Western mindanao cultures


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Western mindanao cultures

  1. 1. Western Mindanao Cultures
  2. 2. The Bajaus <ul><li>For most of their history they have been seafaring people </li></ul><ul><li>They are also known as sea gypseas </li></ul><ul><li>They particularly travel along the Sulu Sea, some of the most dangerous waters constantly facing piracy </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Some live on house boats </li></ul><ul><li>Some live on the shorelines in house of stilts </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Many families either share a house boat or a house on the shore </li></ul><ul><li>They combine efforts in order to share food and other resources.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>They make their living from fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Their migration has been attributed in part to their pursuit of trade, particularly in a sea cucumber species called the trepang </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Badjao are colorful, spirited, and musical people </li></ul><ul><li>They often wear colorful clothing due to beliefs that they are of a royal descent </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>At weddings, it is common for the bride to wear many bright colors and will receive many water buffalo as dowry </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriages are quite common within the indigenous tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage by kidnap and elopement are also still quite frequent </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Almost all Bajau today claim to be Sunni Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Yet many - predominantly the seafaring, nomadic Bajau - retain spiritually based religious practices that pre-date any &quot;major&quot; religion. In their religion designated spirit mediums communicate with the spirit world in ritual ceremonies of celebration, worship and exorcism - in which, for example, spirit boats are sailed into the open seas to cast the offending spirit away from their community. They also worship the God of the sea, Omboh Dilaut . </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Yakans <ul><li>They are known to be the original inhabitants of Basilan </li></ul><ul><li>They are known descendants of Dyaks of Borneo because of similarities in the physical features </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>They are known as industrious soil tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Their main source of livelihood are farming, matweaving and clothweaving </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>They use colorful clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Among their favorite colors are purple, turquoise, red, green, yellow and black </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Their outfit are made of tight fitting pants and long-sleeved blouses </li></ul><ul><li>The male Yakans wrap their heads with a piece of cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Ten or more meters of cloth are also used as a wrap around the waist </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The houses of Yakans are made of light materials like bamboo and nipa palms </li></ul><ul><li>Posts are high and stairs are made of bamboo </li></ul><ul><li>The houses are without bedrooms </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Marriage is a very colorful celebration that takes place in the residence of both the groom and the bride </li></ul><ul><li>Wedding is held in the afternoon where an entourage of the groom goes to the house of the bride </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The sound of gongs and kulintangan coupled with the burst of firecrackers are heard on the way to the bride’s house </li></ul><ul><li>The imam solemnizes the wedding </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Subanen <ul><li>They are known as river dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>The term Subanen came from the word Suba which means an inlet or recess in a shore </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The history of the Subanen tribe was handed down from generation to generation through word of mouth by their leaders called Timuay </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Subanens still preserve the marriage practices in their families </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy used to be favored </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage with a Subanoen woman could only be sought after thoughtful consideration of feelings </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>They also practice buya, a parentally-arranged marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage is celebrated in the house of the girl </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>The groom and the bride are dressed in their most colorful costumes </li></ul><ul><li>The datu or gbalyan puts his hand on the head of each and gives words of advice </li></ul><ul><li>The grooms right hand and foot are placed over the bride’s, indicating that the groom has power over the bride </li></ul><ul><li>The datu kills a chicken and smears them both with blood to wash away sins and make them pleasing before the Magbabaya </li></ul><ul><li>The couple sits together to drink the pangasi </li></ul>
  21. 22. Their Dances <ul><li>A wedding dance </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>A festive dance </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>A war dance </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>A harvest dance </li></ul>
  25. 26. Extended Family <ul><li>Married children stay with parents until they are ready to be independent </li></ul><ul><li>They practice hereditary succession </li></ul><ul><li>Royal titles are conferred only on members of royalty who are respected leaders of the community </li></ul>
  26. 27. Period of Conception <ul><li>Best food </li></ul><ul><li>Best clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Best treatment </li></ul><ul><li>- All ingredients for the child’s adult life </li></ul>
  27. 28. Baptism <ul><li>The ritual is called daga </li></ul><ul><li>The child is placed in the center of the house together with the priest </li></ul><ul><li>Family forms a circle to be witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken is killed to smear with its blood the child’s hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>The child is lifted up to the heavenly father and songs or praises of thanksgiving for the child’s birth, success and happiness are sung </li></ul>
  28. 29. Death Ceremony <ul><li>The dead person must be equipped with everything he needs in his new destination </li></ul><ul><li>He is buried with complete set of clothings, beddings, chinawares and everything he might need </li></ul><ul><li>In the midst of the gbalyan’s prayer the surroundings is filled with scent of incense, a symbol of thanksgiving for the person’s beautiful life on earth and the happy turnover of his being into the new life </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Tausugs <ul><li>Jolo is the home of the Tausugs </li></ul><ul><li>Tausug comes from the word “tau” which means “man” and “sug” which means “land” </li></ul><ul><li>Tausugs are muslims and practice the tenets of Islam </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>They have many different native attires for different occasions </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>One characteristic of the Tausug is preservation of the family reputation and will never commit an act of cowardice that will blemish on the family’s name </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>“ You can never expect a Tausug to run from a good fight” </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that running away is shameful especially when other members of the family are involved </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Marriage to the Tausugs is for extended kinship relations </li></ul><ul><li>Courtship rarely happens, in fact, it is not allowed except during engagement period or after marriage </li></ul><ul><li>They observe parental arrangement </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>A wedding celebration </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Tausugs are polygamous </li></ul><ul><li>Men are allowed to have more than one wife and two or more families who share a common male/husband may live together as one household </li></ul><ul><li>Co-wives must learn to get along and yet share what is due them and their children </li></ul>
  36. 37. Paggunting <ul><li>Tausug baptism </li></ul><ul><li>The child clad in best garment is brought to the group of Imams standing in circle </li></ul><ul><li>A few strands of hair are dipped in a container of the water of butong </li></ul><ul><li>The child’s mouth is smeared with sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Candle is lit at the beginning of the rite and is then blown off after </li></ul>
  37. 38. The Burial Practice <ul><li>When the warmth is gone, the corpse is sponged in cold water </li></ul><ul><li>The bathing is done by religious persons </li></ul><ul><li>The bathing is done in silence </li></ul><ul><li>The water used is fresh and perfumed with betel nut flowers, kamanyan or insence, and sandalwood </li></ul><ul><li>The corpse is wiped and then perfumed and placed in a shroud </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>The shroud is made of three pieces of white cloth in accordance with the length of the corpse </li></ul><ul><li>It is wrapped in a lying position with hands placed on its chest, the right over the left </li></ul><ul><li>The coffin is made of wood and has no lid </li></ul><ul><li>Grave is dug in proportion to the length of the corpse </li></ul><ul><li>It follows a north-south directio and is 6-9 feet deep and it is closed with slabs of board about 2-inch thick, 1 foot wide and 3-4 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Grave markers for males are rounded and flat for females </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Pangalay dance </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Traditional food </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Arts </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Tausug weapons </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Chewing (betel nut) for the Muslims serves the same purpose as smoking, to while away time, to entertain visitors while food is being prepared, or to just keep oneself busy </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Blackening of teeth using coconut water, bolo/iron/metal, and talisay leaves </li></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>Beautifying teeth- covering teeth with gold </li></ul>
  46. 48. The Samal <ul><li>also known as Sama Banguingui, Sama Bangingi’, Bangingi, and Samal Banguingui, is a distinct ethno-linguistic group dispersed throughout the Greater Sulu Archipelago and southern and western coastal regions of the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Samal Kids
  48. 50. <ul><li>A Samal community </li></ul>
  49. 51. <ul><li>Samal village </li></ul>
  50. 52. Clothing
  51. 53. <ul><li>Samal Crafts </li></ul>
  52. 55. Dances
  53. 56. The Zamboangueno <ul><li>They are a product of Spanich colonization in Southern Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>The youngest of all cultural groups in Western Mindanao </li></ul>
  54. 57. <ul><li>The Fort Pilar- Fuerza real de San Jose (June 23,1635) </li></ul><ul><li>Interracial marriages between Spaniards and natives took place during its construction; this resulted to new breed of Filipinos and new Philippine language </li></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>The workforce consisted of 300 Spanish soldiers, 1,000 laborers from Ilo-ilo, and 500 natives </li></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Origin of Zamboanguenos passed on through oral tradition- Jambangan </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Officer’s version </li></ul>
  57. 60. Chabacano <ul><li>This is the lane of the Zamboanguenos </li></ul><ul><li>A conglomeration of 70% Spanish and 30% mixture of native dialects such as Samal, Tausug, Cebuano and Ilonggo </li></ul>
  58. 61. <ul><li>Zamboanguenos are generally fair skinned …mestizas and mestizos </li></ul>
  59. 62. Origin of Zamboanga <ul><li>City of Flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Samuang </li></ul><ul><li>Jambangan </li></ul>
  60. 63. <ul><li>Asia’s Latin City </li></ul>
  61. 64. Characteristics of Zamboanguenos <ul><li>Kinship family system </li></ul><ul><li>Love for one’s cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Propensity for extravagance </li></ul><ul><li>Fiestas and siesta </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic behavior </li></ul>
  62. 65. Social Life <ul><li>Revolves around religious practices </li></ul><ul><li>Bantayanon, fiestas and fondas </li></ul><ul><li>Baile-valse,regodon, paso doble </li></ul>
  63. 66. Religion <ul><li>Catholic faith </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion toward Jesus through songs </li></ul><ul><li>That the catholic faith is the true religion </li></ul><ul><li>Devotional hymns to the Blessed Virgin Mary-Himno en honor dela Virgen del Pilar </li></ul><ul><li>Villancicos/ Christmas Carols </li></ul><ul><li>Fiestas- vispera , diana ,mass, sports, procession or parade, and feasting </li></ul>
  64. 67. Zamboanga Food
  65. 70. <ul><li>Zamboanguenos constitute an authentic and distinct cultural group for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Claim to a distinct dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Undeniable vestiges of Spanish occupation- physical features of the mestizos, spanish folk lit, songs, dances, fiestas and Roman Catholicism </li></ul>