Eclampsia in dogs


Published on

Eclampsia in dogs, its common complication in cannines that has to be take utmost care

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Eclampsia in dogs

  2. 2. <ul><li>ECLEMPSIA in dogs is an acute life threatening condition caused by hypocalcaemia in lactating bitches </li></ul><ul><li>In most studies eclampsic dogs are severely hypocalcaemia with Ca levels <6.5 mg/dl in blood </li></ul><ul><li>This condition usually occurs with in 21 days after whelping occasionally during late pregnancy or at parturition </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>PREDISPOSING CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Toy and small breeds most commonly affected Large litter size </li></ul><ul><li>Highest incidence with the first litter </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition during pregnancy and lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly worsened by use of calcium supplements during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Seen most commonly two to three weeks after-birth, although can be seen as late as six weeks after whelping (giving birth) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>PATHOPHYSIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Ionized Ca is involved in release of acetylcholine during neuromuscular transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Ca is essential for muscle contraction & stabilizes nerve cell membrane by decreasing permeability to Na </li></ul><ul><li>During hypocalcaemia nervous system becomes more excitable due increases neuronal permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Then nerve fibres discharges spontaneously initiating impulses to skeletal muscles where they elicit tetanic contractions </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>CLINICAL SIGNS </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY SIGNS _ restlessness, panting, panting, whining, salivation, tremors and stiffness, unable to walk </li></ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS AGGREVATE TO_ clonic tonic muscle spasms, fever, tachycardia, miosis, seizures, and death </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical symptoms and history of whelping & pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Serum biochemistry –Ca < 7 mg/ dl </li></ul><ul><li>Quick response to treatment with calcium </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid related hypocalcaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic & acute renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo albuminemia </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal malabsorption </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate slow i/v infusion of 10% Ca borogluconate @ 1-1.5 ml /kg body wt. or 5-15 mg /kg body wt. careful cardiac monitoring is required for brodycardia and cardiac arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia may fallows hypocalcaemia and 10% dextrose has been recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Puppies should be removed from bitch and hand fed with canine milk replacers for 24h .If pups are about 4 weeks of age weaning is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Oral administration of CaCO3 @ 100 mg /kg body wt. per day in divided doses </li></ul><ul><li>Vit.D supplementation in diet which increases Ca absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Vit.D2 (eargocalciferol)- 4000-6000 U/kg daily </li></ul><ul><li>dihydrotachysterol – raises ca conc. quickly </li></ul><ul><li>0.03mg/kg/day for two days </li></ul><ul><li>0.002mg/kg/day for two days then </li></ul><ul><li>0.001mg/kg/day daily </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>PREVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to prevent eclampsia is to avoid calcium supplementation during pregnancy and to feed the pregnant bitch a well-balanced, good quality food. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation of the bitch with calcium may be helpful once the puppies are delivered and are beginning to nurse </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>