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Blue tongue disease in sheep and goats


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Blue tongue disease in sheep and goats

  1. 1. WELCOME Blue Tongue in Sheep and Goats(Sore Muzzle, Pseudo Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Muzzle Disease) Nirmal Kumar
  2. 2. Blue Tongue• Bluetongue (BTV) is an insect borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, especially sheep.• The name refers to the blue discoloration of the tongue and mucous membranes, due to cyanosis, which is sometimes seen in cases of the disease.• BTV is classified as an OIE list A disease and is therefore notifiable. Nirmal Kumar
  3. 3. Epidemiology• Morbidity ~100% ; Mortality - 0 to 50%• BT was first reported in India in 1961 in the state of Maharashtra. Since then, the disease has been recorded in 11 states in India.• BT is endemic in many parts of India and its outbreak in Tamil Nadu during the monsoon season of 1997-98 caused the death of 300 000 sheep and goats. Nirmal Kumar
  4. 4. Animal Transmission• Biting midges – Genus Culicoides (Principal vector)• Ticks, sheep kids• In utero• Mechanical Nirmal Kumar
  5. 5. Clinical Signs: General• Incubation period: 5-20 days – Fever, depression, salivation – Facial swelling, dyspnea, panting, nasal discharge – Hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears – Pregnancy: Reabsorption, abortion, “dummy” lambs Nirmal Kumar
  6. 6. Clinical Signs: Specific• Oral erosions and ulcerations• Tongue – Swollen, protuding – Cyanotic = “blue-tongue”• Feet – Sore hooves, lameness – Coronitis Nirmal Kumar
  7. 7. Clinical Signs of Sheep: Face & Mouth• Salivation• Nasal discharge• Facial swelling Nirmal Kumar
  8. 8. Clinical Signs of Sheep: Feet• Coronitis • Lameness – Inflammation of – Painful hooves coronary band Nirmal Kumar
  9. 9. Treatment• No specific treatment• Supportive therapy – Protection from the elements – Fluids and electrolytes given – Antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection• Control of vectors by insecticide – Reduce transmission – Protect susceptible animals Nirmal Kumar
  10. 10. Prevention and Control• Quarantine and movement controls – Prevent spread of virus• Animals confined indoors (i.e., barn) – When vectors are active• Disinfection – Does not stop virus transmission – Cleaning the premises • Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) • 3% Sodium hydroxide (lye)• Insect control• Vaccination• Notification to authorities. Nirmal Kumar
  11. 11. Resources • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) – • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – • USDA-APHIS website – Nirmal Kumar
  12. 12. Acknowledgments • Dr.T. Bhuvaneswari • Dr.Manoj Kumar • Mr.Nirmal • Dr. Sandhya Shenoy • Dr.V.K.J. RAO • Course Coordinators DR. G. P. Reddy DR. B. Sontaki • Director, NAARM Nirmal Kumar