gained the same, but ate less
  • 17. Cattle feeding trials in South Arica  Unfertilized AU Lotan SL hay compared with fertilized grass hay (*Eragrostis) for beef and dairy cows  Similar daily weight gain in 6-week trial with dry beef cows fed hay only diets  Milk volume, %butterfat, protein the same in 6-week study with SL and Eragrostis hay as the roughage source in balanced rations for dairy cows  SL hay 60% cheaper than Eragrostis hay *Teff and Lovegrass(es) are types of Eragrostis
  • 18. Growth rate of growing goats 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weeks weight(lbs) Infected BG Infected SL Non-Infected BG Non-Infected SL Summary: Goats with or without parasites grew better when fed SL vs BG hay
  • 19. Health Benefits for Livestock  Anti-parasitic  Lowers egg/ooycst counts for worms and coccidia  Anti-bloat  Reduces somatic cell count in goat milk  Over 1.5 mil, cannot sell
  • 20. Ethno-medical Uses of Sericea Lespedeza in China  Ye men guan (pinyin)Ye men guan (pinyin)  Whole plant boiled extract forWhole plant boiled extract for  HeartHeart  HemorrhageHemorrhage  HerniaHernia  InfantileInfantile marasmusmarasmus (chronic undernourishment)  Skin ulcersSkin ulcers  Snake biteSnake bite  Tuberculosis ofTuberculosis of the testiclesthe testicles  AnemiaAnemia  AscariasisAscariasis  Dental cariesDental caries  Dog biteDog bite  DysenteryDysentery (severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and blood usually caused by infection)  EnteritisEnteritis (inflammation of intestines)  EnuresisEnuresis (incontinence(incontinence of urine)of urine) Duke and Ayensu 1985
  • 21. Other benefits  In studies, SL has:  Lowered ruminal methane production  Reduced urinary losses of N as urea  Had anti-bacterial (E. coli) effects  Killed houseflies in animal feces (Puchala et al., 2005; Min et al., 2008; Naumann et al., 2013)
  • 22. Sericea Lespedeza ContainsSericea Lespedeza Contains Condensed TanninsCondensed Tannins  Tannins are polyphenolic compounds  Accumulate in cell vacuoles of leaves and stems  CT have very high concentration of “prodelphinidin-type” tannins (PD type)  Very reactive with protein Polyphenols CT CT
  • 23. Sericea lespedeza tannins  Concentration Leaves - 16.0 % Stems - 3.3 % Pellets – 13.2 %  Structure Leaves – 98 % PD, 42 mDP Stems – 94 % PD, 18 mDP Pellets – 97.4 % PD, 86 mDP
  • 24. CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES  Vary in concentration Birdsfoot trefoil (1-5 %) Big trefoil (5-10 %) Sericea lespedeza (6-13 %) Canary clover (15-20 %)  Vary in composition Birdsfoot trefoil CT (low PD:PC ratio, mDP) Sericea lespedeza CT (high PD:PC ratio, mDP)
  • 25. CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES CT concentration, composition varies with: Cultivar Plant part (Leaves vs stems) Plant maturity (leafy vs reproductive growth) Processing method • Sun-curing for hay • Grinding and pelleting • Ensiling
  • 26. ANTI-PARASITIC EFFECTS OF CONDENSED TANNINS  Associated with their ability to form complexes with both plant and parasite proteins  Mechanism of action explained by two hypotheses: Indirect effects Direct effects
  • 27. Grazing trials with SL  57% reduction in GIN egg counts in does grazing SL compared with tall fescue pasture  Lower numbers of adult worms in “tracer” kids grazing SL Haemonchus contortus – Barberpole Worm (94%) Teladorsagia circumcincta – Brown Stomach Worm (100%) Trichostrongylus colubriformis –Bankrupt Worm (45%) (Min et al., 2002; 2003)  95.4% and 71.4% reduction in GIN egg counts in kids grazing SL or SL + bermudagrass (BG) pasture compared with BG pasture only (Mechineni et al., 2014)
  • 28. Anti-parasitic effects of grazed SL - Summary GRAZING SERICEA LESPEDEZA WORKS FOR GIN MANAGEMENT Different locations USA (North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Arkansas) South Africa (KwaZulu Natal) Different animal species, breeds, ages Pre-weaned, weanling lambs, weaned kids (3 to 12 months) Spanish, Boer-cross Different SL cultivars AU Grazer AU Lotan (S. Africa) Other cultivars not YET tested
  • 29. Grazing of Sericea Lespedeza  Limited to late spring, summer, early autumn months, areas where SL is adapted  Ensiling SL, or sun-drying, processing into leaf meal, pellets – Gives farmers flexibility in use of SL on-farm – Facilitates storage, transport to areas where SL is not adapted – Generates heat, reduces extractable CT, increases CT bound to protein
  • 30. Does sun-drying, grinding, pelleting or ensiling of sericea lespedeza affect it’s anti- parasitic properties?
  • 31. Effect of Feeding Sericea Lespedeza Hay on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) of Goats Pre-trial Trial
  • 32. % Larval survival in fecal cultures Pre trial Trial period Summary: SL hay decreased the number of larvae in feces compared to BG
  • 33. Effects of Feeding SL Hay on Adult Worm Species in Goats Summary: SL hay decreased worm loads for Barberpole, Brown Stomach and Bankrupt/Black Scour worms, but was most effective on Barberpole worm
  • 34. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks EPG Ground Sericea Pelleted Sericea Ground Bermuda Effects of Feeding SL pellets on goat FEC Summary: Ground and pelleted sericea lespedeza reduced FEC
  • 35. Effects of Feeding Ensiled SL on goat FEC
  • 36. Hay trials with sericea lespedeza  Goats FVSU, USDA/ARS Booneville, AR  Sheep LSU, USDA/ARS  Cattle LSU  Llamas FVSU
  • 37. Sericea lespedeza pellet experiments  Gastrointestinal nematodes Sheep (LSU, USDA/ARS) Goats (FVSU, NCA&T, USDA/ARS) Beef cattle (FVSU)  Coccidia (Eimeria spp.) Sheep (USDA/ARS, LSU) Goats (FVSU)
  • 38. Bottom Line DRYING AND PROCESSING SERICEA LESPEDEZA DOES NOT REDUCE IT’S ANTI-PARASITIC EFFECTIVENESS
  • 39. Other Questions about Anti-parasitic Properties of SL  How much is needed to achieve anti- parasitic effect?  What parasites is it most effective against?  Does it always work?
  • 40. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 WEEKS EPG 0% SL 25% SL 50% SL 75% SL Effects of Feeding SL Hay on goat FEC: Dose Titration Study Summary: Whole plant SL hay at 50% and 75% of the diet decreased FEC
  • 41. Effect of feeding whole plant and leaf only SL meal at 25% of the diet on goat FEC Summary: Both whole plant and leaf meal SL hay at 25% of the diet decreased FEC
  • 42. Gastrointestinal Nematodes  Haemonchus contortus (Barberpole worm)  Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Bankrupt worm)  Teladorsagia circumcincta (Brown Stomach worm) 77% 50% 36% Species % reduction of adult females relative to control
  • 43.
  • 44. Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG SL dramatically decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
  • 45. Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG Both hay and SL decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
  • 46. Anti-parasitic Effectiveness of Sericea Lespedeza  Consistently effective in all forms tested with goats in Georgia  Consistently effective with sheep in trials in Louisiana  Variable results with sheep and goats in Arkansas and North Carolina  Infection level with Haemonchus contortus?  Over-heating of pellets?  Possible regional differences in parasites?
  • 47. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Can be fed fresh (grazed, cut-and-carry), dried (hay, leaf meal, pellets), or preserved (ensiled)  50% or more of the diet  Supplement energy or protein to meet nutritional needs of specific classes of animals
  • 48. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  For control of Coccidia or Barberpole worm, begin feeding 2 weeks prior to periods of stress, at least 6 weeks afterwards  Susceptible animals Kids and lambs at weaning Does and ewes during kidding/lambing, in early lactation (particularly with twins or triplets)
  • 49. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Currently, recommend feeding SL for no longer than 8 weeks at a time with young kids and lambs because of possible binding of trace minerals in some locations/farms  Not a problem with older animals
  • 50. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Remember that SL is not a silver bullet for parasite control, should be used in conjunction with FAMACHA, copper oxide wire particles for H. contortus when needed, other integrated parasite management techniques  More information on sustainable parasite control methods for small ruminants can be found at the website for the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control – ACSRPC.org or wormx.info
  • 51. Future Research with Sericea Lespedeza for Parasite Control  Grazing trials with sheep and goats Pure stands In combination with other forages SL as deworming paddock  Research with SL as dried or ensiled feed Ingredient in complete feeds Pasture supplement Component of TMR for feedlot, confinement feeding Beef and dairy cattle, dairy goats, llamas and alpacas, pigs, poultry, zoo animals
  • 52. Future Research with Sericea Lespedeza for Parasite Control  Establishment for organic or grass-fed small ruminant production  On-farm trials Use of SL grazing, hay, pellet, or silage feeding for as part of a parasite management program in combination with FAMACHA, copper oxide wire particles, other novel control technologies
  • 53. Remaining Questions about Sericea Lespedeza  Is it a potential source of additional revenue for commercial farmers? SL leaf meal pellets currently being marketed as an anthelmintic feed Ensiled in small batches? Feed resource for organic livestock production?
  • 54. Commercial sources for sericea lespedeza seeds and pellets?  Seeds and leaf meal pellets of ‘AU Grazer’ can be purchased from a company in Alabama: Sims Brothers Seed Company Union Springs, AL Phone: 334-738-2619 Email: simsbrothers.com
  • 55. Sericea lespedeza management: Establishment  Plant on upland soil (well-drained)  Fertilize and lime according to soil test  Broadcast SL on a well-prepared, firm seedbed in the spring after the danger of a killing frost has passed  Use herbicide to control weeds during establishment (Only Eptam approved for SL, Treflan works as well)  Plant SL at ¼” depth (no deeper)  Plant 20 lbs/acre if herbicide used  Plant 30 lbs/acre if no herbicide used
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Sericea lespedeza management: Establishment  Slow seedling growth initially  Regular moisture essential after germination  Do not graze during establishment year  Can cut for hay in year 1 if sufficient growth  Stands usually thicken up in year 2 after establishment
  • 59. Sericea lespedeza management: Cutting for hay  Cut for hay when 15 to 20” tall  Leaves dry very rapidly  Use hay conditioner if available to crush stems  Cut first day, bale the next after the dew dries off
  • 60. Sericea lespedeza management: Grazing  Grazing should be initiated in the spring when plants are 6 – 8” tall  Rotationally graze to maintain adequate root carbohydrate reserves  Older cultivars less grazing tolerant  ‘AU Grazer’ is the only grazing-tolerant cultivar released so far
  • 61. Potential for increased use of Sericea Lespedeza

Editor's Notes

  1. Lespedeza 3 years after planting at Vulcan rock quarry Notasulga, Only ground preparation was a bulldozer