LEARNING OUTCOMES Recognise that much of our behavior is shaped through our contact with others Define the difference between gender and sex Understand how children are canalized to be boys or girls Define the difference between PRIMARY and SECONDARY socialization
THINGS RARELY JUSTHAPPEN! We learn how to be responsible members of our society and we also learn that we can’t do exactly what we want at all times – there are constraints on our behaviour. We gradually develop our own identity through a collection of important happenings, through a never-ending social process.
SOCIALIZATION The process of learning to be a participating member of society is known as socialisation ... and the process of social control regulates our behaviour and brings about conformity to the norms and laws of society.
SOCIALIZATION AS SOCIALPROCESS Case studies involving feral children have provided insight into the process of socialization. John Ssabunnya and Oxana Malaya grew up with very little contact with other people. Read your handout on John or Oxana and: Think of five aspects of your behaviour as a five-year old that John or Oxana would know nothing about. If either had joined your familiy aged five, what would have been the main barrier they would have faced in becoming one of us? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyqbnDjId7g
PRIMARYSOCIALIZATION This is the term used to describe the informal process through which you learn the norms, attitudes, values, and actions of your culture. It takes place in early childhood and the main shaping influence is usually the family and the home. The family is one of the most important agencies of socialisation.
PRIMARY SOCIALIZATION It is here that you eventually learn such basic things as: how to communicate with others, how not to eat with your fingers, how and when to use a potty, the difference between right and wrong, and how to share with others. Many of these skills are copied and learned by watching what parents do. Good behaviour is praised whereas unacceptable behaviour is frowned upon.
SEX AND GENDER Sociologists distinguish between sex and gender. The term sex refers to whether a person is considered male or female. It concerns biological differences between men and women, in relation to their bodies and role in reproduction. These physical characteristics are ascribed at birth and are usually fixed throughout life.
GENDER SOCIALIZATION It is in the family where you first develop your gender identity. This is where you learn what is seen as acceptable masculine and feminine behaviour. Canalisation results in girls and boys having different experiences in their early years. Although things are changing, there is still a pink/blue, female/male colour preference.
Male Female Masculine Feminine Born this way Socialised Nature Nurture
GENDER Gender describes the different social practices, expectations and ideas that are associated with masculinity and femininity. Families often socialize their sons and daughters differently and so children develop a gender identity – they come to see themselves as masculine or feminine.
BOYS AND GIRLS Many girls use pink as an expression of their femininity and few parents would choose to dress their baby boy in pink. Many parents and most toy shops make distinctions between boys’ toys and girls’ toys. We differentiate between girls and boys in the names we give them, the style and colour of clothes we dress them in, the way we speak to them etc.
GENDER ROLES Many sociolgists have concluded that the process of socialization is highly gendered. By this they mean that socialization prepares us for social roles related to our gender, such as breadwinner or housewife.
YOUTUBE CLIP – INTERVIEWS WITHKIDS ON GENDER ROLES
AIMS OF SOCIALIZATIONA To instill disciplines Eg. Dont walk in front of a moving carn To develop aspirations and ambitions Eg. I want to be a nun, rock star, great sociologist. To develop skills Eg. Reading, driving, etc.v To enable the acquisition of social roles Eg. male, female, helper, worker etc.
DELIBERATESOCIALIZATION Refers to the socialization process when there exists a deliberate and purposeful intent to convey values, attitudes, knowledge, skill, etc. (culture). Parents telling a child to always say "please."
UNCONSCIOUS SOCIALIZATION Socialization which occurs as a result of spontaneous interaction with no purposeful or deliberate attempt on the part of anyone involved to train, educate, etc. The child learning to use vulgarity in a frustrating traffic situation by observing parents.
EDUCATION – FORMALCURRICULUM School delivers knowledge and skills to prepare you for the big wide world through the formal curriculum. The formal curriculum is what students learn in their timetabled lessons, for example, maths and English.
EDUCATION – HIDDENCURRICULUM There is also another side to the socialisation process in schools through the hidden curriculum. Schools have rules e.g. particular dress code or uniform (which is different for boys and girls). You are expected to be on time and respect the authority of your teacher in the classroom. You are expected to conform to the rules and you encounter problems if you don’t.
FUNCTIONALIST VIEW Education and school plays a vital role in teaching the values and norms of society to each new generation.
MARXIST VIEW Marxists see education as socializing individuals into accepting the values of the powerful groups. For example, the stress placed on the importance of hard work in schools and colleges is seen as preparing for accepting hard work as normal when entering the workplace.
Sanction: agreed reward for positiveINFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL actions or penalty for negative actions. If you stick to the rules you are rewarded through positive sanctions such as praise, presents or just general approval. If you break the rules, negative sanctions are applied in the form of disapproval or punishment.
FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL The main agency of formal social control is the criminal justice system.This involves: the police who make sure we conform to the laws created by the legislature and investigate cases of law breaking the judiciary who deal with those who are accused of breaking the law the probation the prison service who look after people who have been found guilty of breaking the law.
MARXIST / FUNCTIONALIST Marxist: Education system seen as an agency of formal social control. Schools, colleges and universities all have formal rules and impose negative sanctions on anyone who breaks them. Functionalist: For society to run smoothly there must be some means of regulating people’s behaviour and attitudes.
MARXIST / FUNCTIONALIST The education system has a role in socializing, controlling and politically educating people in society. Functionalist perspectives see these roles as positive and of benefit to the society. Marxist perspectives see education as having a beneficial role for privileged groups in society and reinforcing existing inequalities.
KEY WORDS Formal curriculum: learnt in lessons Hidden curriculum: attitudes and behaviours Sanction: agreed reward for positive actions or penalty for negative actions. Legislature: the section of the government that is responsible for making laws. Judiciary: the section of the government that has the power to apply the law, that is, the court system including judges.