Socialization

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Socialization

  1. 1. Socialization
  2. 2. <ul><li>Is the process in which people learn attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for members of a particular culture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Socialization affects the overall cultural practices of a society and shapes images that we hold of ourselves </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Otherwise known as heredity versus environment </li></ul><ul><li>The more popular belief in shaping human development: </li></ul><ul><li>interaction of the variables </li></ul><ul><li>In other words heredity and environmental factors influence socialization process…. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Environment ( and isolation) <ul><li>Cases in point: </li></ul><ul><li>Nell ( Jodie Foster movie ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tarzan </li></ul><ul><li>- Isabelle </li></ul>
  6. 6. To understand Human Development Better let’s take a look at the following….
  7. 7. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Theorized that humans have two basic needs: </li></ul><ul><li>To bond ( life instinct);eros </li></ul><ul><li>- The aggressive drive ( death instinct ); thanatos </li></ul>
  8. 8. Freud’s Theory of Personality <ul><li>Id - demands immediate satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ego -represents a person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with demands of society </li></ul><ul><li>Superego- operates as our conscience,telling us why we cannot have everything we want. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theory in Brief <ul><li>Self influenced by parents and by inborn drives, such as drive for sexual gratification </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development <ul><li>The sensorimotor stage – level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The pre-operational stage- level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The concrete operational stage- the level of human development at which individuals first perceive causal connections in their surroundings </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The formal operational stage- the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theory in Brief <ul><li>Four stages of cognitive development; moral development linked to socialization </li></ul>
  15. 15. George Herbert Mead <ul><li>The self is mead’s central concept. It is that part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image </li></ul><ul><li>The self develops only with social experience </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Social experience is the exchange of symbols </li></ul><ul><li>To understand intention, you must imagine a situation from the other’s point of view </li></ul><ul><li>* all symbolic interaction takes the role of the other </li></ul>
  17. 17. Theory in Brief <ul><li>Self develops as children grasp the roles of others in their lives </li></ul>
  18. 18. Charles Horton Cooley <ul><li>The Looking-glass self : </li></ul><ul><li>-others represent a mirror (looking glass) in which we see ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>-what we think of ourselves depends on what we think others think of us </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theory in Brief <ul><li>Feelings toward ourselves developed through interaction with others </li></ul>
  20. 20. Erving Goffman’s Presentation of the Self <ul><li>Impression management- altering presentation of the self….dramaturgical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Face-work – another aspect of self connected to some kind of face saving behavior when we feel embarrassed or rejected </li></ul>
  21. 21. Theory in Brief <ul><li>Self develop through the impressions we convey to others and to groups </li></ul>

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