INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF GOVERNMENTImportance:-it is as important as the study of History-it makes us a better citizen...
THE 1987 CONSTITUTIONSTATE PRINCIPLES:Sec. 1        The announcement of what kind of government the Philippines is- a demo...
4. every religious minister is free to practice his calling    5. the state cannot punish a person for entering or profess...
This is the recognition of women as vital in nation building. The state takes it upon itself topromote equality between ge...
state in their favor and their rights over their ancestral domain.Sec. 23          The recognition of the importance of NG...
21.right to humane and adequate prison facilities22.no imprisonment for failure to pay debts or poll tax23.right against d...
Study of Government- Hist 103 E
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Study of Government- Hist 103 E

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF GOVERNMENTImportance:-it is as important as the study of History-it makes us a better citizen of our republic-makes us vote wisely during election and demand such elections to be clean and honest-makes us understand our laws and makes us obey them-it is our duty to study our governmentMeaning of a State:-To understand Government, one must know what a state is.-A state is a group of people, living in a definite territory, having a government of their own, andenjoying independence from other countries.Elements of the State: 1. people 2. territory 3. government 4. independence or sovereigntyOrigin of the state:-These are theories explaining how the state came about 1. Divine theory- the state is a divine creation and all authority came from God. The ruler is an agent of God on earth and must be obeyed by the people. 2. Social Contract theory- the state came about because people agreed among themselves to live under one organized society 3. Force theory- countries come and go because of force or domination by different rulers. A ruler may impose his will on the state by means of charisma, popularity or military strengthForms of Government: 1.monarchy- rule by one person ( king/queen) 2.Aristocracy- rule by a few 3.democracy- rule by many− modern mixed forms: 1.constitutional monarchy 2.dictatorship, authoritarian or totalitarian government 3.modern democracies ( presidential or parliamentary )
  2. 2. THE 1987 CONSTITUTIONSTATE PRINCIPLES:Sec. 1 The announcement of what kind of government the Philippines is- a democratic and arepublican state. The essence of republicanism rests in representation. Democracy on the other rests inthe principle of the rule of the majority This is also a declaration of who really holds the sovereign power ( from whom sovereigntyemanates), that is the Filipino people.Sec. 2 This bears the doctrine of incorporation where, the Philippines adopts to the generally acceptedprinciples of International law as part of the law of the land....This means we see treaties as equivalentto our laws, however, when such a treaty comes in contradiction with the constitution, the constitutionprevails.Sec. 3 This talks about supremacy of the Civilian Authority over the military. This is manifestedthrough the president, a civilian, who is considered the commander-in-chief of the AFP. Also itdeclares the duty of the AFP, that is to protect the people and the state.Sec. 4 This section declares the prime duty of the Government : to serve and protect the people.On theother, the people has a corresponding responsibility, that is, to render service, military or personal,when the state needs it ( such as in cases of invasion ). A citizen cannot refuse or escape thisresponsibility behind the cloak of involuntary servitude.Sec. 5 This highlights the importance of the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life libertyand property, and promotion of general welfare which are essential in the enjoyment of the “blessingsof democracy”. The enjoyment of such being dependent upon political stability and economicprosperity.Sec. 6 This is about the inviolability of church and state. Therefore: 1. the state shall have no official religion 2. the state cannot set up a church, whether or not supported with public funds;nor aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another 3. every person is free to profess belief or disbelief in any religion
  3. 3. 4. every religious minister is free to practice his calling 5. the state cannot punish a person for entering or professing religious beliefs and disbeliefsSTATE POLICIESSec. 7 This emphasizes pursuance of an independent foreign policy, one that is not subordinate or toodependent on another government. In the conduct of relations with other states, the Philippineswelcomes suggestions, minds alliance but of primary concern would be national interest, nationalsovereignty, territorial integrity and right to self-determination. We cannot be dictated upon by othercountries what policies to pursue.Sec. 8 This emphasizes our policy on absolute ban of nuclear weapons ( production, manufacturing,possession or storing). There is nothing that precludes us from using nuclear energy for industrial orpeaceful purpose.Sec. 9-10 These are the anti-poverty provisions focusing on the states responsibility to provide jobs, andpromotion of social justice.• know the meaning of social justice.Sec. 11 This pronounces how the state values human dignity and human rights.Sec. 12 This is contains the anti-abortion policy of the state... “ the state shall protect the life of themother and the unborn from conception”Sec. 13 This is the recognition of the role of youth in nation-building. In doing so, the state shallundertake to educate and inculcate patriotism and nationalism in the youth. This is the basis for the sanggunian ng kabataan, among other such youth empowerment relatedpolicies.Sec. 14
  4. 4. This is the recognition of women as vital in nation building. The state takes it upon itself topromote equality between genders ergo the pro-women laws.Sec. 15 This emphasizes the states recognition of the peoples right to health. Vital is the inculcation ofhealth habits among the citizens.Sec. 16 This carries the environmental prioritization of the state. This is the basis of our environmentallaws as a balanced ecology is recognized as matter of right of people.Sec. 17 This pronounces the states prioritization of education, science and technology, among others asmeans to liberate people from poverty.Sec. 18 This is the recognition of the importance of labor in nation-building, hence the pro-laborpolicies of the state that protects and promote the welfare of laborers.Sec 19. This is the Filipino first policy of the state.Sec. 20 This is the states recognition of the importance of private enterprise/sector therefore the stateencourages it.Sec. 20 This is the provision prioritizing agriculture, ergo DAR as the pertinent agency that will pursueagriculture policies of the state.Sec. 21Sec. 22 This is the states recognition of the Indigenous Cultural Communities, ergo the policies of the
  5. 5. state in their favor and their rights over their ancestral domain.Sec. 23 The recognition of the importance of NGOs among other such groups to advance welfare of thestate.Sec. 24 This is the recognition of the state of the importance of communication and information innation building, hence, the government does not monopolize media networks. Private media networksare recognized as watchdogs of the government.Sec. 25 This is the basis of the Local Government code of 1991 recognizing the autonomy of LGUs.Sec. 26 This is the provision against political dynasties. However, theres no enabling law on this one soit remains a principle that is not enforced.RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS-To protect the people from tyranny or abuses of government officials, the Constitution grants certainrights . These legal, civil, and political rights, also known as “human rights” are as follows:1.right to due process of law and equal protection of the laws2.right from arbitrary arrest and unreasonable searches and seizures3.privacy of communication and correspondence4.freedom of speech and freedom of the press5.right to peaceful assembly6.freedom of religion7.liberty of travel and of abode8.right to secure information from government records9.right to form associations10.right to own property11.inviolability of contracts12.right to a speedy and public trial13.right against self-incrimination and right to counsel14.freedom from torture, threat, or secret detention15.compensation for torture and rehabilitation of victims and their families16.right to bail17.presumption of innocence18.writ of habeas corpus19.freedom of innocence20.prohibition against the death penalty and excessive fine
  6. 6. 21.right to humane and adequate prison facilities22.no imprisonment for failure to pay debts or poll tax23.right against double jeopardy24.prohibition of ex post facto law and bill of attainder25.right to vote and to hold officeTHE FILIPINO CITIZENSCitizen – is a person who has full rights and obligations in a state.According to the 1987 constitution, the following are citizens of the Philippines: 1. those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the constitution 2. those whose fathers and mothers are citizens of the Philippines 3. Those born January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority ( i.e. Fil-am) 4. those who are naturalized in accordance with law ( eg. Norman Black )Kinds of citizens: 1. natural-born- one who at the time of birth is already a citizen ( numbers 1-3 above ) 2. naturalized- one who is originally a citizen of another country but has acquired a new citizenship in a different country ( number 4 above )Importance of citizenship:-its one of the greatest attributes of the people in the state-it shows that the person is a full member of a nation-to be worthy of citizenship, an individual must perform the duties attached to it, as well as enjoy theprivileges it brings.SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONSuffrage- is the right to vote in an election and also the right to be voted to public office; by the use ofsuffrage, people determine who will run their government. The right to vote and to run for public officeis what makes a democracy different from monarchy or an aristocracy.Voter Qualifications− A filipino citizen− at least 18 years of age− a resident in the Philippines for at least one year and in the municipality where he votes at least six months− a registered voter

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