Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Natural parasite control in small ruminants

Discussion on natural parasite control strategies

  • Login to see the comments

Natural parasite control in small ruminants

  1. 1. Natural Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats Dahlia O’Brien Extension Specialist – Small Ruminants Virginia State University March 10, 2016 (804) 524-6963
  2. 2. Today’s Topics • Anthelmintic resistance (AR) and it’s status in the U.S. • Natural parasite control strategies o Pasture and grazing management o Genetic Selection o Nutrition o Herbal dewormers (garlic, ginger, pumpkin seeds etc.) o Copper Oxide Wire Particle (COWP) o Condensed tannins (Sericea lespedeza) o Others • Take away points
  3. 3. Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) • Ability of worms in a population to survive drug treatment of the animal at the standard prescribed dosage • Internal parasites (worms) have developed resistance to all dewormers and all classes of dewormers • No chemical treatment kills 100% of worms • Two new classes of dewormers available in some countries (not U.S.) with resistance already reported
  4. 4. AR Status in U.S. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mid-Atlantic (33) South (46) 100% 98% 82% 76% 47% 24% 24% 54% Haemonchus contortus prevalent internal parasite on these farms Mid-Atlantic (2008 – 2009) and South (2008)
  5. 5. Pasture Management • Should be the primary tool that producers use • Very few worm larvae get higher than 2 inches from the ground on a plant • Preventing animals from grazing below this reduces the number of worm larvae ingested • Larvae migrate approximately 12 inches from a manure pile o Provide areas where animals can browse and eat away from manure/higher off of the ground • Reduce the stocking rate o Reducing the # of animals o Reducing the amount of time animals graze
  6. 6. Pasture Management • Internal parasites of sheep and goats are different from the parasites that affect other species such as cattle and horses o Cattle/horses “vacuum” sheep/goat pastures helping to clean the pasture for sheep and goats o Lead with more susceptible species/classes • Provide access to browse and bioactive forages (such as sericea lespedeza) • Provide diverse forages • Provide clean pastures for young and other susceptible stock
  7. 7. Pasture Management  Pasture rotation and rest is an important factor in limiting parasite infections  Moving sheep/goats every 4 – 5 days has been shown to be effective in avoiding worm infections  When is it safe to return animals to a pasture?  Depends on worm species, temperature, moisture, forage type and individual animal immune status  When the barber pole predominates, resting pastures for 60 days has shown good results  Due to increased stocking rates, management of intensive grazing may increase internal parasite problems in sheep
  8. 8. Genetic Selection  Animal selection is one of the best long-term strategies for managing internal parasites  There are several breeds of small ruminants that demonstrate resistance to parasites  Resistance – ability of host/animal to limit infection (assessed by fecal egg counts)  Sheep breeds include:  Gulf Coast Native  St. Croix  Barbados Blackbelly  Goat breeds include:  Spanish  Kiko  Myotonic
  9. 9. Genetic Selection • Resistance varies among individuals within breeds as well • The 70/30 or 80/20 rule o 20 - 30 percent of flock shed 70 – 80 percent of the parasite eggs in a flock/herd o Focusing deworming on susceptible animals will significantly reduce pasture contamination o More parasite resistant animals decrease the need for deworming o Culling parasite susceptible animals will increase flock resistance, reduce pasture contamination and decrease deworming frequency
  10. 10. Genetic Selection  In addition to resistance, there are some animals that are more tolerant of parasite loads than others  These animals are considered to be resilient  Resilience - ability of host/animal to withstand challenge and/or /infection (assessed by FAMACHA© and hematocrits  These resilient animals tend to always be wormy (high FEC) yet demonstrate few if any signs of parasitism (good FAMACHA scores etc.)
  11. 11. Nutritional Management  Good nutrition supports the immune system and makes animals more tolerant of internal parasites and possibly be more resistant  Protein – aids in rebuilding tissue damaged by worms  Minerals such as copper and zinc support a good immune system  Research has showed that ewes receiving higher levels of protein for 6 weeks prior to lambing have significantly lower fecal egg counts
  12. 12. Nutritional Management • Supplementing lambs has also been shown to increase gains and hematocrits • Legumes also provide more protein so access can help to protect your animals from internal parasites • “Zero-grazing” – small ruminants raised on a dry lot will have less parasite issues
  13. 13. Herbal Dewormers • Molly’s Herbals Worm Formula ( • Hoeggar’s Herbal Wormer (www.hoeggerfarmyard.c om) • Garlic • Papaya • Pumpkin • Ginger • Others such as wormwood and fennel Information available is anecdotal mostly and limited research has been conducted to provide further verification
  14. 14. • On-farm o Use of 1 tsp. (5 ml) garlic juice has been effective against worms in lambs ( Herbal Dewormers - Garlic
  15. 15. • Three controlled studies (Burke and colleagues, 2009) – all animals treated once o Experiment 1: 1.7 oz. of garlic juice (diluted Garlic Barrier; 1:1) o Experiment 2: 1.4 oz. of freshly squeezed garlic juice/2 – 3 bulbs of garlic o Experiment 3: papaya (80 g/2.8 oz. diluted to 110 ml with water) Herbal Dewormers – Garlic and Papaya
  16. 16. • Meat goat kids treated with 0.1 oz. /lb. body weight (Gooden, 2012) – treated every other day Herbal Dewormers – Papaya
  17. 17. • Meat goat kids fed pumpkin seeds top-dressed on feed (PUM; 0.08 oz./lb.) or not (CON) every day for 21 days (Matthews et al., 2016) • Two animals removed from PUM group due to high FEC and clinical symptoms Herbal Dewormers – Pumpkin Project funded by Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education grant: Project #LNE08-269 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 0 7 14 21 Fecaleggspergram Time (days)
  18. 18. • Meat goat kids treated with a pumpkin seed drench (PUM; 0.08 oz./lb.), ginger drench (GIR; 0.05 oz./lb.) or no treatment (CON) every other day over a 42-day period • At slaughter, CON group had more worms (1,857) compared to both the GIN (549) and PUM seed (869) drenched groups Herbal Dewormers – Pumpkin and Ginger NO animals in the PUM group displayed clinical symptoms/required deworming -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 Fecaleggspergram Time (days)
  19. 19. Commercial Herbal Dewormer • Using commercially available herbal wormers can be a promising and viable alternative to chemical control • Natural • No environmental hazards • No need for withdrawal periods Hoegger’s Herbal Wormer (Hoegger’s Goat Supply, Fayetteville, GA: containing wormwood, gentian, fennel, psyllium and quassia) Molly’s Herbal Worm Formula Kit (Fias Co Farms: containing wormwood, black walnut and other natural products)
  20. 20. • Hoegger’s Herbal Wormer (HHW) - meat goat kids drenched with manufacturer's recommended dose or not (CON) over a 35 day period • Natural infection (>50% H. contortus) • HHW did not reduce FEC in kids Commercial Herbal Dewormer 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 7 14 21 28 35 CON HHW
  21. 21. • Hoegger’s Herbal Wormer (HHW) - lactating meat does drenched with manufacturer's recommended dose or not (CON) over a 70 day period • Natural infection (>62% H. contortus) • FEC increased by 535% in the CON group and only by 182% in the HHW group by the end of the study Commercial Herbal Dewormer 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 14 28 42 56 70 FEC(epg) Time (days) CON HHW *1 *1 *2 *1 *3 Eight total dewormings (6/8 CON and 2/8 HHW)
  22. 22. • Molly’s Herbal Worm Formula Kit (Burke and colleagues, 2009) o Formula 1 – wormwood, garlic, fennel, black walnut, and sweet weed o Formula 2 – field pumpkin, mugwort, garlic, fennel, hyssop, thyme and sweet weed o Dose administered according to manufacturers recommendations Commercial Herbal Dewormer FAMACHA© scores were higher for the herbal treated goats No reduction in worm counts observed
  23. 23. • There is anecdotal evidence that herbal dewormers work • Lack of scientific support • Inconsistent data when support is available Herbal Dewormers **Active ingredients vary** **Common names do not always refer to the same plant** **Dose recommended not high enough to produce anthelmintic properties** Cautious – some herbs are toxic! Herbal products/dewormers should always be combined with other integrated parasite management techniques Know the status of drug resistance on your farm so that these techniques can also be used in conjunction with an effective chemical dewormer
  24. 24. • COWP are available commercially to alleviate copper deficiency in ruminant livestock o Copper is important for immune function • Sheep sensitive to copper – margin of safety between the required amount of coper (10 ppm) and the toxic level (25 ppm) is very narrow o Some sheep breeds are more sensitive than others o Goats are less susceptible and can tolerate up to 80 ppm o The form of copper used in COWP is poorly absorbed, reducing the risk of copper toxicity Copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWP)
  25. 25. • Multiple studies have been conducted showing that COWP (Copasure®) treatment is effective against Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) o Mode of action – indirectly by acting on adult worms in animals abomasum (true stomach) due to increased copper or directly by penetrating the cuticle of the worm • COWP can be included in an integrated gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control program, specifically to control Haemonchus contortus Copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWP)
  26. 26. • Use the smallest dose of COWP needed to achieve the desired effect • Young – uses 0.5 to 1 gram per head • Older/mature animals - 2 to 4 grams per head • Use lower doses in sheep and in smaller goat breeds • Depending on dose do not give more than 2 – 4 treatments in any one grazing season • At least 6 weeks should elapse between treatments Copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWP)
  27. 27. Condensed Tannins • Tannins are plant compounds that bind to proteins and other molecules • Sericea lespedeza (AU grazer™) is a high-tannin forage (4–15% DM) that has been scientifically proven to reduce parasite loads in sheep and goats • The mechanism of action is not yet known. o By tannins reacting directly with adult worms by attaching to their “skin”, causing them distress o Indirectly by improving protein nutrition of the goat and boosting the immune system
  28. 28. • Fresh (grazed), dried (hay, leaf meal, pellets), or preserved (ensiled) forms of SL tested so far have showed some level of anti-parasitic activity against worms, particularly H. contortus • Also effective against the protozoan parasites (Eimeria spp.) that cause coccidiosis Condensed Tannins
  29. 29. • Forage chicory – the FEC of lambs grazing chicory increased less than those grazing sudangrass in Ohio (McCutcheon et al., 2012) • Lambs grazing chicory had consistently less FEC and grew faster than lambs grazing grass/clover Condensed Tannins
  30. 30. Others – Diatomaceous Earth • Diatomaceous earth (Diatomite) is the skeletal remains of single- cell algae, and there are claims that it can serve as an effective alternative dewormer for animals • Diatomaceous earth has been used for many years for control of various pests • As a deworming control it is often mixed with the mineral supplement or in the feed • Anecdotal claims o Extends the time between dewormings o Kills worms in goats • Scientific data o diatomaceous earth does not kill worms in goats o One study did show that at a very high level (5% of the diet), it had a slight effect It is used as a food ingredient and in swimming pool filters
  31. 31. Others – Diatomaceous Earth • Anecdotal claims o Extends the time between dewormings o Kills worms in goats – 2% DE in feed kills internal parasites including tapeworms and roundworms • Scientific data o Shown to have insecticidal properties o The majority of controlled studies in sheep, goats and cattle show no significant impact on internal parasite infection
  32. 32. • Nematode trapping fungi (Duddingtonia flagrans), have been studied with varying results • D. flagrans is a nematode trapping fungus that survives passage through the digestive tract of livestock, germinate and spread on fresh feces producing specialized nematode trapping structures that restrict the development of parasite larvae • Not available in the U.S. at this time Others – Nematode trapping fungi Successfully applied under field conditions with cattle, sheep and goats
  33. 33. • Australia has developed a strain of D. flagrans that provides control at a dose of 30,000 spores/kg body weight o Previously doses of up to 1,000,000 spores/kg body weight has been used in kids and lambs • Expected that this will be available as a feed additive in Australia the near future Others – Nematode trapping fungi
  34. 34. • Haemonchus (barber pole worm) vaccine is commercially available in other countries for sheep (lambs only) • Might “never” be available in the US o It is very costly to make o Supply is limited (into the near future) even though demand is high o Not enough sheep in the US • Other types of vaccines are being investigated o Not sure if any are being developed for the market Others – Vaccine
  35. 35. Take away points  They should always be combined with other integrated parasite management techniques  Sericea lespedeza and copper oxide wire particles are two effective natural deworming products that can be incorporated into an integrated/sustainable control program for worm control in sheep and goats  There is strong evidence that anthelmintic resistance has reached critical levels throughout the entire Eastern United States  Sustainable integrated parasite management (SIPM) practices must become the new standard  Most scientific studies have found that natural products fail to reduce worm counts in sheep and goats  Herbal products alone should not be relied on for controlling/treating internal parasites It is important to know the status of drug resistance on your farm so that these techniques can also be used in conjunction with a more targeted and strategic manner of deworming following the principles of ‘Smart Drenching”
  36. 36. Thanks for you attention