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Chapter 4
Socialization
Chapter Outline







The Socialization Process
Agents of Socialization
Theories of Socialization
Growing up in a Diverse Society
Socialization Across the Life Course
Resocialization
The Socialization Process




Humans learn the expectations of
society through socialization.
Socialization is different based on
race, gender and class.
Socialization as Social
Control
Socialization and SelfEsteem




How much value one sees in oneself is greatly
affected by socialization how you are seen by
society.
A national study of 9th and 12th graders
examined the eating behaviors:
 57% of the girls and 31% of the boys
reported eating disorders.
 Fear about one’s appearance to others was
is associated with this risky behavior.
Consequences of
Socialization
1.
2.
3.
4.

Establishes self-concepts.
Creates the capacity for role taking.
Creates the tendency for people to act in
socially acceptable ways.
Makes people bearers of culture.
Agents of Socialization








Institutions pass on expectations about
appropriate social behavior:
Family
Media
Peers
Religion
Sports
The Family






Families introduce children to the expectations
of society.
How parents define and treat a child is crucial to
the development of the child’s sense of self.
Some families emphasize educational
achievement; some may be more permissive,
whereas others emphasize strict obedience and
discipline.
The Media






The average young person (age 8–19) spends
6 3/4 hours per day immersed in media in
various forms, often using multiple media forms
simultaneously.
Television is the dominant medium, although
half of all youth use a computer daily.
Analysts estimate that by age 18, the average
child will have witnessed at least 18,000
simulated murders on television.
Polling Question


Which media source do you think has
the strongest impact on attitudes and
behaviors of your generation?
A. Advertising
B. Television
C. Music and music videos
D. The Internet
E. Magazines
Peers



For children, peer culture is an important source
of identity.
Through interaction with peers, children learn
concepts of self, gain social skills, and form
values and attitudes.
 Girls’ peer groups tend to be closely knit and
egalitarian.
 Boys’ peer groups tend to be more
hierarchical, with evident status distinctions
between members.
Religion





Children tend to develop the same religious
beliefs as their parents.
Very often those who disavow religion return to
their original faith at some point in their life,
especially if they have strong ties to their family
of origin and after they form families of their
own.
Religious socialization also influences beliefs
about sexuality, including the likelihood of
tolerance for gay and lesbian sexuality.
Sports






Through sports, men and women learn
concepts of self.
Men learn that being competitive in sports is
considered a part of “manhood.”
Current research finds that women in sports
develop a strong sense of bodily competence,
which is typically denied to them by the
prevailing cultural images of women’s bodies.
Student-Athletes: The Impact
of Title IX
Schools






In school, teachers and other students are the
source of expectations that encourage children
to think and behave in particular ways.
Research finds that teachers respond differently
to boys than to girls, with boys receiving more
of their attention.
The hidden curriculum consists of the informal
and often subtle messages about social roles
conveyed through classroom interaction and
materials.
Polling Question


Which agent of socialization do you think is the
most responsible for gender differences in how
males and females are socialized?
A. The family
B. Religion
C. The peer group
D. Education
E. Mass media
Moments in America for
Children







Every 9 seconds a high school student drops
out.
Every 20 seconds a child is arrested.
Every 37 seconds a child is born to a mother
who is not a high school graduate.
Every 43 seconds a child is born into poverty.
Every minute a child is born to a teen mother.
Every 2 minutes a child is born at low birth
weight.
Moments in America for
Children








Every 4 minutes a child is born to a mother
who received late or no prenatal care.
Every 4 minutes a child is arrested for drug
abuse.
Every 8 minutes a child is arrested for a violent
crime.
Every 19 minutes a baby dies.
Moments in America for
Children





Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is
killed by a firearm.
Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is a
homicide victim.
Every 5 hours a child or youth under 20
commits suicide.
Every day a young person under 25 dies from
HIV infection.
Psychoanalytic Theory of
Socialization
Individual
Learning
process

Unconscious mind shapes
behavior

Formation of self

Emerges from tension
between id and superego

Influence of
society

Societal expectations are
represented by the
superego
Object Relations Theory of
Socialization
Individual Learning
process
Formation of self
Influence of society

Infants identify with
same-sex parent
Emerges through
separating oneself from
primary caretaker
Division of labor in the
family shapes identity
Social Learning Theory of
Socialization
People respond to social
Individual
stimuli in their
Learning process
environment
Formation of self
Influence of
society

Created through
interaction of mental and
social worlds
Young children learn
principles that shape the
external world
Functionalist Theory of
Socialization
Individual
Learning
process

People internalize role
expectations in society

Formation of
self

Internalizing the values of
society reinforces social
consensus

Influence of
society

Society relies on
conformity to maintain
social equilibrium
Conflict Theory of Socialization
Individual
Learning
process

Aspirations that are part of
identity are shaped by
available opportunities

Formation of
self

Group consciousness is
formed in the context of a
system of inequality

Influence of
society

Social control agents exert
pressure to conform
Symbolic Interaction Theory of
Socialization
Individual
Learning
process

Children learn by taking the
role of significant others

Formation of
self

Emerges as the creative self
interacts with social
expectations of others

Influence of
society

Expectations of others form
the context for learning social
roles
Piaget: Social Learning
Theory
Stages of cognitive development:
 Sensorimotor
 Preoperational
 Concrete operational
 Formal operational
Looking-glass Self
•
•
•

How we think we appear to others.
How we think others judge us.
How these make us feel - proud,
embarrassed or something else.
The Looking-glass Self
Mead: Taking the Role of the
Other
1.
2.
3.

Imitation stage - children imitate
behavior of those around them.
Play stage - children take on the role of
significant others.
Game stage - children internalize an
abstract understanding of how society
sees them.
Children in the United States
The World’s Children
Socialization Across the Life
Cycle




Childhood - establish identity and values.
Adolescence - form a consistent identity.
Adulthood and Old Age - learn new
roles and expectations in adult life.
Work and Play Among Youth
Gender
%
Work

%
Play

%
Both

%
Neither

Male

29.4

29.6

8.2

32.7

Female

27.9

26.9

9.6

35.7
Work and Play Among Youth
Race/Ethnicity
%
Work

%
Play

%
Both

%
Neither

Asian

31.4

26.8

11.2

31.5

Hispanic

29.1

23.9

7.5

40.6

African
American

29.3

22.8

7.5

38.4

White

27.9

30.9

10.0

31.9

Native
American

23.9

29.9

10.8

35.4
Resocialization




Existing social roles are altered or
replaced.
Takes place in organizations that
maintain strict social control.
Examples: military, prison, cults,
fraternities and sororities
Quick Quiz
1. According to Piaget, at what stage do
children begin to use language and other
symbols?
a. play stage
b. sensorimotor stage
c. concrete operational stage
d. preoperational stage
Answer: d


According to Piaget, children begin to use
language and other symbols at the
preoperational stage.
2. According to Mead, at what stage do
children become capable of taking on a
variety of roles at the same time?
a. the preoperational stage
b. the imitation stage
c. the play stage
d. the game stage
Answer: d


According to Mead, children become
capable of taking on a variety of roles at
the same time at the game stage.
3. Psychoanalytic theory originates in the
work of:
a. George Herbert Mead
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Charles Horton Cooley
d. Jean Piaget
Answer: b


Psychoanalytic theory originates in the
work of Sigmund Freud.
4. The process of resocialization involves:
a. learning the values and beliefs of a
new school
b. relearning existing social roles
c. changing or replacing existing social
roles
d. adjusting to new significant others
Answer: c


The process of resocialization involves
changing or replacing existing social
roles.
5. Society has no influence on one's
identity.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False


Society does influence one's
identity.
6. Socialization is a subtle form of social
control.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True


Socialization is a subtle form of social
control.

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Socialization

  • 2. Chapter Outline       The Socialization Process Agents of Socialization Theories of Socialization Growing up in a Diverse Society Socialization Across the Life Course Resocialization
  • 3. The Socialization Process   Humans learn the expectations of society through socialization. Socialization is different based on race, gender and class.
  • 5. Socialization and SelfEsteem   How much value one sees in oneself is greatly affected by socialization how you are seen by society. A national study of 9th and 12th graders examined the eating behaviors:  57% of the girls and 31% of the boys reported eating disorders.  Fear about one’s appearance to others was is associated with this risky behavior.
  • 6.
  • 7. Consequences of Socialization 1. 2. 3. 4. Establishes self-concepts. Creates the capacity for role taking. Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways. Makes people bearers of culture.
  • 8. Agents of Socialization       Institutions pass on expectations about appropriate social behavior: Family Media Peers Religion Sports
  • 9. The Family    Families introduce children to the expectations of society. How parents define and treat a child is crucial to the development of the child’s sense of self. Some families emphasize educational achievement; some may be more permissive, whereas others emphasize strict obedience and discipline.
  • 10. The Media    The average young person (age 8–19) spends 6 3/4 hours per day immersed in media in various forms, often using multiple media forms simultaneously. Television is the dominant medium, although half of all youth use a computer daily. Analysts estimate that by age 18, the average child will have witnessed at least 18,000 simulated murders on television.
  • 11. Polling Question  Which media source do you think has the strongest impact on attitudes and behaviors of your generation? A. Advertising B. Television C. Music and music videos D. The Internet E. Magazines
  • 12. Peers   For children, peer culture is an important source of identity. Through interaction with peers, children learn concepts of self, gain social skills, and form values and attitudes.  Girls’ peer groups tend to be closely knit and egalitarian.  Boys’ peer groups tend to be more hierarchical, with evident status distinctions between members.
  • 13. Religion    Children tend to develop the same religious beliefs as their parents. Very often those who disavow religion return to their original faith at some point in their life, especially if they have strong ties to their family of origin and after they form families of their own. Religious socialization also influences beliefs about sexuality, including the likelihood of tolerance for gay and lesbian sexuality.
  • 14. Sports    Through sports, men and women learn concepts of self. Men learn that being competitive in sports is considered a part of “manhood.” Current research finds that women in sports develop a strong sense of bodily competence, which is typically denied to them by the prevailing cultural images of women’s bodies.
  • 16. Schools    In school, teachers and other students are the source of expectations that encourage children to think and behave in particular ways. Research finds that teachers respond differently to boys than to girls, with boys receiving more of their attention. The hidden curriculum consists of the informal and often subtle messages about social roles conveyed through classroom interaction and materials.
  • 17. Polling Question  Which agent of socialization do you think is the most responsible for gender differences in how males and females are socialized? A. The family B. Religion C. The peer group D. Education E. Mass media
  • 18. Moments in America for Children       Every 9 seconds a high school student drops out. Every 20 seconds a child is arrested. Every 37 seconds a child is born to a mother who is not a high school graduate. Every 43 seconds a child is born into poverty. Every minute a child is born to a teen mother. Every 2 minutes a child is born at low birth weight.
  • 19. Moments in America for Children      Every 4 minutes a child is born to a mother who received late or no prenatal care. Every 4 minutes a child is arrested for drug abuse. Every 8 minutes a child is arrested for a violent crime. Every 19 minutes a baby dies.
  • 20. Moments in America for Children     Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is killed by a firearm. Every 3 hours a child or youth under 20 is a homicide victim. Every 5 hours a child or youth under 20 commits suicide. Every day a young person under 25 dies from HIV infection.
  • 21. Psychoanalytic Theory of Socialization Individual Learning process Unconscious mind shapes behavior Formation of self Emerges from tension between id and superego Influence of society Societal expectations are represented by the superego
  • 22. Object Relations Theory of Socialization Individual Learning process Formation of self Influence of society Infants identify with same-sex parent Emerges through separating oneself from primary caretaker Division of labor in the family shapes identity
  • 23. Social Learning Theory of Socialization People respond to social Individual stimuli in their Learning process environment Formation of self Influence of society Created through interaction of mental and social worlds Young children learn principles that shape the external world
  • 24. Functionalist Theory of Socialization Individual Learning process People internalize role expectations in society Formation of self Internalizing the values of society reinforces social consensus Influence of society Society relies on conformity to maintain social equilibrium
  • 25. Conflict Theory of Socialization Individual Learning process Aspirations that are part of identity are shaped by available opportunities Formation of self Group consciousness is formed in the context of a system of inequality Influence of society Social control agents exert pressure to conform
  • 26. Symbolic Interaction Theory of Socialization Individual Learning process Children learn by taking the role of significant others Formation of self Emerges as the creative self interacts with social expectations of others Influence of society Expectations of others form the context for learning social roles
  • 27. Piaget: Social Learning Theory Stages of cognitive development:  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete operational  Formal operational
  • 28. Looking-glass Self • • • How we think we appear to others. How we think others judge us. How these make us feel - proud, embarrassed or something else.
  • 30. Mead: Taking the Role of the Other 1. 2. 3. Imitation stage - children imitate behavior of those around them. Play stage - children take on the role of significant others. Game stage - children internalize an abstract understanding of how society sees them.
  • 31. Children in the United States
  • 33. Socialization Across the Life Cycle    Childhood - establish identity and values. Adolescence - form a consistent identity. Adulthood and Old Age - learn new roles and expectations in adult life.
  • 34. Work and Play Among Youth Gender % Work % Play % Both % Neither Male 29.4 29.6 8.2 32.7 Female 27.9 26.9 9.6 35.7
  • 35. Work and Play Among Youth Race/Ethnicity % Work % Play % Both % Neither Asian 31.4 26.8 11.2 31.5 Hispanic 29.1 23.9 7.5 40.6 African American 29.3 22.8 7.5 38.4 White 27.9 30.9 10.0 31.9 Native American 23.9 29.9 10.8 35.4
  • 36. Resocialization    Existing social roles are altered or replaced. Takes place in organizations that maintain strict social control. Examples: military, prison, cults, fraternities and sororities
  • 38. 1. According to Piaget, at what stage do children begin to use language and other symbols? a. play stage b. sensorimotor stage c. concrete operational stage d. preoperational stage
  • 39. Answer: d  According to Piaget, children begin to use language and other symbols at the preoperational stage.
  • 40. 2. According to Mead, at what stage do children become capable of taking on a variety of roles at the same time? a. the preoperational stage b. the imitation stage c. the play stage d. the game stage
  • 41. Answer: d  According to Mead, children become capable of taking on a variety of roles at the same time at the game stage.
  • 42. 3. Psychoanalytic theory originates in the work of: a. George Herbert Mead b. Sigmund Freud c. Charles Horton Cooley d. Jean Piaget
  • 43. Answer: b  Psychoanalytic theory originates in the work of Sigmund Freud.
  • 44. 4. The process of resocialization involves: a. learning the values and beliefs of a new school b. relearning existing social roles c. changing or replacing existing social roles d. adjusting to new significant others
  • 45. Answer: c  The process of resocialization involves changing or replacing existing social roles.
  • 46. 5. Society has no influence on one's identity. a. True b. False
  • 47. Answer: False  Society does influence one's identity.
  • 48. 6. Socialization is a subtle form of social control. a. True b. False
  • 49. Answer: True  Socialization is a subtle form of social control.