Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Management tools for flock and herd improvement

3,008 views

Published on

Prepared for Missouri Sheep & Goat Conference, October 28, 2017.

Published in: Education
  • Grace a 46 year old mom of 3, was close to giving up... She had struggled for over a decade to lose weight... She'd tried everything... That is, until she found this "odd" morning hack and dropped 62lbs in less than 8 weeks! ♥♥♥ https://url.cn/5yLnA6L
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The "END OF GOUT" extensively goes over the nature-based solution that achieves just this. You'll be able to say goodbye to gout, and feel better than ever before, in just 7 days or less! ➤➤ https://t.cn/A6AZCtO2
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Gout issues? Try this all natural remedy today.. ➤➤ http://t.cn/A67DowPY
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Today, I want to share with you my own "unfair advantage" ... An honest crack at an insider's edge that's so effective it's nothing less than performance enhancing for your own bottom line profits! ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/A6hP86vM
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Profit Maximiser redefined the notion of exploiting bookie offers as a longer-term, rather than a one-off opportunity. Seasoned users report steady month-by-month profits and support each other through a famously busy, private facebook group. The winner of our best matched betting product oscar has matured into something very, very special. ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/A6hP86vM
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Management tools for flock and herd improvement

  1. 1. z Management tools for flock and herd improvement SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com www.sheep101.info www.wormx.info
  2. 2. z Presentation topics 1. Vaccinations 2. Weaning 3. Planning for breeding 4. Breeding ewe lambs and doe kids 5. Pregnancy determination 6. Life cycle feeding, including flushing
  3. 3. z Vaccinations Biological preparation that produces immunity in the body. Purpose is to reduce incidence of prevalence of diseases.
  4. 4. z Vaccine use on US sheep farms Vaccine Percent farms C & D 71.4 Tetanus 64.5 7 or 8-way clostridial 29.5 Vibrio (Campybacter) 15.2 Soremouth 11.0 Chlamydia (EAE) 8.1 Respiratory 4.8 Leptospirosis 4.2 Foot rot (Footvax) 3.5 Caseous lymphadenitis 3.4 Rabies 1.2 E. Coli scours 0.9 81.6% of sheep operations vaccinated at least one sheep or lamb in 2010. [NAHMS, 2011]
  5. 5. z Vaccine use on US goat farms Type Percent farms Meat 55.7 Dairy 53.3 Other 34.4 All operations 49.0 Vaccine Percent farms C & D 89.5 Tetanus 86.6 Other clostridial 15.1 Caseous lymphadenitis 8.3 Pasteurella 8.6 Leptospirosis 7.7 Soremouth 7.0 Vibrio or Chlamydia 4.3 Foot rot 4.1 Other 3.8 Rabies 3.6 Of those vaccinating
  6. 6. z Clostridial vaccinations Only universally recommended vaccination for sheep and goats. CDT  3-way vaccination for clostridium perfringins type C & D (enterotoxemias, D=“classic” overeating disease) and clostridium tetani (tetanus). 7 or 8-way  Vaccination for 7 or 8 clostridial diseases, including clostridium perfringins type C & D and tetanus.  Is the added protection necessary (?) Clostridial vaccinations may be less effective in goats. Clostridial organisms of various types are found in the soil, where they can survive for a long time. Most clostridial organisms can also occur quite naturally in the gut of healthy animals. When conditions are favorable for the uncontrolled growth of clostridial organisms they produce powerful toxins.
  7. 7. z Clostridial vaccinations  Vaccination of young animals does not provide adequate protective immunity until lambs/kids are at least 1-2 months of age.  For this reason, vaccination strategies target the pregnant dam so that maximum immunity is transferred to the neonate in the colostrum. Need to consume ~8-10% of body weight of colostrum.
  8. 8. z Vaccinating pregnant females  Vaccinate pregnant ewes and does 2-6 weeks prior to parturition.  Need to give two vaccinations, 3-6 weeks apart (depending upon product), to ewes and does that have not previously been vaccinated.  Then: need to ensure adequate colostrum intake by neonate.
  9. 9. z Vaccinating lambs and kids  Colostral immunity beings to wane after ~6 weeks.  Give first clostridial vaccination at ~6-10 weeks of age; repeat in 3-6 weeks (depending upon product).  Vaccinate purchased feeders and re-vaccinate pasture-reared lambs/kids, if you put them in a feed lot for finishing.
  10. 10. z What if dam was not vaccinated or lamb/kid did not get (enough) colostrum?  Lambs/kids under 4 weeks of age have poorly developed immune systems and do not respond well to vaccinations.  But, sometimes we have no choice and must vaccinate younger lambs/kids. In this case, two boosters should be given.  Can give tetanus anti-toxin at time of docking, castrating, and disbudding to confer immediate, short-term immunity.  Can give anti-toxins in event of disease outbreak.
  11. 11. z What about the boys? Rams, bucks, and mature wethers  Rams, bucks, and wethers should be boostered annually for clostridial diseases.  Vaccine should be given prior to risk period (e.g. breeding season, after suffering deep puncture wound).
  12. 12. z Other vaccinations for sheep and goats Need depends upon disease prevalence and risk.  Abortion 1. Chlamydia (EAE)1 2. Leptospirosis3 3. Vibrio (Campylobacter)1  Caseous lymphadenitis (CL)12  E. coli scours  Foot rot1 (Footvax® availability ?)  Respiratory Pasteurella12 - IBR-P-I33  Rabies (Vx)1  Soremouth (live)12  Autogenous (farm-specific) 1sheep 2goats 3cattle
  13. 13. z Administration of vaccines  Most vaccines are given subcutaneously (under the skin, SQ, sub-Q).  Axilla (arm pit)  Over ribs  High on neck  Use a sharp, ½ to ¾ inch, 16 or 18 gauge needle.  Switch needles every 15-20 animals; more often is better (disposable needles!).  Use same clean needle to draw vaccine from bottle.  Don’t vaccinate dirty, wet, or sick animals.  Withdrawal period is usually 21 days.
  14. 14. z Vaccine basics  Always follow labeled instructions  Store properly  Record use (e.g. lot number)  Most vaccines require boosters for full immune response.  Anti-toxins only provide immediate short-term relief.  There can be side effects to vaccination, including anaphylaxis and injection site abscesses.  Have epinephrine on hand in case of adverse reactions.  Vaccines are not 100% effective in preventing disease. Biggest cost to vaccines is labor to give them.
  15. 15. z Weaning Removal of milk diet, usually accompanied by separation of offspring from dam.
  16. 16. z Why wean?  Milk production peaks at 3-4 weeks, after which time it declines rapidly.  Weaning eases the lactational stress of high producing females and yearlings.  Weaning assists prolific females in raising their offspring.  Weaning allows females to return to breeding condition earlier (especially important for accelerated birthing)  Weaning allows the culling of females earlier in the season.
  17. 17. z Why wean?  More efficient to feed lambs and kids directly than to feed dams and offspring as a unit.  If good quality forage is in short supply, e.g. drought.  If farm lacks safe pastures or pastures are highly contaminated with worm larvae.  Because predator risk is high.  For artificially-reared lambs/kids, labor and cost of milk replacer are reasons for early weaning.
  18. 18. z Weaning ages  Can be stressful to both dam and offspring; thus, goal is to minimize stress.  Weaning age varies from as early as 3 weeks until as late as “natural” weaning at 5 to 7 months of age.  In 2011, average weaning age of lambs was 109 days (66.7 lbs.) [NAHMS, 2013].  Kids are probably weaned later on- average than lambs (?)  Artificially-reared lambs are kids are usually weaned earlier than dam-raised offspring (4-8 weeks).
  19. 19. z Weaning rules of thumb  Weight more important than age; the heavier the lamb or kid is the better it is able to cope with stresses of weaning.  Lambs/kids need to be eating solid food before being weaned.  Weaning grazing lambs before 45 days of age is not recommended.
  20. 20. z Weaning rules of thumb  Minimum of 30 lbs. for lambs; some recommend 45 lbs.  Minimum of 20 lbs. for standard sized goats.  Another rule of thumb is 3x the birth weight, assuming birth weight was near average.
  21. 21. z Early weaning  Usually less than 90 days  Most common when lambs/kids are born in the winter or early spring.  Most common with shed lambing/kidding and jugging.  Most common with creep feeding and dry lot feeding.  Artificially-reared lambs and kids are usually weaned early. Late weaning  Usually more than 90 days  Most common when lambs/kids are born in spring (April-May).  Most common with pasture lambing/kidding.  Late weaned lambs/kids are usually grazed with their dams and sold directly off of grass, put on better quality pasture after weaning, or transitioned to grain diets prior to marketing. Early vs. late weaning
  22. 22. z Advantages to different weaning ages EARLY  Ease lactational stress  Allow females to return to breeding condition earlier  Market culls earlier  More efficient to feed lambs  So you don’t have to castrate  Sell lambs/kids earlier in season  Lower predator risk  Lower parasite risk  Save pasture for ewes and does LATE  More natural  Less stressful  Less mastitis risk  More economical gains  Fewer pens/pastures needed
  23. 23. z Recommendations for early weaning: lambs and kids BEFORE  Begin feeding coccidiostat at least 21 days before weaning or put coccidiostat in water ahead of weaning.  Complete management tasks, such as docking, castrating, ear tagging, and vaccinations.  Assess for parasites and deworm any requiring treatment.  Ensure lambs are eating creep (1% of body weight). AT WEANING  Wean on a nice day.  Leave lambs/kids in familiar surroundings.  Keep lambs/kids on same diet.  Minimize stress  Weigh to calculate Adj. WWs.  Watch lambs/kids closely for signs of problems.
  24. 24. z Recommendations for early weaning: ewes and does BEFORE  Two weeks ahead of time, begin removing grain from diet.  Gradually, switch to feeding a low quality roughage (mature hay or straw).  Limit water intake for 2-3 days before weaning. AFTER  Move ewe/does to another location, ideally out of sign and sound of lambs and kids.  Consider withholding water for 24 hours.  Keep ewes/does on lower quality forage until their udders start to dry up.  Do not put on lush pasture after weaning.  Monitor udders; can remove some milk to ease pressure.
  25. 25. z Planning for breeding
  26. 26. z Planning for breeding: decisions When?  Winter Dec-Feb  Early spring Feb-March  Late spring April-May  Fall Sept-Nov Where?  Shed (barn)  Pasture How often?  Annually Once per year  3 times/2 years Every 8 months  STAR system 5 times/3 years Every 7.2 months  Twice per year  Continuous
  27. 27. z Factors to consider when determining when, where, and how often to lamb/kid?  Forage and feed availability  Weather - climate  Housing needs and availability  Labor needs and availability  Predator risk  Parasite risk  Seasonality of animals  Markets - Demand
  28. 28. z Preparing for breeding 1-2 months before breeding  Assemble females  Bag and mouth Cull unsound and unproductive females  Assess health Treat for external parasites, if necessary Deworm, if necessary Trim feet, if necessary Vaccinate, if necessary  Assess body condition Separate into groups based on body condition. Begin flushing thin females. Move to better quality pasture.
  29. 29. z Preparing for breeding 1-2 months before breeding  Allow new males at least 8 weeks to acclimate.  Isolate (sight and smell) from females for one month or more to take advantage of ram or buck effect.  Consider shearing, if in summer  Make sure housing is secure to prevent early breeding.
  30. 30. z Breeding Soundness Exam (BSE) 1. Physical exam a) Body condition 3.0 to 3.5 is ideal – begin supplemental feeding, if necessary b) Structural correctness feet, legs, hooves, mouth, teeth, eyes Trim hooves, if necessary c) Health - free from disease Deworm and treat for external parasites, if necessary 2. Inspection of reproductive organs scrotum, testicles, epididymis, penis, prepuce, sheath 3. Semen evaluation and evaluation of sperm (Vx) 4. Libido (sex drive) Serving capacity test Up to 10-15% of males have sub-par fertility.
  31. 31. z Breeding ratios How many rams or bucks do you need?  General recommendations 1. 1 mature male per 30-50 females 2. 1 ram lamb or buck kid per 15-25 females.  Other countries (New Zealand) use much higher ratios, e.g. 1.5% (multi-sire matings, males determined to be fit and sound).  More males are needed if breeding is synchronized: 1 male per 8-10 females.  Ideally, mate young females away from mature females.  Single-sire matings, if you need to know sire.
  32. 32. z Length of breeding exposure  Sheep: Two heat cycles is 35 days, so no more than 42 days  Goats: Two heat cycles is 42 days, so 45 days will cover two heat cycles.  Females that do not breed after two chances should be culled.  Males should not be kept with females when not breeding.
  33. 33. z Monitoring breeding activity  Use marking harness or raddle powder to monitor breeding activity of ram or buck.  Male will leave mark on female after he has serviced her.  Marks will provide breeding date and help to identify breeding problems  Male infertility (repeat marks)  Lack of libido in males (few or no marks)  Lack of estrus in females (no marks)  Females that do not settle (repeat marks)  Change colors during breeding season. Different colors for different sires. Start with lighter colors.  Apply raddle powder every 2-5 days. Recommended in single-sire matings.
  34. 34. z Breeding ewe lambs and doe kids Breeding ewe lambs and doe kids so that they have babies at a year of age instead of waiting to breed them as yearlings.
  35. 35. z Why breed ewe lambs and doe kids  Improve lifetime productivity  Quicker return on investment: increase profitability.  Shorter generation interval: accelerate genetic improvement  Ewe lambs or doe kids are big enough and have reached puberty.  You have the ability to keep them separate from the mature females until they are joined for the second time.  You’re willing to spend extra time with them.
  36. 36. z Why not to breed ewe lambs and doe kids  They’re not big enough.  They haven’t reached puberty.  You can’t keep them separate from your mature females.  Because yearlings have more problems at lambing and kidding, especially if they are over or under-fed.  Because they require extra labor.  Because you think early breeding will stunt their growth (for showing).
  37. 37. z Recommendations for breeding ewe lambs and doe kids  At least 7 months of age.  Size more important than age; should achieve 60- 75 percent of their mature size (weight).  Breed to male of same or smaller breed.  Mate separately from mature females.  Manage and feed separately until second joining.  Consider breeding later than mature females so you can give them extra attention.  Remember yearlings that are nursing offspring are more susceptible to parasites, especially if nutrition is not optimal.
  38. 38. z Pregnancy diagnosis Is she or isn’t she? How many?
  39. 39. z Why test for pregnancy status? Yes or No?  Sell open females: save on feed, medicine, and labor costs.  Helps you select females for early puberty by culling those that don’t settle. Fetal numbers  Separate into management groups based on fetal numbers.  Manage/feed ewes with singles and multiples differently.  Females carrying multiples need 25% more energy.  Females with multiples may benefit from extra care.  Females with singles need less feed and oversight.
  40. 40. z Dry females have significantly lower nutritional requirements than pregnant females 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Lactation Energy requirements, lb. TDN/day 132-lb. mature non-dairy doe (twins) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Lactation Energy requirements, lb. TDN/day 176-lb. mature ewe (twins)
  41. 41. z Options for pregnancy determination Yes or no? Is she or isn’t she? 1. Management Breeding marks - return to estrus Udder palpation: bagging 2. Blood, urine, or milk testing 1. Blood progesterone 2. Pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) (BioPRYN) - after 30 days 3. A-mode ultrasound (e.g. Preg-tone) 1. No image: beep or light indicates pregnancy (40-120 days) 2. What actually is being detected is fluid Thus, less accurate (e.g. full bladder). ~$300 and up < $7 per animal
  42. 42. z Females carrying multiples have higher nutritional requirements 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 Single Twins Triplets Energy requirements, lb. TDN/day 132-doe, late gestation 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 Single Twins Triplets Energy requirements, lb. TDN/d 176-lb. mature ewe, late gestation
  43. 43. z Consequences of over and under- feeding during gestation UNDER  Risk of pregnancy toxemia (inadequate intake of energy)  Low reserves of brown fat (protection against hypothermia)  Underweight lambs/kids  Poor quality and quantity of colostrum.  Reduced milk yield OVER  Risk of pregnancy toxemia (fat ewes are more vulnerable)  Increased dystocia (difficult birthing)  Oversized fetuses  Over-conditioned ewes/does  Increased risk of vaginal prolapse.  Increased (unnecessary) feed costs.
  44. 44. z Pregnancy determination Fetal numbers  B-mode ultrasound  Initially developed and used in human medicine.  Uses internal or external probe  Scanning equipment emits ultrasonic waves that reflect off dense tissue. Ultrasound console displays image from the reflective image.  Best at 35-90 days gestation.  Diameter of fetal head can be used to estimate the number of days pregnant. Trained technician interprets image.
  45. 45. z Life cycle feeding of ewes and does Nutritional requirements of ewes and does vary according to their stage (and level) of production. Early to mid gestation Dry period (maintenance) Lactation Late gestation Breeding (flushing)
  46. 46. z Energy requirements vary according to stage of production 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Lactation Energy requirements, lb. TDN/day 132-lb. mature non-dairy doe (twins) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Maintenance Breeding Early gestation Late gestation Lactation Energy requirements, lb. TDN/day 176-lb. mature ewe (twins)
  47. 47. z Monthly energy (TDN) requirements of ewes and does lambing/kidding in the spring (April) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe DryLactation Early gestation Late gestation Breeding Lambing Kidding Wean
  48. 48. z Monthly energy (TDN) requirements of ewes and does lambing/kidding in fall (September) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe Dry LactationEarly gestation Late gestationBreeding Lambing Kidding Wean
  49. 49. z Monthly energy (TDN) requirements of ewes and does lambing/kidding in winter (January) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe Dry periodLactation Early gestation Late gestationBreeding Lambing Kidding Wean
  50. 50. z Matching forage to nutrient requirements Spring lambing/kidding 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe DryLactation Early gestation Late gestation Breeding Lambing Kidding Wean
  51. 51. z Matching forage to nutrient requirements Fall lambing/kidding Dry LactationEarly gestation Late gestationBreeding Lambing Kidding 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe Wean
  52. 52. z Matching forage to nutrient requirements Winter lambing/kidding 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 January February March April May June July August September October November December 176-lb ewe 132-lb doe Dry periodLactation Early gestation Late gestationBreeding Lambing Kidding Wean
  53. 53. z Flushing  Providing extra nutrition to ewes and does prior to and during the early part of the breeding season.  Females respond to improved nutrition by gaining weight and/or body condition.  Purpose of flushing is to increase ovulation rate, so that ewes and does give birth to and raise more offspring.  Flushing may also improve embryo survival, which would also increase lambing and kidding percentages.
  54. 54. z Flushing  Flushing works best with females that are slightly under-conditioned (BCS <3, especially <2.5), e.g. those that have not recovered from previous lactation stress.  Females that are already in good body condition (BCS >3.5) generally do not respond to flushing.  It is more beneficial to flush early in the breeding season than late, when ovulation rates are already naturally high.  Prolific breeds are less responsive.
  55. 55. z How to flush  Provide supplemental feed in the form of grain or better quality forage. 1. Up to 1 lb. of concentrate feed per head per day. 2. Access to fresh or better pasture. 3. Feeding exceptional quality hay.  Common to start 2-3 weeks prior to breeding season and continue for 3-4 weeks into breeding season.  Flushing period can be lengthened or shortened, depending upon body condition of females.
  56. 56. z There are many different ways to raise sheep and goats. No management system is best. However, regardless of the system, sheep and goats usually respond well to good management ($$$).
  57. 57. z Thank you Questions? Comments? SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com www.sheep101.info www.wormx.info

×