is the process that teaches individuals to
become functioning human beings who must
fit into a number of groups and be productive
members of a society.
refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and
disseminating norms, customs and
ideologies, providing an individual with the
skills and habits necessary for participating
within his or her own society. Socialization is
thus „the means by which social and cultural
continuity are attained‟.
This debate within psychology is
concerned with the extent to which
particular aspects of behaviour are a
product of either inherited (i.e. genetic)
or acquired (i.e. learned)
is that which is inherited /
which refers to all
environmental influences after
In the form of our genetic makeup is a major
factor in shaping human behaviour.
Children often share biological traits with
their parents and that heredity plays a part
in intelligence, musical and artistic aptitude
and personality( such as how one reacts to
Depends also on the brain development in early
is the systematic study of how
biology affects social behaviour.
According to the sociobiologist, Nurture is
more on shaping human behavior.
emphasizes how much of an organism reflects
Nurture is our Nature.
In reality, it is most likely
an interaction of both genes
and environment, nature and
nurture, that affect the
development of a person.
Even in the womb, genes
interact with hormones in the
environment to signal the
start of a new developmental
phase. The hormonal
environment, likewise, does
not act independently of the
The Development of Self:
The Interactionist Perspectives
Socialization takes place in social
relationships where even young children
are active participants. We develop our
most basic ideas of who are we as
individuals through participating in social
(Calhoun et al., 1994)
According to sociologist Charles Horton
Cooley (1864-1929), the looking glass self
refers to the way in which a person’s sense of
self is derive from the perceptions of others.
Our looking glass self is not who we
actually are or what people actually think of
us; rather, it is based on our perception of
how other people think of us .
The looking glass self is a self-concept
derived from a three-step process:
1. We imagine how our personality and
appearance will look to other people.
2. We imagine how other people judge the
appearance and personality that we
think we present.
3. We develop a self-concept.
According to Cooley, our sense of self
is not fixed; it is always developing as
we interact with others in the larger
Building on Cooley‟s analysis, George
Herbert Mead (1863-1931) traced the
development of self-awareness to early
social interaction. Mead argued that
almost from the start, infants realize that
they are dependent to others to satisfy
their needs, and their own actions
influence how others behave toward
1. “Me” – part of self that reflects our
perceptions of what other people think of
us. It is the part that allows evaluation
and enables us to control our behaviour.
2. “I” – is the
independent, spontaneous, and
unpredictable side of the self.
1. Preparatory stage (during their initial 2
It is by simply imitating other people in their
2. Play stage (at age 3)
It is by taking the roles of significant others,
people who have close ties to the child and exert a
strong influence on the child. (e.g. Mother and
3. Game stage (as they grow older)
It is by playing the roles of the generalized
other, people who do not have close ties to a child
but who influence their child’s internalization of the
values of society. (e.g. Doctor, bus driver)
the first group to have a major impact
on humans (Henslin 2005)
the smallest unit in the society
lays down our basic sense of
self, forming motivation, values and
gives us ideas who we are and what
we deserve out of life
where we start to
think of our self as
strong or weak,
smart or dumb,
good looking or
primary agent of socialization in industrial societies, and
begin very early for some children.
Manifest Function: Transmit formal knowledge and
skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic.
a. Exposes children to new attitudes, values and ways
of looking at the world.
b. Children learn to be part of a large group of similar
c. Children learn universality – that the same rules and
sanctions apply to everyone regardless of their status.
d. Children gradually come to realize that the
behaviour recorded in permanent, official
records that will be important and lasting
Influential from late childhood through
adolescence and early adulthood.
Teens learn how to form relationships without
May encourage good and bad interests.
May guide short term choices.
Change behaviour and personality to be
accepted by peers.
-refers to people of approximately the same social
position and age as oneself. (Bryjack and Soroka, 1997)
are “impersonal communication” aimed at a
vast audience. Mass media arise as
communication technology (first the
newspapers and then
radio, television, films, and the Internet)
spreads information on a mass scale. The
mass media have an enormous effect on our
attitudes and behavior, and on shaping
people's opinions about issues as well as
what they buy. (Internet)
1. They inform us about events;
2. They introduce us to a wide variety of people;
3. They provide an array of view points on current
4. They make us aware of products and services, that
if we buy them, will supposedly help us to be
accepted by others.
5. They entertain us by providing the opportunity to
- performs its socialization process
through on boarding, through which
employees acquire skills to adjust to their
new role. (source: INTERNET)
Every workplace has its own
culture, with norms and mores. The
workplace acts as an agent of socialization
in inculcating these values upon
Like children, adults learn many new roles
as they go through various stages of life.
Anticipatory Socialization – is the process by
which people learn to assume a role in the
Ex. Many children learn to be parents in the
future by playing house.
Developmental Socialization – is the process by
which people learn to be competent in playing
their currently assumed role.
. Ex. The more complex the worker’s job, the
more likely the worker will experienced
self-direction in the workplace and end up
valuing autonomy in other aspects of life
Resocialization – the process by which
people are force to abandon their old self and
develop a new self in its place.
Resocialization can take place in
prisons, mental institutions, military training
centres and religious cults.
Desocialization – the process whereby
people are stripped of the values an self
conceptions they have acquired in the past.
Mortification – newcomers to a total
institution undergo a process of
desocialization, they are stripped of
clothes, adornments, and personal
possessions that help express their
The stage in the life course that extends
roughly from puberty to age 20
It is between the late teens and early 30’s is a
time of accomplishments.
A. EARLY ADULTHOOD
Until about age 40, young adults
learn to manage day-to-day affairs for
themselves, often juggling conflicting
parents, partner, children, schooling
B. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Roughly ages 40 to 60, people
sense that their life circumstances are
pretty well set.