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PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION
TOPIC SLIDE NO.
INTRODUCTION 1
STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION 2
ORAL STAGE 3-4
ANAL STAGE 5
OEDIPAL STAGE 6
LATENCY STAGE 7
ADOLESCENCE STAGE 8-10
CONCLUSION 11
REFERENCE 12
INDEX
INTRODUCTION
➤ Socialization is a lifelong
process which starts at birth
and continues till death.
➤ At each distinct phase in life,
there are transitions to be
made or crises to be
overcome.
➤ It is the socialization process
that helps an individual
make these transitions and
adapt to the changing
environment.
STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION
1.1. Oral
Stage
2. Anal Stage
5.Adolescence
Stage
4. Latency
Stage
3. Oedipal
Stage
THE ORAL STAGE
➤ It is a stage which begins from
birth till child is of 1 year.
➤ It needs to be fed as it is helpless
and dependent on others for its
very survival.
➤ It also needs to be protected from
the cold, damp and other
discomforts.
➤ During this stage, the child cries
for everything as this is the only
way it can communicate its
needs.
➤ The aim of oral stage is to
establish oral dependency.
➤ During the first year of its life,
the child’s contact with the
outside world is through the
mouth and lips.
➤ Mother generally starts the
process of socialization as the
child is dependent on her for its
substance.
➤ The child is only concerned with
its oral needs.
➤ Freud called this stage as stage of
‘primary identification’.
➤ It means that the child merges its
identity with that of the mother.
➤ Crying and smiling are forms of
early social behaviour.
THE ANAL STAGE
➤ During this stage the child learns
that one cannot totally depend on
the mother for everything.
➤ The child realizes that there are
some things that it must do by
itself.
➤ The child undergoes toilet training,
acquires other skills.
➤ The child internalizes two separate
roles, one’s own and that of the
mother.
➤ It is taught to distinguish between
wrong and right actions through a
system of reward and
punishments.
THE OEDIPAL STAGE
➤ It is at this stage that the child
becomes a member of the family as a
whole.
➤ the child learns to identify itself with
the social role ascribed to it on basis
of its sex.
➤ According to Freud, the boy develops
the ‘Oedipus Complex’ and girl
develops ‘Electra Complex’.
➤ In this stage there is a lot of pressure
on the child to identify with the right
sex.
➤ Boys generally identify with the
father and girls their mother.
THE LATENCY STAGE
➤By the beginning of this stage,
the child has learnt to be
independent in the daily
routine at home.
➤He/she learns social norms.
➤This stage has been called
‘gang stage’ by some
sociologists.
➤There is greater participation in
group activities and group
loyalties are considered
important.
➤There is greater revolt against
adult authority and domination.
ADOLESCENCE STAGE
➤ This stage starts with the
onset of puberty & continues
through the teenage years.
➤ This is a stage of transition
from childhood to maturity
during which new patterns of
behaviour are learnt to meet
the increased demands of the
peer group & of adult society.
➤ The adolescent undergoes a
number of physiological
changes.
➤ Boys & girls try to break free
from parental control.
➤ The individual is more attracted
to members of the opposite sex
but there are parental
restrictions on sexual activity.
➤ Adolescents are generally
interested in various recreational
activities like T.V. , sports, dance,
music, being online networking
on facebook,etc.
➤ In modern societies adolescents
are encouraged to make their
own decisions regarding
education, occupation & their
marriage partners.
➤ They are also expected to accept
greater responsibilities.
➤ Adolescents thus learn new
roles, behaviour pattern &
internalise new social norms.
➤ Hence in modern society the
transition from the adolescent
stage to the adult stage is more
difficult than in the traditional
societies.
➤ Adolescents in traditional
societies face lesser stresses &
strains than their counterparts
in modern societies.
➤ The process of socialisation
form oral stage to adolescence
is known as primary
socialization.
I have learnt a lot from this project on process of Socialization.
To summarize the process of socialization has five stages. Each
stage is a developmental stage of an individual. The five
stages are- Oral, Anal, Oedipal, Latency & Adolescence
Stage. The process from Oral to Adolescence stage is called “
Primary Socialization’. All the stages are best explained by
Sir Freud who has explained the process of socialization under
his “ Psychosexual Development Theory”. All these stages
play a very significant role in development of child’s
personality.
REFERENCE
The reference for this project
has been taken from many
sources. It was pleasure
gaining knowledge from:
•Wikipedia
•Sociology Textbook
•Clausen, John A. (ed.)
(1968) Socialization and
Society.
•MLA Style: "socialization."
Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Process Of Socialization

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Process Of Socialization

  • 2. TOPIC SLIDE NO. INTRODUCTION 1 STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION 2 ORAL STAGE 3-4 ANAL STAGE 5 OEDIPAL STAGE 6 LATENCY STAGE 7 ADOLESCENCE STAGE 8-10 CONCLUSION 11 REFERENCE 12 INDEX
  • 3. INTRODUCTION ➤ Socialization is a lifelong process which starts at birth and continues till death. ➤ At each distinct phase in life, there are transitions to be made or crises to be overcome. ➤ It is the socialization process that helps an individual make these transitions and adapt to the changing environment.
  • 4. STAGES OF SOCIALIZATION 1.1. Oral Stage 2. Anal Stage 5.Adolescence Stage 4. Latency Stage 3. Oedipal Stage
  • 5. THE ORAL STAGE ➤ It is a stage which begins from birth till child is of 1 year. ➤ It needs to be fed as it is helpless and dependent on others for its very survival. ➤ It also needs to be protected from the cold, damp and other discomforts. ➤ During this stage, the child cries for everything as this is the only way it can communicate its needs. ➤ The aim of oral stage is to establish oral dependency.
  • 6. ➤ During the first year of its life, the child’s contact with the outside world is through the mouth and lips. ➤ Mother generally starts the process of socialization as the child is dependent on her for its substance. ➤ The child is only concerned with its oral needs. ➤ Freud called this stage as stage of ‘primary identification’. ➤ It means that the child merges its identity with that of the mother. ➤ Crying and smiling are forms of early social behaviour.
  • 7. THE ANAL STAGE ➤ During this stage the child learns that one cannot totally depend on the mother for everything. ➤ The child realizes that there are some things that it must do by itself. ➤ The child undergoes toilet training, acquires other skills. ➤ The child internalizes two separate roles, one’s own and that of the mother. ➤ It is taught to distinguish between wrong and right actions through a system of reward and punishments.
  • 8. THE OEDIPAL STAGE ➤ It is at this stage that the child becomes a member of the family as a whole. ➤ the child learns to identify itself with the social role ascribed to it on basis of its sex. ➤ According to Freud, the boy develops the ‘Oedipus Complex’ and girl develops ‘Electra Complex’. ➤ In this stage there is a lot of pressure on the child to identify with the right sex. ➤ Boys generally identify with the father and girls their mother.
  • 9. THE LATENCY STAGE ➤By the beginning of this stage, the child has learnt to be independent in the daily routine at home. ➤He/she learns social norms. ➤This stage has been called ‘gang stage’ by some sociologists. ➤There is greater participation in group activities and group loyalties are considered important. ➤There is greater revolt against adult authority and domination.
  • 10. ADOLESCENCE STAGE ➤ This stage starts with the onset of puberty & continues through the teenage years. ➤ This is a stage of transition from childhood to maturity during which new patterns of behaviour are learnt to meet the increased demands of the peer group & of adult society. ➤ The adolescent undergoes a number of physiological changes. ➤ Boys & girls try to break free from parental control.
  • 11. ➤ The individual is more attracted to members of the opposite sex but there are parental restrictions on sexual activity. ➤ Adolescents are generally interested in various recreational activities like T.V. , sports, dance, music, being online networking on facebook,etc. ➤ In modern societies adolescents are encouraged to make their own decisions regarding education, occupation & their marriage partners. ➤ They are also expected to accept greater responsibilities.
  • 12. ➤ Adolescents thus learn new roles, behaviour pattern & internalise new social norms. ➤ Hence in modern society the transition from the adolescent stage to the adult stage is more difficult than in the traditional societies. ➤ Adolescents in traditional societies face lesser stresses & strains than their counterparts in modern societies. ➤ The process of socialisation form oral stage to adolescence is known as primary socialization.
  • 13. I have learnt a lot from this project on process of Socialization. To summarize the process of socialization has five stages. Each stage is a developmental stage of an individual. The five stages are- Oral, Anal, Oedipal, Latency & Adolescence Stage. The process from Oral to Adolescence stage is called “ Primary Socialization’. All the stages are best explained by Sir Freud who has explained the process of socialization under his “ Psychosexual Development Theory”. All these stages play a very significant role in development of child’s personality.
  • 14. REFERENCE The reference for this project has been taken from many sources. It was pleasure gaining knowledge from: •Wikipedia •Sociology Textbook •Clausen, John A. (ed.) (1968) Socialization and Society. •MLA Style: "socialization." Encyclopaedia Britannica.