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  1. 1.  is the process that teaches individuals to become functioning human beings who must fit into a number of groups and be productive members of a society. refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within his or her own society. Socialization is thus „the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained‟.
  2. 2. This debate within psychology is concerned with the extent to which particular aspects of behaviour are a product of either inherited (i.e. genetic) or acquired (i.e. learned) characteristics. is that which is inherited / genetic. which refers to all environmental influences after
  3. 3. In the form of our genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping human behaviour.  Children often share biological traits with their parents and that heredity plays a part in intelligence, musical and artistic aptitude and personality( such as how one reacts to frustration).  Depends also on the brain development in early life. is the systematic study of how biology affects social behaviour.
  4. 4.  According to the sociobiologist, Nurture is more on shaping human behavior.  emphasizes how much of an organism reflects environmental factors. Precisely, Nurture is our Nature.
  5. 5. In reality, it is most likely an interaction of both genes and environment, nature and nurture, that affect the development of a person. Even in the womb, genes interact with hormones in the environment to signal the start of a new developmental phase. The hormonal environment, likewise, does not act independently of the
  6. 6. The Development of Self: The Interactionist Perspectives Socialization takes place in social relationships where even young children are active participants. We develop our most basic ideas of who are we as individuals through participating in social relationships. (Calhoun et al., 1994)
  7. 7. According to sociologist Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929), the looking glass self refers to the way in which a person’s sense of self is derive from the perceptions of others. Our looking glass self is not who we actually are or what people actually think of us; rather, it is based on our perception of how other people think of us .
  8. 8. The looking glass self is a self-concept derived from a three-step process: 1. We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people. 2. We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality that we think we present. 3. We develop a self-concept. According to Cooley, our sense of self is not fixed; it is always developing as we interact with others in the larger society.
  9. 9. Building on Cooley‟s analysis, George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) traced the development of self-awareness to early social interaction. Mead argued that almost from the start, infants realize that they are dependent to others to satisfy their needs, and their own actions influence how others behave toward them.
  10. 10. 1. “Me” – part of self that reflects our perceptions of what other people think of us. It is the part that allows evaluation and enables us to control our behaviour. 2. “I” – is the independent, spontaneous, and unpredictable side of the self.
  11. 11. 1. Preparatory stage (during their initial 2 years) It is by simply imitating other people in their immediate environment. 2. Play stage (at age 3) It is by taking the roles of significant others, people who have close ties to the child and exert a strong influence on the child. (e.g. Mother and father) 3. Game stage (as they grow older) It is by playing the roles of the generalized other, people who do not have close ties to a child but who influence their child’s internalization of the values of society. (e.g. Doctor, bus driver)
  12. 12. Family School Peer Group Mass Media Workplace
  13. 13. the first group to have a major impact on humans (Henslin 2005)  the smallest unit in the society  lays down our basic sense of self, forming motivation, values and beliefs.  gives us ideas who we are and what we deserve out of life  where we start to think of our self as strong or weak, smart or dumb, good looking or
  14. 14.  primary agent of socialization in industrial societies, and begin very early for some children.  Manifest Function: Transmit formal knowledge and skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic.  Latent Function: a. Exposes children to new attitudes, values and ways of looking at the world. b. Children learn to be part of a large group of similar age. c. Children learn universality – that the same rules and sanctions apply to everyone regardless of their status. d. Children gradually come to realize that the behaviour recorded in permanent, official records that will be important and lasting consequences.
  15. 15. (source: Internet)  Influential from late childhood through adolescence and early adulthood.  Teens learn how to form relationships without adult supervision.  May encourage good and bad interests.  May guide short term choices.  Change behaviour and personality to be accepted by peers. -refers to people of approximately the same social position and age as oneself. (Bryjack and Soroka, 1997)
  16. 16. are “impersonal communication” aimed at a vast audience. Mass media arise as communication technology (first the newspapers and then radio, television, films, and the Internet) spreads information on a mass scale. The mass media have an enormous effect on our attitudes and behavior, and on shaping people's opinions about issues as well as what they buy. (Internet)
  17. 17. 1. They inform us about events; 2. They introduce us to a wide variety of people; 3. They provide an array of view points on current issues; 4. They make us aware of products and services, that if we buy them, will supposedly help us to be accepted by others. 5. They entertain us by providing the opportunity to live vicariously.
  18. 18. - performs its socialization process through on boarding, through which employees acquire skills to adjust to their new role. (source: INTERNET) Every workplace has its own culture, with norms and mores. The workplace acts as an agent of socialization in inculcating these values upon employees.
  20. 20. Like children, adults learn many new roles as they go through various stages of life. Anticipatory Socialization – is the process by which people learn to assume a role in the future. Ex. Many children learn to be parents in the future by playing house. Developmental Socialization – is the process by which people learn to be competent in playing their currently assumed role. . Ex. The more complex the worker’s job, the more likely the worker will experienced self-direction in the workplace and end up valuing autonomy in other aspects of life
  21. 21.  Resocialization – the process by which people are force to abandon their old self and develop a new self in its place. Resocialization can take place in prisons, mental institutions, military training centres and religious cults.  Desocialization – the process whereby people are stripped of the values an self conceptions they have acquired in the past.  Mortification – newcomers to a total institution undergo a process of desocialization, they are stripped of clothes, adornments, and personal possessions that help express their
  23. 23. Childhood is the first 12 years of life, viewed in modern society as a carefree time for learning and play.
  25. 25.  The stage in the life course that extends roughly from puberty to age 20
  26. 26.  It is between the late teens and early 30’s is a time of accomplishments.
  27. 27. A. EARLY ADULTHOOD Until about age 40, young adults learn to manage day-to-day affairs for themselves, often juggling conflicting priorities: parents, partner, children, schooling and work. B. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Roughly ages 40 to 60, people sense that their life circumstances are pretty well set.